Виды ответственности в русских летописях


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Hki_ggbdh\ X .  . °BU HL?LKL?GGHKLB  JMKKDBO E?LHIBKYO XI-XV \\ . _dlhj gZmdb L=M .  3(3). 2010 147 LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE MECHANISM OF PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS AND FREEDOM OF THE PERSON AND THE CITIZEN 2010 Novikova A.O., student Togliatti state university, Togliatti (Russia) Keywords: Legal responsibility; the control mechanism; mainte nance of the rights and fr eedom of the person and the citizen; municipal authority bodies; the subjective rights; positive responsibility; lawful behavior; priority duties; indi - viduals; guarantees. Annotation: Questions which comprise the most problematic parties of investigated instit utes are brought up. The author spends sociological interrogation of citizens of the Russian Federation. �MD 340 °BU HL?LKL?GGHKLB  JMKKDBO E?LHIBKYO XI-XV \\ . 2010 Hki_ggbdh\ X .  . , dZg^b^Zl bklhjbq_kdbo gZmd , ijhn_kkhj dZn_^ju ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh - ijZ\h\uo ^bkpbiebg KZfZjkdbc xjb^bq_kdbc bgklblml NKBG Jhkkbb , KZfZjZ ( Jhkkby ) Dexq_\u_ keh\Z : Hl\_lkl\_gghklv ; ^j_\g_jmkkdh_ ijZ\h ; gh\]hjh^kdb_ e_lhibkb ; f_ju hl\_lkl\_gghklb . :gghlZpby : �Zg ZgZeba e_lhibkguo l_dklh\ , oZjZdl_jbam_lky w\hexpby ^j_\g_jmkkdh]h ijZ\Z . Kh\j_f_ggu_ bkke_^h\Zgby bklhjbdh - ijZ\h\hc gZ - ijZ\e_gghklb \ hkgh\ghc k\h_c fZkk_ ke_^mxl ljZ^bpbb ^hj_\hexpbhgghc bklhjbh]jZnbb , ij_bfms_kl\_ggh hkgh - \u\Z\r_cky gZ ZgZeba_ madh h]jZgbq_ggh]h djm]Z bklhqgb - dh\ : Jmkkdhc IjZ\^u , �\bgkdhc mklZ\ghc ]jZfhlu , Ikdh\ - kdhc b Gh\]hjh^kdhc Km^guo ]jZfhl . Bgh]^Z d gbf ^h[Z\ - eyxlky mklZ\u dgya_c eZ^bfbjZ K\ylhkeZ\bqZ b YjhkeZ\Z Fm^jh]h , ^h]h\hjZ k ]j_dZfb b k g_f_pdbfb ]hjh^Zfb , �\bgkdZy mklZ\gZy ]jZfhlZ . Kkuedb gZ ^h]h\hjZ b ]jZfhlu ghkyl \u[hjhqguc beexkljZlb\guc oZjZdl_j , lh _klv bk - ke_^h\Zl_eb khagZl_evgh ba[_]Zxl hkgh\Zl_evgh]h ZgZebaZ ijZ\h\uo iZfylgbdh\ g_[hevrh]h h[tzfZ , km`b\Zy l_f kZfuf bklhqgbdh\mx [Zam kh[kl\_ggh]h bkke_^h\Zgby , kh - kj_^hlZqb\Zy k\hx \gbfZgb_ gZ g_kdhevdbo djmiguo b ^hk - dhgZevgh bamq_gguo bklhqgbdZo . ?sz f_gvr_ \gbfZgby m^_ey_lky l_dklZf , dhlhju_ g_ ghkyl ghjfZlb\guc beb ijZ - \hijbf_gbl_evguc oZjZdl_j , gh \ dhlhjuo , l_f g_ f_g__ , kh^_j`blky agZqbl_evgh_ dhebq_kl\h nZdlh\ , jZkdju\Zx - sbo w\hexpbx kj_^g_\_dh\h]h jmkkdh]h ijZ\Z , Z lZd`_ hkh[_gghklb _]h ijbf_g_gby . Kj_^b lZdbo l_dklh\ hkh[h_ agZq_gb_ bf_xl jmkkdb_ e_lhibkb , hkh[_ggh k\yaZggu_ k k_\_jh - aZiZ^ghc iheblbdh - ijZ\h\hc ljZ^bpb_c . E_lhibkgu_ l_dklu , [m^mqb ij_^f_ - lhf bklhjbdh - ijZ\h\h]h ZgZebaZ , ij_^klZ\eyxl kZfhklhy - l_evgmx dZjlbgm jZa\blby ^j_\g_jmkkdh]h ijZ\Z . Mlhqg_ - gb_ wlhc dZjlbgu b ihke_^mxs__ _z khihklZ\e_gb_ k w\h - expb_c ^j_\g_jmkkdh]h ijZ\Z ih aZdhgh^Zl_evguf bklhq - gbdZf y\ey_lky ieh^hl\hjghc b ijZdlbq_kdb g_ jZajZ[hlZg - ghc gZmqghc aZ^Zq_c .  ^Zgghc klZlv_ klZ\blky aZ^ZqZ hij_^_eblv , dZdb_ \b - ^u hl\_lkl\_gghklb gZreb hljZ`_gb_ \ e_lhibkguo l_dklZo k_\_jh - aZiZ^guo jmkkdbo a_f_ev . Ih\_joghklgh_ agZdhfkl\h k e_lhibkyfb hklZ\ey_l \i_qZle_gb_ , qlh \ gbo gZreb hljZ`_gb_ bkdexqbl_evgh kemqZb ijbf_g_gby f_j m]heh\ghc hl\_lkl\_gghklb . Hgb , gZ kZfhf ^_e_ , fgh]hqbke_ggu b jZaghh[jZagu .  e_lhibkyo mihfbgZxlky lZdb_ f_ju m]heh\ghc hl\_lkl\_gghklb , dZd kf_jlgZy dZagv , ebr_gb_ k\h[h^u , l_e_kgu_ gZdZaZgby b ^j . Hkh[_gghklvx e_lhibkguo k\b^_l_evkl\ y\ey_lky lh , qlh mihfygmlu_ gZdZaZgby hibkZgu \ e_lhibkyo ^h bo nbdkZpbb \ aZdhgh^Zl_evguo bklhqgbdZo , jZkdjulu bo \b^u b ki_pb - nbdZ . D ijbf_jm , i_j_^ qblZl_e_f gh\]hjh^kdbo e_lhibk_c \ ^_lZeyo \klZzl dZjlbgZ ihkl_i_ggh]h klZgh\e_gby kf_jlghc dZagb ba bgklblmlZ ihlhdZ b jZa]jZ[e_gby . Ijb wlhf ih^ - jh[gh ij_^klZ\e_gu jZaebqgu_ \b^u kf_jlghc dZagb : ih - kj_^kl\hf mlhie_gby [1], kh``_gby [2], ih\_r_gby [3], hl - k_q_gby ]heh\u [4], jZa^Z\eb\Zgby b kZ`Zgby gZ dhe [5].  e_lhibkyo g_j_^db mihfbgZgby h qe_gh\j_^bl_ev - kdbo gZdZaZgbyo , dhlhju_ g_ [ueb i_j_g_k_gu \ jmkkdb_ bklhqgbdb ijZ\Z ba \baZglbckdh]h , h^gZdh \ ijZdlbd_ iheb - lbq_kdhc [hjv[u bkihevah\Zebkv ( hke_ie_gb_ [6], mj_aZgb_ ghkZ , ]m[ , mr_c [7]). G_ m^b\bl_evgh ihwlhfm , qlh \k_ mih - fbgZgby qe_gh\j_^bl_evkdbo gZdZaZgbc k\yaZgu k j_ZebaZ - pb_c dgy`_kdhc \eZklb , gh g_ dZd dgyay - km^vb , j_Zebamxs_ - ]h im[ebqgmx \eZklv , Z dZd dgyay - qZklgh]h ebpZ , gZjmrZx - s_]h mklZgh\e_ggu_ h[uqZb , ihrebgm . Ijh[e_fm jZa]jZgbq_gby im[ebqghc b qZklghc \eZklb mf_klgh jZkkfhlj_lv [he__ ih^jh[gh gZ ijbf_j_ gb`_ke_ - ^mxs_]h e_lhibkgh]h jZkkdZaZ . Wlhl kemqZc hlebqZ_lky hl q_j_^u koh`bo f_`^m kh[hc jZkijZ\ gZ^ iheblbq_kdbfb hiihg_glZfb \ \_q_\hf ]hjh^_ . J_qv b^zl h ihoh^_ gh\]h - jh^p_\ gZ X]jm 1193-1194 ]] ., ihke_ g_m^Zqb dhlhjh]h \u - `b\rb_ dZagbeb g_dhlhjuo k\hbo khjZlgbdh\ : B lt]^Z ijb^hrZ ba[ultdt `b\uot bat X]ju . B m[brZ K[urdm hehkh\bpy b G_]hq_\bpy AZ\b^Z b FhbkeZ\Z Ihih\bpy kZfb imlvgbdb , Z ^jmabb dmgZfb ky hldmibrZ ; l\hjyomlv [h y kt\_lt ^vj`Zs_ gZ k\hx [jZlvx , Z lh [h]h\b km^blb [8]. ha\jZsZ\rb_ky ba ihoh^Z hklZldb \h_ggh]h hljy^Z jZlv dhg_qgh , g_ y\eyxlky \_q_\uf hj]Zghf b \ khklZ\ km^_[gh - Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh]h ZiiZjZlZ hgb lZd`_ g_ \oh^yl . iheg_ \_jhylgh , qlh d gbf fh`_l [ulv ijbf_gbfZ ghjfZ , ba\_klgZy iha^g__ ih klZlv_ 113 Ikdh\kdhc Km^ghc ]jZfh - lu : : [jZlvsbgZ km^blv dZd km^vb [9]. H^gZdh ijbibkdZ e_lhibkpZ Z lh [h]h\b km^blb k ykghklvx mdZau\Z_l , qlh ]hjh`ZgZfb h[hkgh\Zgghklv wlh]h m[bckl\Z [ueZ ihklZ\e_ - Hki_ggbdh\ X .  . °BU HL?LKL?GGHKLB  JMKKDBO E?LHIBKYO XI-XV \\ . _dlhj gZmdb L=M .  3(3). 2010 148 gZ ih^ khfg_gb_ . Ijb wlhf ihiulhd hkm^blv ^_ckl\by \_j - gm\rboky qe_gh\ hljy^Z lZd`_ g_ [ueh bo ijZ\h ijbgb - fZlv ex[u_ j_r_gby ^ey h[_ki_q_gby kh[kl\_gghc [_ah - iZkghklb b \u`b\Zgby g_ ih^\_j]Zehkv khfg_gbx . Lh _klv j_qv a^_kv b^zl h _sz g_ ijhbahr_^r_f jZa]jZgbq_gbb im[ebqgh - ijZ\h\hc hl\_lkl\_gghklb b qZklgh - ijZ\h\hc bgbpbZlb\u \ hlklZb\Zgbb kh[kl\_gguo bgl_j_kh\ . G_\ha - fh`gh ijbf_gbl_evgh d jZkkfZljb\Z_fhfm i_jbh^m ]h\h - jblv h gZdZaZgbb \ kh\j_f_gghf kfuke_ wlh]h keh\Z , j_qv b^zl h aZsbl_ qZklguo b h[s_kl\_gguo bgl_j_kh\ kbeZfb dZd hl^_evghc ebqghklb , lZd b \k_c h[sbgu beb hl^_evguo dhee_dlb\h\ . LZd`_ ]hjZa^h jZgvr_ , g_`_eb \ aZdhgh^Zl_evguo bk - lhqgbdZo , \ e_lhibkyo ihy\eyxlky mihfbgZgby h ebr_gbb k\h[h^u aZdexq_gbb \ ihjm[ [10]. Ex[hiulgh , qlh \h \k_o hibkZgguo kemqZyo hq_\b^_g ijhba\he dgy`_kdhc \eZ - klb , dhlhjZy jZkijZ\ey_lky k iheblbq_kdbfb ijhlb\gbdZfb , hibjZykv g_ gZ ijZ\h , Z gZ kbem . Ijhreh g_ h^gh klhe_lb_ , ij_`^_ q_f wlZ f_jZ dgy`_kdh]h ijhba\heZ [ueZ maZdhg_gZ . AZdexq_gb_ \ l_fgbpm , dZd ijZ\beh , g_ y\eyehkv kZfh - p_evx beb gZdZaZgb_f wlh \k_]^Z kj_^kl\h \ha^_ckl\by gZ iheblbq_kdh]h ijhlb\gbdZ , k p_evx h]jZgbqblv _]h ^_y - l_evghklv beb ihemqblv \udmi . Ijb wlhf \udmi jZkkfZljb - \Z_lky dZd dhfi_gkZpby aZ ms_j[ , ijbqbgzgguc ^_ckl\byfb wlh]h ijhlb\gbdZ . A^_kv fu ih^oh^bf d hij_^_e_gbx f_j ]jZ`^Zgkdh - ijZ\h\hc hl\_lkl\_gghklb , kj_^b dhlhjuo \Z`g_cr_c y\ey - ehkv \haf_s_gb_ ms_j[Z . QZs_ \k_]h ba \k_o f_j ]jZ`^Zg - kdh - ijZ\h\hc hl\_lkl\_gghklb \ e_lhibkyo \klj_qZ_lky lZd gZau\Z_fuc ihjm[ beb jm[z` , ij_^klZ\ey\rbc kh[hc dhgnbkdZpbx bfms_kl\Z \ aZqzl ^he]Z . Ijbf_gyeky ih - jm[ ij_bfms_kl\_ggh \ hlghr_gbyo f_`^m jZaebqgufb ]jZ`^Zgkdbfb h[sbgZfb , Z hkh[_gghklvx ihjm[Z y\ey - eZkv \hafh`ghklv \aukdZlv ^he] ( beb m[ulhd ) g_ k kZfh]h ^he`gbdZ , Z k ex[h]h ^jm]h]h ij_^klZ\bl_ey lhc `_ ]hjh^ - kdhc h[sbgu , d dhlhjhc hlghkbeky ^he`gbd : Lh]h `_ e_lZ ihjm[brZ gh\]hjh^p_\t aZ fhj_ft \ �hgb [11]. ijhq_f , l_jfbg ihjm[brZ bkihevam_lky \ e_lhibkb b \ kfuke_ ihkZ^beb \ ih]j_[ . Gh b \ lZdhf kemqZ_ hq_\b^gh , qlh dmiph\ kZ`Zeb \ ih]j_[ g_ dZd iheblbq_kdbo ijhlb\gbdh\ , Z ^h mieZlu ^he]Z . Ih^ 1188 ]h^hf \ lhc `_ gh\]hjh^kdhc e_lhibkb hib - kZgZ h[jZlgZy kblmZpby gh\]hjh^pu \aukdb\Zxl ^he] k g_f_pdbo dmiph\ :  lh `_ e_lh jm[brZ gh\]hjh^vp_ Zjy - ab gZ =tl_o , G_fpb \ Ohjx`dm b \ Gh\hlhj`vp_ . Ih - kdhevdm [ueh hq_\b^gh , qlh fh]ml ihke_^h\Zlv hl\_lgu_ f_ju , gh\]hjh^pu gZ ke_^mxsbc ]h^ g_ imklbeb k\hbo dmiph\ aZ fhj_ : Z gZ \_kgm g_ imklbrZ ba Gh\Z]hjh^Z k\hbo gb h^bgh]h fm`Z aZ fhj_ , gb keZ \u^ZrZ Zjy]hft , gh imklbrZ y [_a fbjZ [12].  ijb\_^zgghf ijbf_j_ _sz [he__ y\gh ijhklmiZ_l oZjZdl_j jm[_`Z \aukdZgb_ ^he - ]Z ( m[uldZ ) ih bkdm dhgdj_lgh]h ij_^klZ\bl_ey h[sbgu . hh[s_ `_ ijhp_^mjZ jm[_`Z fZdkbfZevgh ih^jh[gh jZkibkZgZ \ qZklguo ]jZfhlZo jZkkfZljb\Z_fh]h \j_f_gb . GZijbf_j , \ h^ghc ba ]jZfhl gZqZeZ XV \_dZ gh\]hjh^kdb_ dmipu IZ\_e Djh\pZ , H]hnhg b Ydh\ KbfZgh\u , Fhk_c k ^_lvfb , IZ] IZ\eh\ , K_f_g Dhjh\bg k ^_lvfb b EmdZ [ueb ^he`gu ( g_ mlhqgy_lky , ba dZdh]h hkgh\Zgby \hagbdeZ wlZ aZ^he`_gghklv ) [hevrmx kmffm ^_g_] `bl_ex Jm]h^b\Z DeZ\r__ b _]h [jZlvyf . Ihke_ h[jZs_gby DeZ\rb d jm]h - ^b\kdhfm gZf_klgbdm , lhl ijbgye j_r_gb_ \aukdZlv lj_ - [m_fu_ kmffu k gh\]hjh^kdbo dmiph\ FboZbeZ , Bevb , L_ - j_glby , N_^hjZ , HfhkZ b B]gZlZ : : gZkt \ lhft hkih^Z ihjm[beb : 10 [hqhdt [_edu ^Z ljb djm]b \hkdm [13]. G_kdhevdh bghc ih h[klhyl_evkl\Zf , gh lZdhc `_ ih kmlb kemqZc jm[_`Z hibkZg \ ikdh\kdhc i_j\hc e_lhibkb : : b ij_`_ m[h lh]h Heb]_j^ gZqZ g_ex[v_ ^_j`Zlb ^h Ikdh\Z ihk_ft `_ qlh [yr_ ]hkl_c Ikdh\kdbot \ Ihehl - kd_ , beb \ Ebl\_ , l_ot i_j_bfZr_ Heb]_j^t b kugt _]h :g - ^j_c , b lh\Zjt bot \kv hlgyeb b dhgb , b gZ kZfuot hdmit ihbfZr_ b hlimklbeb ijhqv [14]. DZd \b^gh ba wlh]h ijbf_jZ , Hev]_j^ kqblZ_l \hafh`guf \haf_klblv ms_j[ , dhlhjuc hg ihgzk hl ikdh\bq_c , aZ kqzl bfms_kl\Z ikdh\ - kdbo dmiph\ , hdZaZ\rbo \ ij_^_eZo ^hky]Z_fhklb . Jm[_` a^_kv \uklmiZ_l bf_ggh \ lhf kfuke_ , \ dZdhf ij_^eZ]Z_lky _]h jZkkfZljb\Zlv dhgnbkdZpby bfms_kl\Z ( g_ bkdexq_ - gh , qlh \j_f_ggh_ ebr_gb_ k\h[h^u , aZdexq_gb_ \ ihjm[ , b a^_kv ijbkmlkl\m_l , gh hgh ghkbl \j_f_gguc oZjZdl_j b ihke_ ihemq_gby hdmiZ \k_ dmipu [ueb hlims_gu , lh _klv ]eZ\gZy p_ev jm[_`Z \haf_s_gb_ m[uldh\ ). iheg_ \_jhylgh , qlh lZdZy `_ kblmZpby hibkZgZ \ ikdh\kdhc e_lhibkb ih^ 6911 ]h^hf : : lhy abfu dgyav Xjvb Kfhe_gkdbc ijbylt ]hkl_c Ikdh\kdbot , b lh\Zjt hlty , Z kZfbot bot ^_j`Z ^h iheme_lZ ; b ihkeh\_ Ikdh\kdby b Gh\]hjh^kdby _oZ\r__ \ugyr_ bot , ijbb^hrZ i_rb , Z dhgb b lh\Zjt hltylt [15]. Ijbqbgu dhgnbkdZpbb lh\ZjZ \ e_lhibkghf jZkkdZa_ g_ mdZaZgu , gh ^_ckl\by kfhe_gkdh]h dgyay \iheg_ mdeZ^u\Zxlky \ jZfdb ijhp_^mju jm[_`Z . AZlh \ ^jm]hf e_lhibkghf jZkkdZa_ ijbqbgu dhgnebd - lZ , ih\e_dr_]h jm[_` , hij_^_e_gu lhqgh : : lhy \_kgu Ikdh\bqb ijbyrZ ]hklv G_f_pdbc , lh\Zjt bot , Z kZfuot G_f_pv \t ih]j_[t \kZ^brZ 24 G_fqbgZ , aZg_`_ hgb ihqZ - eb , gZ dj_klghft p_eh\Zgvb Ikdh\kdbot eh\p_\t bahbfZrZ , Z bguot ba[brZ [16]. A^_kv ij_^klZ\e_gu h[Z we_f_glZ jm[_`Z dhgnbkdZpby bfms_kl\Z b \j_f_ggh_ ebr_gb_ k\h[h^u . Ijbqbghc jm[_`Z y\ey_lky ms_j[ , dhlhjuc [ue gZg_kzg bgl_j_kZf Ikdh\kdhc ]hjh^kdhc h[sbgu g_fpZfb , ko\Zlb\rbfb ikdh\kdbo eh\ph\ . hh[s_ \ e_lhibkguo l_dklZo k\h_h[jZagh jZkdju\Z - xlky ijZ\hhlghr_gby , \ul_dZxsb_ ba g_aZdhggh]h ihevah - \Zgby qm`bfb m]h^vyfb k_ghdhkZfb , eh\eyfb , [hjlyfb . Km[t_dlZfb hibku\Z_fuo e_lhibkyfb kemqZ_\ g_aZdhggh]h ihevah\Zgby y\eyxlky qe_gu qm`hc ]jZ`^Zgkdhc h[sbgu .  mkeh\byo \jZ`^_[guo hlghr_gbc k g_f_pdbfb ]hjh^Zfb lZdb_ kblmZpbb jZaj_rZebkv kdhjuf kZfhkm^hf , hkms_kl\ - ey_fuf gZ f_kl_ : Lh]h `_ e_lZ G_fpb m[brZ r_klv q_eh - \_dt HihqZgt [hjlgbdh\t , m[brZ gZ gZr_c a_feb Z lh]h `_ e_lZ G_fpu gZ Ikdh\kdhc a_feb k_gh dhkbrZ , b Ikdh\b - qb _oZ\r_ \ ^\m gZkZ^m k_gh ih`]hrZ b Qx^b baufZ\r__ 7 fm`v b ih\_kbrZ bot m u[h^kdZ [17]. DZd \b^bf , \ kn_j_ ]jZ`^Zgkdh - ijZ\h\hc hl\_lkl\_g - ghklb jZkdju\Z_lky lZ `_ \Z`gZy q_jlZ , dhlhjZy [ueZ oZ - jZdl_jgZ b ^ey m]heh\gh - ijZ\h\hc hl\_lkl\_gghklb . Wlh _sz g_ aZ\_jrzggh_ jZa^_e_gb_ im[ebqghc b qZklghc \eZ - klb , lZd qlh hl\_lkl\_gghklv qZklgh]h ebpZ k\h[h^gh i_j_ - ghkblky gZ h[sbgm , Z aZl_f gZ ^jm]h_ qZklgh_ ebph ex[h - ]h ij_^klZ\bl_ey ijh\bgb\r_cky h[sbgu .  mkeh\byo g_jZa^_ezgghklb im[ebqghc b qZklghc \eZ - klb , hl^_evguo hljZke_c ijZ\Z , \ e_lhibkyo ijZdlbq_kdb g_\hafh`gh h[gZjm`blv f_ju Z^fbgbkljZlb\ghc hl\_lkl - \_gghklb . L_f g_ f_g__ , fh`gh ihiulZlvky \uy\blv g_dh - lhju_ kblmZpbb , \ dhlhjuo ijhke_`b\Z_lky _sz g_ hij_^_ - eb\rZyky \ dZq_kl\_ kZfhklhyl_evgh]h \b^Z hl\_lkl\_ggh - klb Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh - ijZ\h\Zy hl\_lkl\_gghklv . D lZdbf kblmZpbyf hlghkylky kemqZb hl\_lkl\_gghklb ^he`ghklgh]h ebpZ i_j_^ \ur_klhysbf hj]Zghf , hl dhlhjh]h hg b [ue ihklZ\e_g .  qZklghklb , k hij_^_ezgghc ^he_c hklhjh` - ghklb fh`gh mkfhlj_lv Z^fbgbkljZlb\gmx hl\_lkl\_gghklv \ kh[ulbyo 1184 ]h^Z , dh]^Z dgyav k_\heh^ \u\_e k\h_]h jh^kl\_ggbdZ , YjhkeZ\Z eZ^bfbjh\bqZ , k gh\]hjh^kdh]h dgy`_gby , ihkdhevdm gh\]hjh^pu h[\bgyeb _]h \ ijhba\he_ b gZjmr_gbb ihjy^dZ mijZ\e_gby : g_]h^h\Zomlv [h _fm gh\]hjh^pb , aZg_ fgh]h l\hjyr_ iZdhklb \hehklb gh\]h - jh^qdhb [18]. YjhkeZ\ eZ^bfbjh\bq g_ kijZ\beky kh k\hbfb mijZ\e_gq_kdbfb nmgdpbyfb b [ue kf_szg k ^he`ghklb . G_h[uqguf ^ey gh\]hjh^kdhc a_feb y\ey_lky lh , qlh g_ kZfb gh\]hjh^pu ba[Z\bebkv hl g_m]h^gh]h bf dgyay , wlh [ueh k^_eZgh Z^fbgbkljZlb\ghc \eZklvx _]h Hki_ggbdh\ X .  . °BU HL?LKL?GGHKLB  JMKKDBO E?LHIBKYO XI-XV \\ . _dlhj gZmdb L=M .  3(3). 2010 149 klZjr_]h jh^kl\_ggbdZ . Ij_^klZ\ey_lky , qlh a^_kv b \ kZ - fhf ^_e_ fh`gh mkfhlj_lv gZqZldb Z^fbgbkljZlb\ghc hl - \_lkl\_gghklb , gh \ mkeh\byo lhevdh gZqZ\r_]hky ijhp_kkZ jZa^_e_gby im[ebqghc b qZklghc \eZklb . Dhk\_ggh_ ih^l\_j`^_gb_ \ukdZaZgguo ij_^iheh`_ - gbc fh`gh mkfhlj_lv \ ba\_klghf gh\]hjh^kdhf h[uqZ_ fm`Z [_a \bgu \hehklb g_ ebrZlv , lh _klv g_ kgbfZlv k ^he`ghklb qbgh\gbdZ [_a ^hdZaZl_evkl\ _]h g_khklhyl_ev - ghklb dZd ^he`ghklgh]h ebpZ . Wlhl ijbgpbi g_ lhevdh nbd - kbjh\Zeky \ ^h]h\hjguo ]jZfhlZo k dgyavyfb , gh b gZrze hljZ`_gb_ \ e_lhibkghf jZkkdZa_ hl 1218 ] . dgyav iulZeky hlgylv ihkZ^gbq_kl\h m L\_j^bkeZ\Z , ijb wlhf gZ \hijhk gh\]hjh^p_\ , _klv eb \bgZ _]h , hg \ugm`^_g [ue hl\_ - lblv , qlh \bgu g_l : Gh\]hjh^p_ `_ hl\_lt ^ZrZ dgyax : Zs_ \bgu _]h g_lm , b lu d gZft dj_klt p_eh\Zet [_a \bgu fm`Z g_ ebrblb ; lh[_ ky deZgy_ft , Z k_ _klv gZrv ihkZ^ - gbdt , b \ lh ky g_ \^Z^bft [19]. LZdbf h[jZahf , e_lhibkguc fZl_jbZe ij_^klZ\ey_l dZjlbgm jZa\blby ^j_\g_jmkkdh]h ijZ\Z , kms_kl\_ggh hleb - qZxsmxky hl fZl_jbZeZ aZdhgh^Zl_evguo bklhqgbdh\ . JZk - kfhlj_gb_ \b^h\ b f_j hl\_lkl\_gghklb ih e_lhibkyf ih - a\hebeh \uy\blv g_kdhevdh \Z`guo q_jl . Ij_`^_ \k_]h , wlh hlqzleb\h \ujZ`_ggZy g_aZ\_jrzgghklv jZa^_e_gby im[ - ebqgh]h b qZklgh]h ijZ\Z . h - \lhjuo , e_lhibkguc fZl_jbZe ^hgzk ^h gZk k\_^_gby h ijZ\h\uo bgklblmlZo b ijhp_^mjZo , dhlhju_ g_ gZreb aZdj_ie_gby \ ghjfZlb\guo ZdlZo lh]h \j_f_gb , gh rbjhdh bkihevah\Zebkv \ ih\k_^g_\ghc ijZd - lbd_ j_]mebjh\Zgby h[s_kl\_gguo hlghr_gbc .  - lj_lvbo , [ueh \uy\e_gh hkh[h_ agZq_gb_ dgy`_kdhc \eZklb , dhlhjZy j_Zebam_l ijhba\hevgu_ j_r_gby , \uoh^ysb_ aZ ij_^_eu kms_kl\mxs_]h ijZ\h\h]h ihey . Bf_ggh k dgy`_kdhc \eZ - klvx k\yaZgh ijbf_g_gb_ g_oZjZdl_jguo ^ey ^j_\g_jmkkdh - ]h ijZ\Z f_j m]heh\ghc hl\_lkl\_gghklb , g_dhlhju_ ba dh - lhjuo k l_q_gb_f \j_f_gb [ueb maZdhg_gu b hljZ`_gu \ ghjfZlb\guo ZdlZo . KlZlvy ih^]hlh\e_gZ \ jZfdZo ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h dhgljZdlZ  14.740.11.0555 hl 05.10.2010 ] ., \uiheg_ggh - ]h ih NPI GZmqgu_ b gZmqgh - i_^Z]h]bq_kdb_ dZ^ju bggh - \Zpbhgghc Jhkkbb . KIBKHD EBL?J:LMJU 1. Gh\]hjh^kdZy q_l\zjlZy e_lhibkv . E .21 h[ . Ih^ 6649 (1141) ] .; KempdZy e_lhibkv . E . 62 h[ ., 70 b ^j . 2. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kb - gh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 103-103 h[ . Ih^ 6735 (1227) ] .; Kemp - dZy e_lhibkv . E . 64 b ^j . 3. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kb - gh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 114. Ih^ 6738 (1230) ] . 4. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kb - gh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 114. Ih^ 6738 (1230) ] . 5. KempdZy e_lhibkv . E . 15-15 h[ . 6. Ih\_klv \j_f_gguo e_l . Q . 1. F .; E ., 1950. K . 116; Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kbgh^Zev - guc kibkhd . E . 6. Ih^ 6605 (1097) ] . b ^j . 7. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kb - gh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 136 h[ . Ih^ 6765 (1257) ] .; DjhcgbdZ eblh\kdZy b `fhclkdZy . E . 458. Ih^ 1272 ] . b ^j . 8. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kb - gh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 24. Ih^ 6702 (1194) ] . 9. Ikdh\kdZy Km^gZy ]jZfhlZ // Jhkkbckdh_ aZdhgh^Z - l_evkl\h X-XX \\ . L . I. F ., 1984. K .342. 10. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv klZjr_]h ba\h^Z . Kbgh^Zevguc kibkhd . E . 3 h[ . Ih^ 6567 (1059) ] .; E . 4. Ih^ 6576 (1068) ] .; E . 9 h[ . Ih^ 6626 (1118) ] .; E . 86 h[ . Ih^ 6724 (1216) ] .). b ^j . 11. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv feZ^r_]h ba\h^Z . E . 103. Ih^ 6642 (1134) ] . 12. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv feZ^r_]h ba\h^Z . E . 118 h[ . Ih^ 6696 (1188) ] . 13. Ohjhrd_\bq : . E . Gh\u_ gh\]hjh^kdb_ ]jZfhlu XIV-XV \\ . // :jo_h]jZnbq_kdbc _`_]h^gbd aZ 1963 ]h^ . F ., 1964.  3. 14. Ikdh\kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv . Ih^ 6856 ] . 15. Ikdh\kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv . Ih^ 6911 ] . 16. Ikdh\kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv . Ih^ 6944 ] . 17. Ikdh\kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv . Ih^ 6935 ] . 18. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv feZ^r_]h ba\h^Z . E . 102 h[ . Ih^ 6692 (1184) ] . 19. Gh\]hjh^kdZy i_j\Zy e_lhibkv feZ^r_]h ba\h^Z . E . 140 h[ . Ih^ 6726 (1218) ] . TYPES OF LIABILITY IN RUSSIAN CHRONICLES XI-XV centuries 2010 Ospennikov Y.V., candidate of History science, professor of the chair of public-law disciplines Samara Institute of Law of the FSIN of Russia, Samara (Russia) Keywords: Liability; old Russian law; from Novgorod Chronicle; measure of responsibility. Annotation: An analysis of texts chronicle, is charac terized by the evolution of ancient law.

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