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PART F. BUSINESS AND

LAW


Section 1:
Companies in the UK


Section 2:
Business Contracts


Section 3:
A Contract for Services

Section 5:
Russian Law on Joint Stock Companies

Section 6:
International Trade and D
ocuments

Section 7:
SWIFT and Payments


Section 1: Companies in the UK



The company is a body corporate, whose regulation is governed by one of the various
Companies Acts, reduced effectively to the Companies Acts I948 and 1967. In popular usage it
is a c
ompany with a
share capital.
Companies may be created by royal charter, by a specific act
of Parliament, or may be registered with the Registrar of Companies under one of the various
Companies Acts, particularly the Act of 1948.

Certain organizations must
be registered under the Building Society Acts 1874, 1894, and

5 and 1913. These are not strictly
companies but are often called such.

In the case of companies dealt with under the 1948 Act, the liability

of members may be
limited by shares, or by guarantees, or may be unlimited. The commonest type of company in
existence in the UK is a company limited by shares. The principle characteristics of a company
limited by shares are that each is a separate
'lega
l persona'
(i. e. it can contract as a separate
person) and that the liability of the company is limited to the nominal value of the shares.

Companies may also be
public or private.

About 97 per cent of the limited companies registered in Great Britain are

private companies.
A private company is one which restricts the right to transfer its shares, limits its members to
fifty (but has a minimum of two), and cannot invite the public subscribe for shares. It has certain
legal privileges, but these are not of
great consequence and the tendency today is towards
removing them.

All companies registered as companies under the Companies Act 1948 are public companies,
unless they satisfy the conditions necessary to constitute them.

A company may have any name provide
d that the board of trade does not think it undesirable.
The last word must be
''Limited'
except in the case of certain non
-
profit
-
making companies
formed to promote the arts, science, etc. The name must be fixed or painted outside every office
or place of

business and must be conspicuous and easily legible. It must also appear on all
consequences could be serious. The Registration of Business Names Act 1916

applies to any
company carrying on business under a name not its corporate name. Where the word 'Limited'
does not appear, the organization is not a company in the legal sense. The names of directors
must also appear on catalogues, circulars, etc.

Undesir
able names are those too much like those of other companies. At one time words like
'royal' and 'imperial' were prohibited. They may still be disallowed by the Board of Trade.

The objects of a company must be stated in its memorandum of association. Anythi
ng
inconsistent with these objects would be ultra vires. For this reason the powers or objects of the
company tend to be stated in very broad terms.

If the main object of the company disappears, the company may be wound up. Objects must
not be illegal. Obj
ects or powers may be changed by altering the memorandum by special
resolution. This alteration must enable the company to achieve its objects more effectively, to
carry on some other business that can be conveniently combined with its own, to restrict or
abandon some of its objects, to sell the business, or to amalgamate with another company.
Application to the court to have the alteration cancelled may be made by holders of at least 15
per cent of issued share capital, or debentures, or any class of these
. The application must be
made within twenty
-
one days of the resolution. The court may confirm or cancel the alteration or
may order the interests of the objectors to be purchased. Whatever the alteration, the court can do
nothing if application is not mad
e within the specified time. No alteratian can be made which
increases the liability of any member.




Vocabulary notes


body




1) юридическое лицо;






2) корпорация, организация



the body politic




государство



autonomous
bodies




органы самоуправления



legislative

body




законодательный орган



corporate body =

body


corporate



['ko:p

r

t]

корпорация как юридическое лицо,

правосубъектная организация

regulation


[,re

ju'le


n]


регулирование



regulations




устав, инструкция, обязательные

постановления

to govern


[


vn]


1) управлять, править;






2) регулировать, руководить;

3) владеть

particularly


[p

't

kjul

l

]


1)
очень
,
особенно
;






2)
индивидуально



generally and particularly



в общем и в частности


to limit


['l

m

t]


1) ограничивать, ставить






предел; 2) служить границей, пределом

share




акция
(ценная бумага, дающая право






на долю в акционерном капитале компании





и на пропорциональную часть






прибыли и остатка активов при






ликвидации, а также обычно право






голоса на общих собраниях акционеров





при выборах директоров и утверждении

деятельности компании)

legal

persona

=
legal




1) юридическое лиц
о;


person




2) субъект права



syn
.

body






persona

(
Lat
.)




лицо, личность



pi.
personae






circular


['
s

:kjul

]


реклама, проспект


memorandum of association

[,mem

'r

nd

m]


меморандум, устав юридического лица,

устав
акционерного общества


pi.
memoranda

(
memorandums
)





consistent


[k

n's

st

nt]


последовательный, согласующийся

ultra

vires

(
Lot
.)


[,

ltr

'va

ar

:z]


превышение прав, полномочий

to wind up




ликвидировать
(компанию, предприятие и

т
.
п
.)

to aba
ndon


[

'b

nd

n]


1 ) покидать, оставлять;

2) отказываться от

object


[

'bd

ekt]


1) предмет, вещь; 2) цель


to amalgamate


[

'm

l


me

t
]


соединять (ся), объединять

(ся), сливаться


компаниях, организациях, учреждениях)

debenture


[d

'bent


]


1) об
лигация,
(ценная бумага,

представляющая собой свидетельство на

часть ссуды, обеспеченной активами

компании





1)

необеспеченное долговое

обязательство

2)

(США)

objector


[

b'd

ekt

]


возражающий; тот, кто возражает




Words and Grammar


a

Insert the artic
les wherever necessary and translate the following into Russian:


......body corporate ......Registrar of Companies

......Companies Act ......Building Society Act

.....act of Parliament ......Industr
ial and Provident


......share capital .....name must be fixed


b

Insert the correct prepositions:


In the case of companies dealt with......the 1948 Act, the liability of mem
bers may be
limited......shares, or......guarantees, or may be unlimited. The commonest type of
company......existence in the UK is a company limited......shares. The principle characteristics of
a company limited......shares are that each is a sep
arate «leal persona» and that the
liability......the company is limited......the nominal value......the shares.


с

Insert one of the following words into the text:


limited, private, shares, members, public, removing,

privileges, trade, business, directors


Companies may be......or......About 97 per cent of the companies registered in Great Britain
are ...........
.... companies. A......company is one which restrict the right to transfer its......, limits
its......to fifty, and cannot invite the ......to subscribe for shares. It has certain legal......, but these
are not of great consequence and the tendency today i
s towards......them.

All companies registered as companies under the Companies Act 1948 are..........companies,
unless they satisfy the conditions necessary to constitute them.

A company may have any name provided that the Board of ......does not think it
undesirable.
The last word must be «......». The name must be fixed or printed outside every office or place of
business. f the word «......» is omitted the consequences could be serious. The Reistration of
...... Names Act 1916 applies to any com
pany carrying on......under a name not its corporate
name. The names of ..... must also appear on catalogues, circulars, etc.


e

Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct forms:


The objects of a company must
(to state)
in its memorandum of associat
ion. The powers or
objects of the company tend
(to state)
in very broad terms. If the main object
(to disappear),
the
company may
(to wind up).
Objects may
(to change)
by altering the memorandum by special
resolution. No alteration can
(to make)
which
(to
increase)
the liability of any member.


f

Write down the English equivalents:


юридическое лицо ...............................................................
...

устав юридического лица ..................................................................


Великобритании) ..................................................................

превышение прав ..............................................................
....

ликвидировать компанию ..................................................................

цели компании ............................................................
......

а
кция .....................................................
.............

облигация
(свидетельство на часть .................................................................

сс
уды, обеспеченной активами компании) ................................................................




Suggested activities


g

Write down answers to the following Questions:




h

Write the description of private limited companies in the UK.


Secti
on 2: Business Contracts



The Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 lay down
fundamental terms about the sale of goods and contracts for the supply of goods and services
which all business contracts must comply with. They ar
e as follows:

• the seller must have title

• oods/services must be of merchantable quality

• oods/services must be fit for a particular purpose

• oods/services must be as described

• there must be no misrepresentations

At common law, suppliers

of services, e. g. plumbers, builders, repairers, etc., have a duty to
exercise reasonable care and skill in carrying out their jobs. Professionals, e. g. solicitors have to
exercise the degree of care which is to be expected of a professional man of ordi
and experience. These common law duties have now been clarified and enhanced by the 1982
Act.

The 1982 Act implies in each contract, under which a person agrees to carry out the service, that
the supplier will carry out the service with rea
sonable care and skill.

It must be noted, however, that this applies only where the services are provided as part of a
business, but does not apply to services given free, nor to advocates in connection with their
appearances in court, company directors or

building societies.

The main standard terms and conditions of a contract are as follows:

• Names of the parties to the contract

• ubject of the contract

• Price

• Terms of delivery

• Time of delivery

• Terms of payment, includin time of paym
ent, currency in which payment is to be made, etc.

• Risk and property

• Warranties

• Arbitration

• Termination

• Governin law

The contract is to stipulate which legal system is to regulate any dispute. This is very important,
as otherwise large

sums can be spent just deciding which legal system applies.





Vocabulary notes


to lay down




1) сложить
(полномочия),
оставить службу






2)
устанавливать
,
утверждать


to lay down the duties of office




отказаться от должности



to lay down the law




устанавливать, формулировать закон

to comply with smth


[
k

m
'
pla

]


1) исполнять ч
то
-
либо;

2) подчиняться чему
-
либо

title


[ta

tl]


1) право собственности;







2) документ, дающий право собственности;






3)
заголовок


merchantable


['m

:t


nt

bl]


ходовой
(о товаре)


quality


['kwol

t

]


качество


misrepresentation


['m

s,re
pr

z

n'te


n]


искажение


plumber


['р
l

m

]


1) водопроводчик;






2) паяльщик


skill




искусство, мастерство, умение, ловкость,

сноровка

to clarify


['kl

r

fa

]


разъяснять, вносить

ясность


to clarify the disputes




улаживать споры


wa
rranty


[
'
wor

nt

]


гарантия, ручательство


arbitration


[,a:b

'tre


n]


третейский суд, арбитраж


otherwise


['



wa

z]


в противном случае,

иначе




Words and Grammar


a

Find the English equivalents in the text and make short sentences, on the basis of

the text:


искажение................................. иметь право собственности............

гарантия ................................... ...........................................................

арбитраж................................... ра
зъяснять обязанности..................

проявлять внимание и умение это следующее (условие)................

...................................................

..........................................................


b

Insert the correct prepos
itions and make short sentences, with the following word
combinations and phrases:

to comply... terms...............................................................................

to be... merchantable quality..............................................
.................

to be fit... a particular purpose............................................................

to carry out a service... a contract.......................................................

to apply... services................................
..............................................

to exercise care and skill... carrying out a job....................................

a party... the contract..........................................................................


с

Write down the words f
rom which the following words are formed:


merchantable
...................
skillful
.......................................

fundamental
.....................
payment
....................................

reasonable
........................
misrepresentation
....................

professional
......................
service
.......................................


d

Write down the words with a negative meaning, using the prefixes:
-
un, mis
-
,
-
in,
-
il,
-
sub:


representation ..
misrepresentat
ion
..

to apply
..........................................

appropriation
................................
to calculate
.....................................

appropriate
...................................
to inform
........................................

understanding
...............................
informative
....................................

fortune
...........................................
literate
............................................

fortunate
........................................
st
andard
.........................................


e

Underline the predicates, write down the form in which the verbs are used and translate the
sentences into Russian:


1 These two acts lay down fundamental terms about the sale of goods and
contracts.....
...................................

2 Goods or services must be as
described...........................................................................................................

3 Professionals have to exercise the degree of care which is to be exp
ected of a professional
man..................

.............................................................................................................................
..........................
.......................

4 These common law duties have bee
n clarified and enhanced by the 1982
Act...............................................

......................................
:
................................................................................................................
.................
......

5 The Act implies that the supplier will carry out the service with reasonable care and
skill............................




Suggested activities


f

Answer the following questions:




g

Sum up what the text says about common law.


Section 3: A Con
tract for Services


Pre
-
reading questions:

1. Have you ever read any contracts?

2. Do you think it is necessary for a lawyer to be able to translate various contracts?

3. Do you think the style of contracts is very specific?


Text 1


Hotel Star


CONTRACT T
O PROVIDE BANQUET AND CONVENTION SERVICES


This Contract to Provide Banquet and Convention Services (hereinafter referred to as
«the
Contract»),
relating to the provision of certain services (such services, as described in Article 1
below, are to be collec
tively referred to hereinafter as
«the Event»)
is concluded between the
Joint Venture Star, a legal entity organized and existing under the laws of the Russian Federation
(hereinafter referred to as
«the Hotel»),
and__________________________

(hereinafter
referred to as
«the Client»),
(the Hotel and the Client collectively referred to as
«the
Parties»)
on the following terms and conditions:

Article 1. Details Concerning the Event

[see attached function schedule
(Schedule)
]


Article 2. Conclusion of this Con
tract


2.1

This Contract shall be considered concluded by the Parties when the Client, without
making any additions, limitations, or other modifications to the terms of this Contract,
countersigns and dates this Contract and returns it to the Hotel by tele
fax or by hand before
[time] Moscow time,____________, 199_.


2.2

Unless the Client returns this Contract in the form and within the time period provided for
in Article 2.1, this Contract shall not become binding and the Hotel has no duty to the Client to
additionally inform or otherwise notify the Client of such. The Hotel may then rent any facilities
referenced in the Contract to other parties.


2.3

If the Client returns this Contract with any additions, limitations, or other modifications to
the terms of

this Contract, this Contract shall not become binding unless and until the Client
receives from the Hotel written acceptance of these changes.




Vocabulary notes


event




событие, мероприятие


joint

venture




совместное (смешанное)






предприятие
(ре
ализация проекта двумя или

более юридическими или физическими лицами

на основе контрактами создания

акционерного общества)

to

attach


[

'
t

t

]


прилагать



to attach smth to




прилагать что
-
либо к


modification


[,mod

f

'ke


n
]


изменение

(
небольшое
)



compare
:
change




изменение
(довольно значительное)

to countersign


['kaunt

sa

n]


1)

подписать документ

еще раз, поставить

контрольную подпись; 2) поставить вторую

подпись

to bind (bound, bound)


[ba

nd, baund]


связывать




binding




обязательный


to rent




1) брать в аренду; 2) сдавать в аренду

facilities


[f

's

l

t

z]


1)

оборудование, аппаратура; 2) средства

обслуживания, удобства

reference


['ref

r

ns]


ссылка



to

reference


1) снабжать ссылками; 2)
находить по ссылке,
зд.

указывать




Words and Grammar


a

Find the English equivalents in the text:


в дальнейшем именуемый «Контракт»..............................................................................

заключать контракт на следующих условиях..
..................................................................

предоставлять услуги.........................................................................................................
..

совместное предприятие.......................................
...............................................................

прилагать перечень...........................................................................................................
...

добавления, изъятия, изменения.................................
.......................................................

подписать контракт...........................................................................................................
..

поставить

дату

на

контракте
.............................................
.................................................


b

Choose the correct prepositions and make short sentences with these phrases:


to make modifications
in/for a
contract..................................................................................

to

return a contract
in/by
telefax or in/by hand.......................................................................

to have no duty
to/in
the Client..............................................................................................

to inform/n
otify the Client
of/in
such.....................................................................................

to rent the facilities
to/at
other parties....................................................................................

to receive the H
otel written acceptance
of/to
these changes..................................................


с

Encircle the attributes, write down by what parts of speech they are expressed and translate
them into Russian:


the Contract to Provide Banquet and Convention Services.....................................................

the Contract relating to the pr
ovision of certain services.........................................................

such services as described in Article 1.....................................................................................

a legal entity organised and existing under th
e laws of the RF................................................

details concerning the Event.................................................................................................
....

attached function schedule...................................
.....................................................................

the time period provided for in Article 2.1...............................................................................


d

Check how well you know English Grammar:


1 Article 2.1


W
hy is no article used here?


2 Such services are to be collectively referred to as
the

Event.


Why is the particle to used here?


3 the Hotel and the Client collectively referred to as
the

Parties


What part of speech is the word
referred?


4 This
Contract shall be considered concluded...


s the translation «
Контракт

считается


заключенным

...» correct?


5 Unless the Client returns this Contract within the time

provided for in Article 2.1, this Contract shall not become

binding.


Are Future T
enses ever used after the

conjunction
unless?
What other

conjunctions should be mentioned as well?


6 Unless the Hotel has no duty to the Client to

additionally inform the Client of such.


What word (words) does
such
substitute?





Suggested activi
ties


e

Sum up the information this part of the Contract gives:


• the type of services, sold and bouht

• the parties to the Contract

• the conclusion of the Contract

• additions, limitations or modifications to the Contract


f

Write a similar
contract changing the type of services to be rendered and the names of the
parties to the Contract.




Skim and scan:

Read the text quickly and say if this Article of the Contract dwells only
on
payment.


Text 2


Article 3. General Terms and Conditions fo
r Events


3.1
For reservations of Banquet snd Conference facilities, a 100% deposit
(Deposit)
must be
provided to the Hotel within one (1) week of conclusion of the Contract, but in no case shall the
Deposit be given later than _____ (___) days prior to th
e Event. If the Deposit has not been made
within these time limits, then the Client has breached the Contract, and such breach shall permit
the Hotel to cancel the Contract without payment to the Client of any damages, and furthermore,
the Client shall rei
mburse the Hotel according to the schedule contained in Article 3.2 herein.

The Deposit shall comprise the Hotel's estimate of the total revenue to be received by the
hotel from the Client with respect to the Event from the sale of goods or provision of se
rvices,
including without limitation, banquet room rental, food, and beverages in connection with the
Event. If the Hotel determines that the actual price of the Event exceeds the Deposit, then the
Hotel shall submit to the Client a written demand for paym
ent of the additional amount in excess
of the Deposit. The Client shall pay this additional amount within 30 days of the date on which
the Event is scheduled to be held.


3.2

In case of cancellation of this Contract at any time by the Client, for any reaso
n, the Hotel
shall charge a Cancellation Fee, the amount of which shall be defined as follows:

A.
100% of the revenue to be received by the Hotel relating to the banquet room rental, even
if not specifically itemized in Article 1 herein, based on official
banquet room rental rates of the
Hotel; plus

B.
in the event the Hotel has made any payments to third parties on behalf of the Client for
goods and services relating to the Event (including without limitation, band, flowers, and
translation services), even

if not specifically identified in this Contract, 100% of the amount so
paid by the Hotel, plus 10% of such payments made to third parties; plus

C.
A percentage of the revenue, as anticipated and estimated by the Hotel, from sales of food,
according to the

following schedule:


Cancellation Prior to the Event

Percentage of Revenue


14 to 7 days





30%


6 to 4 days





60%



less than 4 days





80%


3.3

The Client shall inform the Hotel Banquet Department of the exact number of attendees
for the Event no later than 72 hours prior to the start of the Event. The Client may increase or
decrease the n
umber of attendees only by written agreement of the Parties but in no case later
than 72 hours prior to the start of the Event.

3.4

The Client may bring onto the premises of the Hotel any material including without
limitation decorations, artifacts, exhibi
ts, other valuables, or equipment (hereinafter
Materials)
only upon the prior, written consent of the Hotel. The Hotel reserves the right 19 see all relevant
licenses, approvals, or other certificates required by the laws of the Russian Federation before i
t
permits the Materials onto the Hotel premises.

The Client hereby agrees and understands that any consent provided by the Hotel to the Client
shall not be construed to be an admission by the Hotel of responsibility or liability for any loss,
damage, harm,

or injury caused by, or relating to the aforementioned Materials, nor shall such
consent be interpreted as a representation or warranty regarding the quality, suitability, or fitness
of such Materials for the use to which they are to be put. The Client he
reby unconditionally
agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Hotel for any loss, damage, harm, or injury caused by,
or relating to the mentioned Materials in this Article 3.

3.5

The Hotel shall be held responsible for any loss or damage to, or resulting
from, any
Materials only in the case of the Hotel's negligence or intentional harm.




Vocabulary notes


to permit


[p

'm

t]


разрешать



permit


['p

:m

t]


разрешение


damages


['d

m



z]


1)

убытки, ущерб; 2) денежное

возмещение(компенсация)

ущерба
(по

суду)

furthermore


[,f

:


'mo:]


к

тому же, кроме того,

более того

with respect to




что касается


beverage


['bev

r


]


напиток


percentage


[
p

'
sent


]


процент
(без указания количества процентов)


percentage of revenue




проце
нт

дохода



Compare
:
3 per cent






to anticipate


[

n't

s

pe

t]


ожидать, предвидеть



to attend


[

'tend]


посещать, присутствовать



to attend lectures




посещать лекции


premises


['prem

s

z]


1)

помещение, дом, владение; 2
) вступительная

часть

документа

exhibit


[


'z

b

t]


1) экспонат; 2) вещественное доказательство

license = licence


['la

s

ns]


лицензия


driving license




водительские права


approval


[

'pru:v

l]


1) одобрение; 2) утверждение, санкция; 3) рассмотр
ение


to submit for approval




представить на рассмотрение для оценки

hereby


['h


ba

]


настоящим
(документом)


injury


['

n


r

]


повреждение, порча, вред



to do smb an injury




причинять вред кому
-
либо





Words and Grammar


a

Mar
k the stressed syllables of the following words and read them:


to per'mit


'permit

to contract


contract

to convict


convict

to discount


discount

to dispute


dispute


to object


object

to record


record

to increase


increase

to decrease


decrease

to export


export(s)



b

Complete the table with as many nouns as possible:




с

Choose the correct prepositions and make short sentences with these word combinations:


7 days prior
at/to
the Event......................................................................................................

payment
of on
damages.............
..............................................................................................

to reimburse according
in/to
the schedule..............................................................................

to receive revenue
in/of
respect /
in
/
of
/t
he Event......................................................................

a written
demand for/on
payment..........................................................................................

additional amount
in/at
excess
of/off
Deposit..........
.............................................................


d

Write short sentences with the following:


for any reason...............................................................................................................
.........

to charge a
Cancellation Fee.................................................................................................

to define the amount of the fee.............................................................................................

rental itemized i
n Article 1 herein .......................................................................................

banquet room rental rates....................................................................................................
.

in the event of smth..
............................................................................................................

on behalf of smb ............................................................................................................
......


e

Find the En
glish equivalents in the text:


даже если не указано в кон
тракте
..
....................................................................................

определенный процент дохода,
.....................................................
..................................

ожидаемого и рассчитанного
........................................................................................

отелем
............................
.............................................................

в соответствии со следующими
...........................................................................................

цифрами

..
.........................................................................................

сообщить отелю число участников
...........................................................................................

не позднее чем за 72 часа до

...........................................................................................

начала мероприятия
...........................................................................................

приносить

различные материалы
............................................................................................

в помещение отеля
................................................................................
...........

оставлять за собой право
...........................................................................................


f

Check how well you know English Grammar and words:


1 certificates
required
by the law


What Partic
iple is it?

Translate this word combination into Russian.


2 before the Hotel permits the Materials onto its

premises


Are Future Tenses ever used after the conjunction
before?


3 The Client
hereby
agrees and understands
that. . .

4 damage


damag
es


What words does the word
hereby
substitute?

Write down as many words starting with
here
as possible.

Are these two words absolutely different?




Translate them into Russian.


5 no shall such consent be interpreted as...


Why is the inverted word or
der used here?


6 the quality of such Materials for the use to which
they
are
to be put


Is the verb to
be
a modal verb in this sentence?

Write down all the modal verbs you remember.





Suggested activities


g

Sum up what the Contract says about:


• t
he Deposit

• the Cancellation Fee

• the Materials


h

Choose one of the sub
-
articles and write a similar one making some changes or alterations.


Skim and scan:

Read the text quickly and say the governing law of what country is applied to this Contract
.


Text3


3.6

All Materials shall be removed from the Hotel premises immediately upon the conclusion
of the Event. The Client must reimburse the Hotel for any costs or expenses incurred by the
Hotel associated with the removal and disposal of the aforement
ioned Materials.

3.7

The Client hereby accepts all responsibility and liability for all potential costs incurred by
the Hotel regarding the Event, including without limitation, replacement or repair of damaged
property caused by the Client's emloyees, assi
stants, agents, or guests. The Client shall transfer
all amounts to be paid under this Article

3.7

to the Hotel within 14 days of the receipt of the bill. For payment see Article 3.15.

3.8

The Event may not endanger the reputat
ion or safety of the Hotel or its inhabitants. If the
Hotel reasonably believes that the Event will endanger the reputation or safety of the Hotel or its
inhabitants, then the Hotel may cancel the Contract.

3.9

The Client shall not bring food products or b
everages onto the Hotel premises.

3.10

The Client shall use the rented property only for the uses as specifically enumerated in,
and specified within Article 1 of the Contract.

3.11

The Client or employees and agents of the Client may advertise or make oth
er public
statements regarding the Event at the Hotel only with prior, written approval of the Hotel.

3.12

The Hotel reseves the right to increase any and all prices, fees, and other amounts stated
in the Contract, including the Cancellation Fee and amount
s of tax obligations (collectively
«Prices») at any time earlier than two (2) months prior to the start of the Event, and in such a
manner that the Hotel, in its sole and exclusive discretion determines to be reasonable and
appropriate.

3.13

All Prices quo
ted in this Contract are identified in U.E. (Conditional Units), and are
exclusive of Value Added Tax and any other applicable taxes. All invoices shall be denominated
in U.E., but shall be paid by the Client in Russian Rubles at the applicable Hotel excha
nge rate,
indicated on the invoice, on the date of payment.

3.14

Amendments to this Contract shall only be effective if executed in writing and signed by
both Parties.

3.15

The Client shall be held responsible for the prompt payment of all costs of the Eve
nt and
any other additional charges itemized in the bills. Payment obligations including the Deposit
shall be discharged in the following bank account of the Hotel:
________________________________________________ Alternatively payments can be
done in ca
sh or by the following credit cards: American Express, Master Card, Euro Card,
Diners Club, JCB, Visa Card. Should the Deposit paid by the Client exceed the demand for
payment, the difference will be reimbursed to the Client within 14 days after conclusion

of the
function. The Hotel shall return any amount to be reimbursed to the Client using the same
electronic funds transfer), cash refund (if the Client paid in ca
sh) or credit memorandum (if the
Client paid by credit card). Any reimbursements shall be denominated in U.E., but shall be
reimbursed to the Client in Russian Rubles at the applicable Hotel exchange rate in effect on the
date the Hotel effects reimburseme
nt in the manner described in the preceding sentence.

3.16

The Contract is to be construed and interpreted in accordance with the substantive law of
the Russian Federation, excluding its choice of law principles. Any and all disputes and
differences which
may arise out of, or in connection with the subject of this Contract shall be
settled as far as possible by means of negotiations between the Parties. Otherwise the disputes
have to be settled by the International Commercial Arbitration Court with the Cham
ber of
Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation, with the exception of disputes exclusively
involving Russian parties, in which case, such disputes are to be resolved at and by the Moscow
Arbitration Court.


Signatures

By signature below, the unders
igned Hotel and the Client hereby formally express their intent
to be bound to each other, and to create a binding agreement regulating the respective rights and
obligations of the Hotel and the Client with regard to an Event, scheduled for ___________
__
________, 199__.




Vocabulary notes


to remove


[r

'mu:v]


1) убирать, уносить;

2) передвигать

safety




безопасность, сохранность


with

safety




без опасности, без риска



in

safety




в безопасности


inhabitant


[

n'h

b

t

nt]


житель


to enumerate


[

'nju:m

re

t]


перечислять


sole




единственный, монопольный

to

quote


[kwout]


1) цитировать; 2) назначать цену, котировать


quotation


[,kwou'te


n]


котировка, предложение


to denominate


[d

'nom

ne

t]


называть, обозначать


exchange

rate




курс обмена валют, обменный кур
с

amendment


[

'mendm

nt]


дополнение, поправка,

исправление


to move an amendment




внести поправку (в
закон,

резолюцию).

to discharge


[d

s't

a:

]


1) выплачивать; 2) разгружать; 3) выпустить снаряд

alternatively


[

l't

:n

t

vl

]


как ал
ьтернатива, вместе

с этим

to exclude


[

ks'klu:d]


исключать


negotiations


[n

,

ou


'e


n
z]


переговоры


Chamber of Commerce




торгово
-
промышленная

палата

and

Industry





intent


[

n'tent]


намерение, цель


respective


[r

s'pekt

v]


соответственны
й



in their respective



places



каждый на своем месте





Words and Grammar


a

Translate the following words into Russian and make short sentences with these words:


to accept (п
ринимать
) ....
We cannot accept these terms
........


to reimburse
..........................
to quote
........................................

to incur
..................................
to discharge
.................................

to endanger
...........................
to amend
.......................
...............


b

Find the English equivalents in the text:


ставить под угрозу безопас
-

.........................................................

ность проживающих в отеле ........................................................

цены, указанные в контракте, ...................................
....................

даются в условных единицах .........................................................

по обменному курсу, исполь
-

.........................................................

зуемому отелем

..........
...............................................

дополнения к контракту имеют .........................................................

силу, если они оформлены в .........................................................

письменном виде и

........................................................

подписаны обеими сторонами ........................................................

клиент отвечает за своевремен ........................................................

ную опл
ату всех расходов по ........................................................

мероприятию

........................................................


с

Group the following words and word combinations into a few logical
units and fill in the
table:


premises, costs, damaged property, expenses, food products,

taxes
,
charges, beverages, in cash, fee, VAT, deposit,

credit cards, amount, reverse transfer, cash refund, bill, account,

credit memorandum, invoice, reimbursement,
exchange rate


Group

1

2

3

4

5












d

Open the brackets using the correct Participles:


1 The Client must reimburse the Hotel for any costs or expenses
(to incur)
by the Hotel.

2 The Client shall use the rented property only for the uses as s
pecifically
(to enumerate)
in
Article 1.

3 The Client may advertise or make other public statements
(to regard)
the Event.

4 The Hotel reserves the right to increase any and all prices
(to state)
in the Contract.

5 Payment obligations
(to include)
the D
eposit shall be discharged in the following bank
account...


e

Check how well you know English Grammar:


1 Should the Deposit exceed


Why do you think the inverted


the demand for payment, the


word order is used?


difference will be reimbursed to th
e Client within


Translate the sentence into Russian.

14 days.


Make a few similar sentences.


2 any amount to be reimbursed to the Client

What part of sentence is the Infinitive in this

case?



Translate the word combination

into Russian.



Wri
te out similar combinations

from the text.

3

Otherwise the disputes have to be settled by the

International Commercial Arbitration Court.


Underline the modal verb.

Translate the sentence into Russian.

Write out modal verbs from the text.





Suggested acti
vities


f

Write a short title for each sub
-
article:


3.6
.........................................................................................................

3.7
..........................................................................................
...............

3.8
.........................................................................................................

3.9
.........................................................................................................

3.10
..................
.....................................................................................


g

Give answers to the following questions and substantiate your answers:




h

Translate the following pairs of words and make short sentences with them:


costs and ex
penses

removal and disposal

responsibility and liability

sole and exclusive (discretion)


reasonable and appropriate

to be construed and interpreted

disputes and differences

strange and peculiar



i

Choose one of the sub
-
articles and write a simila
r one making some changes or alterations.


Section 5: Russian Law on Joint Stock Companies


This is Article 1 of Chapter 1
General Provisions
of the Russian Law on Joint Stock
Companies translated by English native experts into English:


Article 1. Scope o
f Application

of this Federal

Law



1. In accordance with the Civil

Code of the Russian
Federation,

this Federal Law sets forth the procedure
for the establishment of

joint stock companies,
determines

their legal status and the rights and

duties
of their s
hareholders, and

ensures the protection of
such

shareholders rights and interests.


2. This Federal Law applies to all

joint stock
companies already established or which are being
established in the Russian Federation,

unless
otherwise stipulated by th
is

Federal Law or other
federal laws.


3. Specifics regarding the establishment and legal
status of joint

stock companies in the spheres of

banking, investment, and insurance

activities are
determined by federal

laws.


4. Specifics regarding the establishm
ent and legal
status of joint

stock companies established on the

basis of collective farms, state

farms, and other
agricultural enterprises reorganized pursuant to
Russian Presidential Decree No.323

«On Urent
Measures to Implement Land Reform in the RS
FR,»


Статья 1. Сфера применения

настоящего
Федерального

закона


1 . В соответствии с Гражданским

кодексом
Российской Федерации

настоящий Федеральный
закон

определяет порядок создания и

правовое
положение акционерных обществ, права и
обязанности их акционеро
в, а также обеспечивает
защиту прав и интересов акционеров.


2. Настоящий Федеральный закон распространяется
на все акционерные общества, созданные

или
создаваемые на территории

Российской Федерации,
если

иное не установлено настоящим Федеральным
законом

и иными

федеральными законами.


3. Особенности создания и правового положения
акционерных

обществ в сферах банковской,

инвестиционной и страховой

деятельности
определяются федеральными законами.


4. Особенности создания и правового положения
акционерн
ых

обществ, созданных на базе
реорганизованных в соответствии с

Указом
Президента Российской

Федерации от 27 декабря


1991 года № 323 «О неотложных

мерах по
осуществлению земельной реформы в РСФСР»


dated December 27, 1991, as well

as peasant/
farmer
entities attending

to and enterprises providing
services to agricultural producers, and

particularly:
inventory supply enterprises, technical repair
enterprises, agricultural chemicals enterprises,
forestry entities, farm industry construction
orga
nizations,

rural power companies, seedgrowing
stations, flax processing

mills, and vegetable
processing

enterprises, are determined by federal
laws.




5. Specifics regarding the establishment and legal
status of joint

stock companies by the privatiz
ation of
state
-

and municipallyowned enterprises are
determined

by legal acts of the Russian Federation on
the privatization of such

enterprises.

The specific
features of the legal

status of joint stock companies
established by the privatization of

stat
e
-

and
municipally
-
owned enterprises are operative from the


moment of the privatization decision until the state or
municipality

disposes of 75 percent of their

shareholding in such joint stock

company, but not
later than the expiry of the privatization

period
established by the privatization plan

of the respective
enteiprise.






колхозов, совхозов и других

сельскохозяйственных
предприятий, а также крестьянских

(фермерских)
хозяйств, обслуживающих и сервисных предприятий
для сельскохозяйственных

производителей, а
именно: предприятий материально
-
технического

снабжения, ремонтно
-
технических

предприятий,
предприятий сельскохозяйственной химии, лесхозов,
строительных межхозяйственных организаций,
предприятий сельэнерго, семеноводческих

станций,
льн
озаводов, предприятий по переработке овощей,
определяются федеральными законами.


5. Особенности создания и правового положения
акционерных

обществ при приватизации
государственных и муниципальных

предприятий
определяются правовыми актами Российской
Фед
ерации о приватизации указанных предприятий.


Особенности правового положения акционерных
обществ, созданных при приватизации
государственных и муниципальных

предприятий,
действуют с момента принятия решения о
приватизации до момента отчуждения государств
ом
или муниципальным образованием 75 процентов
принадлежащих им акций

в таком акционерном
обществе,

но не позднее окончания срока
приватизации, определенного планом

приватизации
данного предприятия.





Translating skills


a

Find the Russian equivalents in

the text:


joint stock company ............... shareholders......................................

scope of application............... specifics............................................

the Civil Code........................ to set forth...........
.............................


rights and duties..................... to ensure the protection...................


b

Find the English equivalents in the text:


в соответствии с Указом Президента .........................................................

неотложные меры .........................................................

осуществлять земельну
ю реформу .........................................................

крестьянские (фермерские) хозяйства .........................................................

государственные и муниципальные ........
................................................

предприятия .......................................................
.

правовой акт .........
...............................................

с момента принятия решения ........................................................

до момента отчуждения государством ............................................
...........

не позднее окончания срока .......................................................


с

Complete the following sentences:


1 Unless otherwise stipulated by this Law..............................................

2 Unless otherwise stipulated by the Federal Law..................................

3 Unless otherwise stipulated by this Contract.......................................

4 The enterprises are reorganized pursuant to Decree No. 323..............

5 ......
..............................................pursuant to Instruction No...............

6 .................................................pursuantto Agreement No..................


d

Write down a few similar word combinations with Infinitives used as a
ttributes and
translate them into Russian, like this:


measures to implement the land reform


меры

no
осуществлению

земельной

реформы


e

Translate into English like this:


Указ

от

27
декабря

1991
г
.


Decree dated December 27, 1991


Контракт от 30 сентя
бря 1999
г...................................................................................................................

Постановление от 2 мая 2000
г.....................................................................................................
...............

Закон от 5 января 1998
г............................................................................................................................
...

Инструкция от 3 февраля 1967
г..........................................................
.......................................................

Письмо от 10 апреля 2000
г.........................................................................................................................

Телеграмма от 7 июня 2000
г.........................
.............................................................................................


f

Pay attention to the word
entity
and say what entities are mentioned in the text.


g

Say if there is any difference between these words, judging by the text:


to set forth


to determine


to stipulate

specifics


specific features



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