Программа и эссе. Балтийский альянс азиатских исследований (БААС) Конференция Тарту 2016

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��1 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ; &#x/MCI; 1 ;&#x/MCI; 1 ; &#x/MCI; 2 ;&#x/MCI; 2 ; &#x/MCI; 3 ;&#x/MCI; 3 ; &#x/MCI; 4 ;&#x/MCI; 4 ; &#x/MCI; 5 ;&#x/MCI; 5 ; &#x/MCI; 6 ;&#x/MCI; 6 ; &#x/MCI; 7 ;&#x/MCI; 7 ;2&#x/MCI; 27;&#x 000;&#x/MCI; 27;&#x 000;nd &#x/MCI; 8 ;&#x/MCI; 8 ;Baltic Alliance for
Asian Studies
Tartu, 7
April 2016
Program and Abstracts
Andreas Johandi
��2 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;2nd Baltic Alliance for Asian Studies
, Tartu, 7
9 April, 2016
Program and Abstracts
his publication was prepared and published with support from the University of Tartu (bas
e financing
grants PFLKU14909,
, and
) and the Estonian Science Foundation (grant
Copy editor
Elmer Kohandi
Andres Piir, Margus Sarapuu
Margus Sarapuu

: University of Tartu Multimedia
University of Tartu
Centre for Oriental Studies
, 2016
��3 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ; &#x/MCI; 1 ;&#x/MCI; 1 ; &#x/MCI; 2 ;&#x/MCI; 2 ; &#x/MCI; 3 ;&#x/MCI; 3 ; &#x/MCI; 4 ;&#x/MCI; 4 ; &#x/MCI; 5 ;&#x/MCI; 5 ; &#x/MCI; 6 ;&#x/MCI; 6 ; &#x/MCI; 7 ;&#x/MCI; 7 ; &#x/MCI; 8 ;&#x/MCI; 8 ; &#x/MCI; 9 ;&#x/MCI; 9 ;Program

��5 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Thursday, 7 April
00 Registration & Welcome Coffee (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
the Conference and
Addresses (Jakobi 2 Lecture Theatre)
20 Keynote Speech I (Jakobi 2 Lecture Theatre)
Audrius Beinorius
(Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Post Colonial Imagination and Textological
Commitments in Buddhist Philosophy Studies
Poster Sessio
n I
& Coffee Break (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
00 Lunch Break
40 Panels & Sections I
Panel 2:
speaking Peoples of Central Asia from a Linguistic Perspective
, part I
Main Building,
Ülikooli 18
room 232)
Panel 4:
Ancient Near Eastern Lamentation Literature: Sceneries of Destruction (University Main
Ülikooli 18
room 139)
Panel 6:
Chinese Language Studies in Connection with the West, part I (Lossi 3
Section 2:
Japanese and Korean Studies: Cultu
re and Literature
, part I (University Main Building,
Ülikooli 18,
room 128)
Section 6:
Cross Cultural Studies: East and West
, part I (Ülikooli 1
00 Coffee Break (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
00 Panels & Sections II
Panel 2:
speaking Peoples of Central Asia from a Linguistic Perspective
, part II
Main Building,
Ülikooli 18
room 232)
Panel 6:
Chinese Language Studies in Connection with the West, part II (Lossi 3
Section 2:
Japanese and Korean Studies: Culture and Literature
, part I
(University Main Building,
Ülikooli 18
room 128)
Section 5:
Ancient Near Eastern Studies
(University Main Building,
Ülikooli 18
room 139)
Section 6: Cross Cultural Studies: East and West
, part
I (Ülikooli 1
00 Welcome Reception
(University Café, Ülikooli 20)
��6 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Friday, 8 April
00 Late Registration & Morning Coffee (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
50 Keynote Speech II (Jakobi 2 Lecture Theatre)
Gebhard J. Selz (University of
Vienna, Austria)
The Invention of Writing and the Mesopotamian
World View
50 Keynote Speech III (Jakobi 2 Lecture Theatre)
Robert Rollinger (Uni
versity of Innsbruck, Austria)
Peripheries and Centres: Empires of the Ancient
East in the 1st Millennium BCE
Poster Session II
& Coffee Break (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
00 Lunch Break
40 Panels & Sections III
Panel 1:
Contemporary Conflicts in the Middle East, Their Historical, Cultural, and Ethnic Legacy and
Possibility for Intercultural Dialogue (Jakobi 2
Panel 3: Turkic
speaking Peoples of Central Asia from a Historical Perspective, part I (Jakobi 2
Panel 5:
Soft Security Challenges in East Asia, part I (Jakobi 2
Panel 8:
Politics of Identity and Memory in Post
colonial and Post
socialist Fra
mentation of
Belonging, part I (Jakobi 2
Panel 9:
Buddhist Concepts and Practices:
Understanding and Interpreting
in the Contemporary
World, part I (Ülikooli 16
Panel 10:
Mythological Concepts in Mongolian Literature, Folklore, and Language
, part I (Jakobi 2
00 Coffee Break (Jakobi 2
00 Panels & Sections IV
Panel 3: Turkic
speaking Peoples of Central Asia from a Historical Perspective, part II (Jakobi 2
Panel 5: Soft Security Challenges in East Asia, part II (Jakobi 2
Panel 8:
Politics of Identity and Memory in Po
colonial and Post
socialist Fragmentation of
Belonging, part II (Jakobi 2
Panel 9: Buddhist Concepts and Practices: Their Understanding and Interpreting in the Contemporary
World, part II (Ülikooli 16
��7 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Panel 10: Mythological Concept
s in Mongolian Literature, Folklore, and Language
, part I
(Jakobi 2
00 Cultur
al Event: FA Schola Ensemble
The Bridge Over Time: Italian Instrumental Music from
entury Sources and Modal Improvisationas
(University Mai
n Building, Ülikooli 18
Assembly Hall)
00 Conference Club (University Café, Ülikooli 20)
Saturday, 9 April
40 Panels & Sections V
Panel 11:
Genealogies in the Ancient World, part I (Jakobi 2
Section 1:
Chinese Studies: Ancient and Modern, part I (Ülikooli 16
Section 3:
Arabic Studies: Politics, Language, and Literature, part I (Jakobi 2
Section 7:
Linguistic and Cultural Concepts in South Asia (Jakobi 2
Coffee Break (Jakobi 2 Lobby)
00 Panels & Sections VI
Panel 7:
What Do We Learn from Crises? Historical Aspects and Alternative Solutions. (Jakobi 2
Panel 11: Genealogies in the Ancient World, part II (Jakobi 2
Section 1:
Chinese Studies: Ancient and Modern, part II (Ülikooli 16
Section 3: Arabic Studies: Politics, Language, and Literature, part II (Jakobi 2
Section 4: Persian, Turkish, and Azeri Studies
: Texts and Translation
(Jakobi 2
30 Closing Ad
dresses (Ülikooli 16
17:00 BAAS Board Meeting (Jakobi 2

��9 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ; &#x/MCI; 1 ;&#x/MCI; 1 ; &#x/MCI; 2 ;&#x/MCI; 2 ; &#x/MCI; 3 ;&#x/MCI; 3 ; &#x/MCI; 4 ;&#x/MCI; 4 ; &#x/MCI; 5 ;&#x/MCI; 5 ; &#x/MCI; 6 ;&#x/MCI; 6 ;Keynote Speeches
Panels & Section
Poster Presentations

��11 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Keynote Speeches
Keynote Speech I
Thursday, 7 April 10:30
11:20 AM, Jakobi 2 Lecture
Audrius Beinorius (Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Post Colonial Imagination and Textological
Commitments in Buddhist Philosophy Studies
Buddhism has profoundly touched the Western imagination in a surprisingly widespread way and has
so for well over a several hundred years, evoking a sustained fascination. It was not until the late
century that “Buddhist philosophy” was first recognized as an independent subject for scholarly
inquiry. Prior to this time, the treatment of the Bud
dhist philosophical systems, as a field of study
distinct from Buddhist religion and literature, was virtually non
The intention of the lecture is to show that perhaps the most significant feature in the Western
construction of ‘Buddhism’ was the
tendency for orientalists to reify the object of their discourses and
to locate that reified ‘essence’ firmly within a clearly defined body of classical texts. An imaginative
creation of Buddhism as a textual object in Europe progressively enabled certain
aspects of Asian
cultures to be defined, delimited, classified and interpreted through its own textuality. Ideas of what is
and what is not Buddhism are very much the product of the contingent historical circumstances and
the evolution of the modern tradi
tion of interpretation. In each generation the new problematics of
Western philosophy have yielded correspondingly new but not necessarily more “correct” readings of
the Buddhist tradition.
In spite of the more recent advances in modern scholarship dealing
with the perception of
Buddhism in the West, it seems we still face a lack of critical reflections on the immensely complex
cultural problems associated with the transfer of a system of knowledge from one culture to
another. The elaboration of doctr
��12 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Keynote Speech III
Friday, 8 April 11:00
11:50 AM, Jakobi 2 Lecture Theatre
Robert Rollinger (University of Innsbruck, Austria)
Peripheries and Centres: Empires of the Ancient
Near East in the 1
Millennium BCE
Looking at handbooks dealing with the history of the Ancient Near East, older as well as the more
recent ones,
there appears to be a general agreement on structuring the outline of the political history
of the first millennium BCE. The epoch is conceptualized as a succession of three clearly defined
empires. T
he first one, the Neo Assyrian E
mpire, is regarded as a
turning point in history by
establishing imperial structures connected with the claim to rule the world. It is s
ucceeded by the Neo
Babylonian Empire and the Persian E
mpire that, on the one hand, follow the already introduced
imperial trajectory but, on t
he other, shape their individual and distinctive conceptions of empire and
state. With the conquests of Alexander the Great, a major break is generally considered to have taken
place. The Ancient Near Eastern empires and history have come to an end, a new,
this time western
empire emerges, and a new era is introduced. In my talk I want to challenge this view by
contemplating on
) what does the Empire mean in
the first millennium BCE and (2
) which role do
the fringes of empire play in a dynamic process of
interconnected regions and zones to which not only
the “east” belonged.
��13 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Panels
Panel 1:
Contemporary Conflicts in the Middle East, Their Historical, Cultural and Ethnic Legacy,
and Possibility for Intercultural Dialogue
Friday, 8 April 14:00
15:40 Jakobi
room 106
: Holger Mölder (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) and Vladimir Sazonov
(University of Tartu, Estonia)
The spread of numerous ethnic, religious and cultural conflicts in the Middle East has promoted the
emergence and
growing influence of various extremist movements. The unstable situation in the
Middle East has damaged the cultural legacy of the Ancient Near East, which is the cradle of human
civilization. The panel examines the historical, political and cultural proc
esses which have led to the
emergence of the contemporary situation in the Middle East. Many processes we witness today (the
Arab Spring, the Israeli
Palestine conflict, the rise of extremism in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria) have
their roots in early his
tory, which is related to the modern identity building in the region. The primary
goal is to analyze the development of the multicultural environment in the Middle East throughout
history, how it emphasizes current intercultural dialogue and produces vario
us responses to it (i.e.
ethnic and religious conflicts, extremist movements, social revolutions). Under which conditions
would it be possible to achieve a breakthrough towards the development of intercultural dialogue?
The panel encourages interdisciplina
ry research on Middle Eastern conflicts, therefore welcoming
research papers focusing on historical, theological, cultural, political and other relevant issues.
1. Vladimir Sazonov
Conflict in Syria and Iraq: Destruction of Cultural Legacy, Archae
Looting, and the Future of Archaeological Sites
Yehuda Blanga (Bar
Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel)
A Passing Phenomenon or an
Existing Entity
3. Leons Taivans (University of Latvia, Riga):
Large Scale Immigration from the Middle
East: Risks
and Disadvantages
4. Holger Mölder
The Narrative of Islamic State and the Lemmas of Middle Eastern Security
Panel 2:
speaking Peoples of Cent
ral Asia from a Linguistic
Thursday, 7 April 14:00
18:00 University
Main Building, Ülikooli 18 room 232
Convener: Zsuzsanna Olach (MTA
ological Research Group and the University of Szeged,
From the 6th century onwards, Central Asia has been dominated by Turkic speaking peoples, e.g.
Türks, Old Uy
ghurs, Kazakhs, Uzbeks. The history of these peoples and the languages spoken by
them have always been in the focus of Turcological
studies. The aim of the
panel is to bring together
scholars working on different Central Asian Turkic languages and discuss
the results of their recent
��14 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;research. The participants will present issues including Old Turkic (represented on the Orkhon
Inscriptions) and present
day Turkic languages (Sayan Turkic languages, Kazakh, Turkmen, and
Part I
Zsuzsanna Olach
A Semantic Study on the
Use of
in Old Turkic
Bayarma Khabtagaeva (University of Szeged, Hungary)
yan Turkic Varieties in Central
Bence Grezsa (University of Szeged, Hungary)
What Do the Co
lour Names Tell Us?
The Case of
Part II
4. Judith Routamaa & Abdollah Nazari (SIL International & Turkish American Association)
Language and Religion among the Turkmen of Iran: Observations on the
Speech of Three Generations
5. Sohrab Dolatkhah (freelanc
e researcher, Paris)
Subordinate Clauses in Qashqay:
Evidence for
Typological Shift
Panel 3:
speaking Peoples of
Central Asia from a Historical
8 April, 14:00
18:00 Jakobi 2 room 102
Convener: István Zimonyi (Department of
Altaic Studies, University of Szeged, Hungary)
The Turkic speaking peoples lived predominantly in the steppe stretching from Mongolia to the
Carpathian Basin. The steppe belt of Eurasia represented the same way of life and culture in the
��15 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;2. Szabolcs Polgár (University of Szeged, Hungary)
Nomads, Traders, Steppe Empires in Medieval
Eurasia (with Special Regard t
o Khazaria and Volga Bulgharia)
3. Szilvia Kovács (University of Szeged
, Hungary)
stian Missions in the Chagataid Ulus
Part II: 16:00
4. Márton Vér (Turkological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
Last Episode of the Silk Road’s Golden
Age: Mongols and Overland Trade
5. Michał Połczy
ński (Georgetown University, USA)
Turks and Tatars and Cossacks, Oh My!:
Establishing a New Vocabulary for Power and Patronage in the Ottoman/Polish
an Frontier
in the 16
6. István Zimonyi
Identities amon
g the Nomads of Central Eurasia
Panel 4:
Ancient Near Eastern Lamen
tation Literature: Sceneries of
Thursday, 7 April, 14:00
University Main Building, Ülikooli 18
, room 139
Martin Lang (University of Innsbruck, Austria)
Ancient Near Eastern
Lamentation Literature forms the biggest coherent corpus of cuneiform literature.
laments, Balangs, Erschemmas, Erschahungas and Schuilas all bewail the destruction of cities,
the desecration of sanctuaries, death and starvation in the face of war in
order to calm the wrath of the
gods, who are seen as the force responsible for the destruction. This session aims to inform scholars
from other branches of these valuable but up to now seldom noticed (at least outside of Ancient Near
Eastern Studies) sourc
es of the history of religion.
1. Angelika Kellner (University of Innsbruck, Austria)
The Sumerian Lamentation ‘The Screaming
Cow’ (im.ma.al gu3.de2.de2). The Backgro
und, Textual Reconstruction and
Martin Lang:
How to Lament
Appropriately: Correct Ritual Acting and Correct Lexicography
3. Sebastian Fink (University of Innsbruck, Austria)
A Symphony of Destruction: Describing Disaster
in Sumerian Lamentations
Panel 5:
oft Security Challenges in East
Friday, 8 April, 14:0
18:00, Jakobi 2, room 130
Convener: Linas Didvalis (Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania)
Soft (non
traditional) security issues are of growing importance among practitioners and scholars alike
due to their often elusive nature accompanied by a capacity to destabilize security situations both on
national and international level. Cases such as c
limate change, diaspora integration, cyber or
information wars illustrate that quite well. Therefore, there is a need to dedicate more attention to how
��16 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;soft security challenges appear and develop, what response they provoke from governments and civil
ty, how could these challenges be managed, and what lessons have been learned so far.
The East Asia region is especially prone to tensions caused by
soft security issues: China is
a variety of environmental issues and is the leading emitter of green
house gases, liberal and
conservative camps in Japan have disagreements about migration and diaspora integration policies, the
unsolved historical legacy among all East Asian countries raises concerns about the strategic use of
information in public diplom
acy and accusations of propaganda. These are just a few examples of
topics that will be discussed in this proposed panel presentation. Presenters will prioritize the least
analyzed issues and seek to answer such questions as how soft security issues evolve
d in the East Asia
region; what role does each regional power play in escalating or diminishing soft security concerns;
how regional powers cooperate to govern international threats.
Part I: 14:00
Linas Didvalis:
The Role of National Self
nterest Factors in Environmental Cooperation Among
East Asian Countries
Arvydas Kumpis (Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania)
Ethnic Minority as a Threat to
National Security: the Case of Koreans in Japan
Ene Selart (University of Tartu,
The Development of the Yellow Peril Discourse in the
Estonian Media from 1890s up to 1905
Part II: 16:00
Konstantinas Andrijauskas (Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Manchuria’s Contemporary Soft
Security Threats to the Central Government
in Beijing
Branimir Vidmarović (Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and
Diplomacy, Zagreb, Croatia)
North Korea as a Chinese Soft Security Factor in East Asia
Zdzislaw Śliwa (Baltic Defence College, Tartu, Estonia)
Japan Rel
ations in the Shadow of
Panel 6:
Chinese Language
Studies in Connection with the
Thursday, 7 April, 14:00
18:00, Lossi 3, room 307
Convener: Gao Jingyi (University of Tartu, Estonia)
Guest moderator: Zhang Daqiu
University of Finance and Economics, China; Tallinn
University, Estonia)
Chinese language studies are based on the traditional language studies of China, namely the primary
studies (
). It has been a consecutively developed field of knowledge sin
ce the 3
century B.C.E.
The European missionaries started to study the Chinese language in the Western way since the
century. The Western systematic language studies entered China at the end of the 19
century in
the form of modern linguistics led
by structural linguistics. Since then, Western linguistics has
influenced Chinese language studies both positively and negatively. We shall discuss several
essentials of the Chinese language studies in connection with the West.
��17 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Papers
Part I: 14:00
1. Sun Yu
wen (Peking University, China):
Critical Comments on the Re
construction of Archaic
Zhang Minquan (Communication University of China, Beijing
, China
A Critical Review of the
Tibetan Hypothesis and its Research Methodology
Gao Jingyi
(University of Tartu, Estonia):
Sinitic and Uralic Shared Etymologies with Rhyme
Correspondences: On Finnish
Part II: 16:00
Wang Weimin and Qiao Quansheng (Shanxi University, China)
The Influence
of Thomas Meadows’
Mandarin Orthography on Thomas Wade’s Mandarin Orthography
Zheng Linxiao (Renmin University,
A Study on the Phonology of
by Robert Morrison
Li Jianqiang (Renmin University,
On the
Pronunciation of Sanskrit
ra jña
Based on the Transcriptional Material of
daya Sūtra
and Others
Zhang Daqiu (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, China; Tallinn University, Estonia):
in the Question
nín guì xìng
a Verb in Mandarin Chinese?
Wang Rudong (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, China; Tallinn University
, Estonia
A Contrastive Study of Mandarin
and Estonian
in Grammar
Panel 7:
What Do We Learn from Crises? His
torical Aspects and Alternative
Saturday, 9 April, 12:00
14:00, Jakobi 2, room 130
Convener: Chutinon Putthiwanit (Eastern Asia University, Pathum Thani, Thailand)
Do we really understand the cause and effect of disaster? Do we really
learn something? If so, why do
��18 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Panel 8:
Politics of Identity and Memory in Post
Colonial and
Socialist Fragmentation of
Friday, 8 April, 14:00
18:00, Jakobi 2, room 110
Convener: Vytis Ciubrinskas (Vilnius
University, Lithuania)
The panel will tackle the issues of fragmentation of belonging through unfolding particular discourses,
experiences and practices of displacement, structural inequality and subjectivization as well as of
stigmatization and m
arginalization from the multidisciplinary perspective, and focuses on the politics
of memory of social traumas in particular areas of Eurasia, i.e. Central Asia, South Asia etc.
The main field of scrutiny will open up the issues of (post)colonial and (post
Occupations, oppressions, deportations; counter
establishment i.e. ‘Arab Spring’
movements and un
��19 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Panel 9:
Concepts and Practices: Understanding and Interp
reting Them in the
day, 7 April, 14:00
18:00, Ülikooli 16, room 212
��20 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;This panel
is dedicated to Mon
golian culture. It includes five
papers regarding a range of mythological
concepts, characters, and beliefs represent
ed in different realms of Mongolian tradition
folklore, and language. The papers are based on written sources and new data collected by the research
team during fieldwork in Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia (China), and Buryatia (Russia).
Part I: 14:00
Alevtina Solovyova
A Pillow of the Hero, an Eye of the Genius of Nature and a Restless Place:
l Strategies of Mythologiz
of the Environment in Mongolian
Olga Mazo (Russian State University for the Humanities
, Moscow)
Mongolian Wrestlers in
İlya Gruntov (Russian Academy of Sciences)
Mongolian Euphemisms
Part II: 16:00
Yana Leman (Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow)
“Moon Cuckoo
” of
Danzanravjaa and
��21 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Part II: 12:00
Jakub Kuciak (University of Jagiellonia, Kraków, Poland)
Myth and Genealogy in Service of
Politics on Example of Euripides’ Tragedy Ion
Ain Riistan (Un
iversity of Tartu, Estonia)
Genealogies of Jesus in the New Testament
��22 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Sections
Section 1:
Chinese Studies: Ancient and Moder
Saturday, 9 April, 10:00
14:00, Ülikooli 16, room 212
��23 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;5. Margit Juurikas
(Tallinn University, Estonia):
Death and Mourning in Post
Fukushima Literature
Jinseok Seo (
iversity of Latvia, Riga
The Vernacularity of Korean Shamanism in the
Perspective of Korean Christianity
Section 3:
Studies: Politics, Language, and Literature
Saturday, 9 April,
Jakobi 2, room 114
: Amar Annus (University of Tartu, Estonia)
and Helen Geršman (Tallinn University,
Part I, 10:00
1. Otto Jastrow
(Tallinn University, Estonia):
Research on the Anatolian Arabic Dialects (q
an Ongoing Story
2. Marcin Michalski (Adam Mickiewicz
University in Poznań, Poland):
Recapturing the Self: Arabs
and Islam in Contemporary Arabic Translations of E
uropean Literature
3. Ingrid Kleinhof
f (University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia):
Depiction of the Self and the Other by Three
Generations of Arab Mahjar Writers: Orientalism, Occidentalism, or Both?
Part II, 12:00
4. Faruk Abu
Chacra (Un
iversity of Helsi
nki, Finland):
Does the Term ‘Arab’ or ‘The Arab Nations’
Refer to any Particular Racial Type?
5. Zane Steinmane (University of Latvia, Riga
, Latvia):
The Warring Tribes: Representations of
Conflict in the Pre
Islamic Odes of
Helen Geršman (T
allinn University, E
Poetic Features of ʾUsāma ibn Lādin’s Speech of
March 28, 2002
7. Yossi Mann (Bar
University, Ramat Gan, Israel):
The Saudi Arabia’s New Oil
Section 4:
Persian, Turkish, and Azeri Studies: Texts and Translations
Saturday, 9 April, 12
0, Jakobi 2, room 106
Moderator: Vladimir Sazonov (University of Tartu, Estonia)
1. Fatemeh Tavakoli
(University of Tartu, Estonia):
��24 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;4. Aynura Mahmudova (Azerbaijan
l Academy of Sciences):
The Role of Interpretation of
Fuzuli’s Texts in the Formation
and Development of his Literary
Section 5:
Ancient Near Eastern Studies
Thursday, 7 April, 16:00
18:00, University Main Building, Ülikooli 18, room 139
: Peeter Espak (University of Tartu, Estonia)
1. Boaz Zissu (Bar
University, Ramat Gan, Israel):
Jerusalem and Judean Tombs and Burial
Customs in the First Century CE
2. Vladimir Emelianov (St
burg State University, Russia):
Religious and
ophical Aspects
of the Sumerian
3. Krzysztof Ulanowski
(University of Gdansk, Poland):
Communication with Gods: The Case of
Divination in Mesopotamian Civilization
4. Maximilian Räthel (Georg
University Göttingen, Germany):
Georg Fri
edrich Grotefend
and the Decipherment of Cuneiform
Section 6:
Cross Cultural Studies: East and West
Thursday, 7 April, 14:00
18:00, Ülikooli 16, room 212
Moderators: Valdas Jaskūnas (Vilnius University, Lithuania) and Ene Selart (University of Tartu,
Part I: 14:00
Valdas Jaskūnas:
Stateless Orientalism: Bodies and Frameworks of Knowledge about India in
Soviet Lithuania
2. Yasuko Shibata (The Polish
Japanese Academy of I
nformation Technology, Poland):
Renovation of Polish Cu
ltural Identities: The Consumption of Global Japanese Otherness in
Contemporary Poland
3. Vytis Silius, Vilius Dranseika, Renatas Berniūnas (
Vilnius University, Lithuania):
Normative Psychology: Mapping the Space of Evaluative Concepts in Ev
eryday Lithuanian, English,
Part II: 16:00
Loreta Poškaitė (
Vilnius University, Lithuania):
��25 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;6. Sibel Burçer (University of Latvia, Riga
, Latvia):
The Problems in the Management of Mobility of
Turkish Students Studying in
Linguistic and Cultural Concepts in South Asia
Saturday, 9 April, 10:00
11:40, Jakobi 2, room 130
Moderator: Audrius Beinorius (Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Vytis Vidūnas (
Vilnius University, Lithuania):
The Concept of
in the Vedas:
A Linguistic
Carmela Mastrangelo (Sapienza Università di Roma, I
Sanskrit and Pāli Grammatical
Traditions: Influence and Inte
raction Between South
India and
��26 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Poster Presentations
Session 1:
Thursday, 7 April, 11:30
13:00, Jakobi 2
Ann Talistu (Tallinn University, Estonia)
��27 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ; &#x/MCI; 1 ;&#x/MCI; 1 ; &#x/MCI; 2 ;&#x/MCI; 2 ; &#x/MCI; 3 ;&#x/MCI; 3 ; &#x/MCI; 4 ;&#x/MCI; 4 ; &#x/MCI; 5 ;&#x/MCI; 5 ; &#x/MCI; 6 ;&#x/MCI; 6 ; &#x/MCI; 7 ;&#x/MCI; 7 ;Abstracts

��29 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;ABU
CHACRA, Faruk (University of Helsi
nki, Finland)
Does the Term ‘Arab’ or ‘The Arab
Refer to any Particular RacialType?
Determining the concept of who is an Arab and understanding the concept of ‘Arab Nations’ is
confusing not only for the ‘Non
Arab’ nations but also for those citizens who vaguely fall under this
umbrella term. M
y contribution to this question is
to attempt to define and analyz
e the issues
mentioned below:
1) An introduction to the ancient history of the Arabs as related to that of other Semitic peoples.
Does the term ‘Arab’ refer to any particular race and h
ow to define the criteria for being an Arab?
3) How strong is the impact of Islam on the ideology of Arabism?
4) Defining the tribes and structures of the ‘Arab Nations’.
5) What is the meaning of the term ‘Pan
Arabism’? Is it based on Nationalism or is
it just an ideology?
6) What is the basis for Arab Nationalism in the ethnic, linguistic, political,
cultural, religious history
the people of Arab nations and countries?
7) If the major language of a country is Arabic, does this mean that its
speakers are Arabs?
8) Can a Jew or an Assyrian who speaks Arabic as a mother tongue is considered an Arab? What
about an Arab in Israel who speaks Hebrew as a mother tongue? What is he? What about English, or
��30 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Republic’s initial modernization drive. In the latter sense somewhat similar to Ukraine’s notorious
Donbass, this region still contains s
everal important and compact national minorities. Once a
formidable hard security threat to China
proper, today the principal minorities possess various
domestic and even transnational political agendas that might be viewed as softer threats with a varying
potential of becoming hard. This paper is a comparative exploration of the main threats related to the
three largest local national minorities: the Mongols, the Koreans, and obviously the Manchus. A
comparative analysis of the sinification and migration p
atterns, as well as historical, cultural and
administrative shifts, would hopefully allow to evaluate their threat potential to contemporary China’s
national and Northeast Asia’s regional security.
BEDNARCZYK, Adam (Nicolaus Copern
icus University, Toruń, P
Geopoetics as a New Approach to Japanese
Medieval Travel Accounts
��31 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;prestige. The re
writing of history is then used to legitimize
the claim to Samarqand and Bukhara as
“Tajik cities”. While the cultural component dominates in the definition of Tajiks as “Aryan”, this
paper argues that it is easy for an identity discourse, based on an idea of cultural superiority over the
other civili
zations of the region, to degenerate into a racial understanding of Tajik superiority. In any
of its forms, it acquires an ethnic dimension that risks creating a gap between the Tajik
European majority and the country’s Turkic ethnic minoritie
This paper seeks to analyz
e the forms that this national ideology has assumed in contemporary
Tajikistan, while addressing the questions of whether it has emerged purely as a result of post
ideological vacuum, as an alternative to religious
identities, as an ideological “glue” to rally the
country after the Civil War, or rather as a construction of an “unconscious” post
Colonial identity in a
��32 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Keywords:
International student mobility, ERASMUS, international relations department, University
of Latvia, Turkish mobile students
APATI, Supaporn (I
University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan)
ing Business Curriculum and Cultu
ral Values: The Case of Vietnam
��33 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;which brought severe hardships (famine in early 1920s)
and repressions, including the second
deportation of the descendants to Eastern Kazakhstan and Siberia in the 1930s.
It was only recently, after the end of the communist rule, that ethnic heritage became valorised and
enacted again, this time through famil
y reunions and strategies of recognition, i.e. the exhibition of the
local Lithuanian village history installed at the local school museum and the Lithuanian Catholic
Chapel opened in the early 2000s.
The contemporary processes of heritization also consist
of the family histories and the collective
memories of the pioneer Lithuanians, traced as among the first to arrive into unpopulated steppes and
revealing themselves industrious by starting successful lives here. Such heritage claims its re
inscription an
d local ‘in
ness’ in this Eurasian region. Local Lithuanian identity is reclaimed
through adhering to the Catholic religion and celebrating ethnic culture festivals through the staged
performances at the local fairs of the Kremlin
style multicultura
list “diversity of nationalities”.
Thus the heritization strategies of the descendants of the Lithuanian deportees both encounter the
dominant discourse of the channelled assimilationist politics of the post
communist Russia and adhere
to a multiculturalis
t order. The ethnic heritage (what is left after losing the language, endogamy and
even the ethnic cuisine among the hyphenated and significantly assimilated descendants) basically
consists of the valorisation of the past through a genealogical quest for k
inship roots and also through
the most important trait of cultural heritage
the Catholic religion. Local Lithuanian identity is
��34 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;of how East Asian countries treat environmental issues from the national security perspective and what
calculations governments make when international cooperation is a necessary component in solving
environmental problems.
This research looks
at the role of national self
interest factors in advancing environmental
cooperation among East Asian countries. The research seeks to answer two main questions. First, what
are the trends in the securitization of environmental challenges in China, Korea,
and Japan? Second, in
what ways are these environmental issues politicized in each country and why do some issues receive
more support than others? The theoretical basis of the research is founded on the studies by Sprinz and
Vaahtoranta (1994, 2002) that
discuss the main factors in international environmental policy
formulation. My research not only tests the assumptions made by the aforementioned authors but also
contributes to the on
going discussion about the most important independent variables by prov
new data from case studies in East Asia.
b (freelance researcher, Paris)
Subordinate Clauses in Qashqay:
Evidence for Typological Shift
The aim of this paper is to show the evolution of subordinating
strategies in Qashqay (a Turkic
language of South Oghuz spoken in Iran), which has been in intensive cont
act with the Iranian
especially Persian and Lori, for several centuries. This evolution consists of a typological
t from a
mainly prenominal (non
finite) subordinate cl
ause to a pos
tnominal (finite) one. Ki
��35 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;DRANSEIKA, Vilius (Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Essentialism in Selecting the 14th Dalai Lama:
One More Alternative Account
witness reports indicate that the 14
Dalai Lama was selected because when given a choice
��36 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;time (XXVII century B
) and came from all ages of the Sumerian history. Proverbs were already
studied from the p
��37 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;ESPAK, Peeter
(University of Tartu, Estonia)
The Problems of the Genealogical Structures
of the Early Sumerian Pantheon
The paper discusses some of the most important questions about the Sumero
Akkadian early pantheon,
and related to its structure, also the aspects of the creation mythology. The god
lists SF 23 from Fāra
show seven divine pairs headed by Enki and Ninki, followed by Enlil and Ninlil, then five en and nin
A similar order is followed in the Abū Salābīkh list with slight variations in adding a pair en
an and
an. One of the
points of discussion is to figure out the meaning of the primordial en pairs and their
genealogical relations to the second and third generation of gods in the mythology and their relation to
the god An. The concluding part of the paper tries to demonstrat
e the possible genealogical relations
of gods and humans in the earliest known texts.
FELFÖLDI, Szabolcs
(University of Szeged, Hungary)
Trade in Conventional Rut? Long
ance Trading Systems and Rivers
The connection between rivers and trade is one of t
he basic elements of the research on
commercialism. Most of the scholars think that rivers were the ”comfort zones” of trading systems. In
their view rivers could ensure not just the easiest and literally the smoothest way of travelling but also
of commerc
e. Under certain conditions this statement seems to be true, but in numerous cases we can
detect just the opposite. That is why I presume that this is only a ”topos”. The aim of my lecture is to
investigate the cases where rivers or river valleys are indee
d very important scenes of trading and
cases where merchants chose other routes fo
r their commercial activities.
In essence I deal with the
region of the Silk Road from this point of view, but I will take account of other regions and long
distance trading
systems as well.
FINK, Sebastian (Un
iversity of Innsbruck, Austria)
A Symphony of Destruction: Describing Di
saster in Sumerian Lamentations
Sumerian texts describing disaster from the victim’s perspective are known from the third millennium
to the end of
cuneiform writing. Their evolution goes hand in hand with texts describing destruction
from the perspective of the winner, and we have numerous texts that describe in detail what was done
in order to punish an enemy.
Here I will concentrate on the language
of destruction in lamentations
and explore how the horrors of war are depicted in these lamentations.
FINK, Sebastian (Un
iversity of Innsbruck, Austria)
Complex Geneal
ogies in the Sumerian King List
The Sumerian King List provides us with genealogical inf
ormation concerning the “true” kings of
��38 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;GAO, Jingyi (University of Tartu, Estonia)
Sinitic and Uralic Shared Etymologies with Rhyme Correspondences: On Finnish
The present study identifies 11 etymologies shared by the Sinitic and Uralic languages. All of these 11
etymologies belong to four rhyme correspondences: (1) Finnish

rhyme; (2) Finnish
rhyme; (3) Finnish

rhyme; (4)
rhyme. The regular soun
correspondences validate the Sino
Uralic etymologies. The Sino
Uralic etymologies support the Sino
Uralic affinity.
GARALYTĖ, Kristina (Vytautas Magnus University,
Kaunas, Lithuania)
: From Dis
crimination to Student Activism
Recent Dalit (earlier known as untouchables) student activists‘ suicide in the University of Hyderabad
and the wave of student protests in the aftermath of the tragic event show that Indian universities and
the Indian state continue to be
the locus of ins
titutionalized caste discrimination and politization of the
Dalit identity. The unfortunate incident also sheds light on an interesting link between the Dalit
students’ social experience and student activism, the key question that this paper seeks to addre
Based on an ethnographic research in New Delhi and Hyderabad universities, I explore the Dalit
tudents‘ life stories and their
narratives. The terms are taken as emic categories
that represent the Dalit students‘ experiences of
caste discrimination and student activism. The Dalit
students’ social experiences and their politics are mutually intertwined. Dalit politics are fed not only
by social experiences but also the other way around: The Dalit students’ politics affect the way
students perceive and experience the social world. In other words, there is an intimate link between the
ways social reality is experienced and the Dalit political movement discourse that describes that reality.
I argue that the i
deological trope of the Da
has become the
prevalent narrative strategy shaping discourse and practice of the broader pan
Indian Dalit students’
movement. The
paper will demonstrate how the
narratives are reproduced and
contested by differently situated Dalit students, not only constructing unified Dalit experience but also
revealing inherent fragmentations and tensions within the “imagined” Dalit students’ community.
n (Tallinn University, Estonia)
Poetic Fe
atures of ʾUsāma ibn L
ādin’s Speech of March 28, 2002
The speeches of ʾUsāma ibn Lādin are famous for being in very good Arabic. I would say that they
were not only composed in good Modern Standard Arabic but have features of Classical Arabic and
��39 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;The original statement appeared in the London based magazine
Quds al
. Although many
translations of ibn Lādin speeches circulate on the Internet, the quotations included in the analysis,
together with the Koranic citations, have been newly translated by the author of the paper for the sake
of presenting the
��40 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;JASKŪNAS, Valdas
(Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Stateless Orientalism: Bodies and Frameworks of Knowledge
out India in Soviet Lithuania
Asian studies as a constituent of Area Studies has constantly been framed by the discourse of a nation
state both as an object of studies and the subject generating demand for such knowledge. In particular
it holds true to the
��41 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;the full respect, protection, and fulfilment of human rights of those states. The violations of human
rights have become one of the society’s crises domestically, regionally, and i
nternationally around the
world until the present day.
Human rights violation is historically one of the most significant problems facing the ASEAN
region. A number of human right violations have manifested in this region since before the emergence
N. The root causes of human rights crisis in ASEAN region result from many causes and
factors, in particular religious and racial diversity. In order to be a rule
based community of the
ASEAN, all Member States have to comply with the ASEAN Charter to prom
ote and protect human
rights and fundamental freedom. The regional human rights body of the ASEAN will be added up for
promoting and protecting of human rights and fundamental rights in the ASEAN region.
To achieve this
the root causes as well as the fact
ors of the prevalence of human rights violations
in the ASEAN countries shall be reviewed and identified. The results of this study will make ASEAN
concerned and aware of human rights, which is a key approach for being a rule
based community in
promoting a
nd protecting human rights and fundamental freedom in ASEAN in the near future.
JOHANDI, Andreas & SAZONOV, Vladimir
(University of Tartu, Estonia)
Who was the Perpetrator in Mesopot
amian Divine Abandonment Texts?
The divine abandonment motif is an ancient
and widespread concept that appears in various genres of
Mesopotamian written sources from the second half of the III millennium to I millennium BCE. The
central idea behind this theological motif is the belief that evil deeds committed in the city cause
deity, under whose safekeeping the city lies, to abandon his/her dwelling and leave. The absence of the
deity from the city ushers in a period when
due to the lack of divine care
chaos rules and various
forms of atrocities take hold of the geograph
ical area and its people. Subsequently the deity’s anger
relents, he/she selects a new ruler for the city and returns to his/her temple, after which peace, order,
and prosperity are restored to the city/land. In our poster presentation we deal with the ini
tial sub
motif of this more general “umbrella” motif of divine abandonment
the evil deeds committed in the
city. On the basis of cuneiform sources in various genres, we examine who and on what grounds have
��42 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;event, a coming to terms with some horrible practice or occurrence. But will listening to the voice of a
ghost alleviate the grief? Is the voice of death useful for a living perso
JÜRIS, Frank (National Chengchi U
niversity, Taipei, Taiwan)
Filial Piety in
The aim o
f this paper is to research the
of the concept of filial piety
in Warring
States and early Han
period by
using critical analyses of the Confucian canonical texts
. This
tries to provide answers to the
following questions:
1. Is it possible to trace a linear pattern of development from
2. In which of the two texts
is the concept
of filial piety
more mature in
comparison with each other and f
ormer classics?
Is it possible to
affiliate the
with different schools of Confuci
anism based on
their understanding and usages of the concept of filial
Although this paper will be
based on my
ter’s thesis “The Emergence and
opment of the
Concept of Filial
Piety in P
Imperial China”, it tries to
ch the aforementioned questions
new perspective by arguing that the concepts of filial piety in
ing from the same
era but are
different due
to their origin and affiliation
with different Confucian schools.
a (Tallin
n University, Estonia)
Identity Construction in Dāʿiš’s Propaganda Techniques: On the Example of Speeches by Caliph ʾAbū
Bakr al
Baġdādī and the Official Spokesman ʾAbū Mu
ammad al
When the Islamic radical organisation known as the Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant proclaimed
itself to be a caliphate in 2014, it signified a paradigm shift. The ideology that is spread with the help
of its own media and propaganda department is, apart from attracting potential militants, also serving
to shape the o
rganisation’s self
image and its identity.
As modern thinkers in social theory have stressed the fundamental importance of the ‘Other’ in the
process of identity construction, it is crucial to acknowledge
how Islamic State constructs the ‘Other’
Therefore, the main aim of the research is to clarify by which means and categories does Dāʿiš
construct the ‘Other’. Within the framework of social construction and Otherness, the analysis also
seeks to answer the question:
who is positioned as the
The speeches which are going to be
analysed in the current study are aimed at Dāʿiš’s militants and at the Islamic Ummah; one can
therefore assume that the constructed ‘Other’ is a non
believer or an enemy. As the question is
important in a larger scale
, the research seeks to find a more explicit answer.
KELLNER, Angelika (Un
iversity of Innsbruck, Austria)
The Sumerian Lamentation ‘The Screaming Cow’ (im.ma.al gu3.de2.de2). The Background, Textual
Reconstruction and Transmission
The types of Sumerian
texts called Balaĝ(s) are named after the accompanying
musical instruments
used for the recital of these lamentations. They have been
transmitted in cuneiform literature from the
beginning of the Old Babylonian
Period in the 19th century B.C. onwards until
the end of the
cuneiform script in the
first century B.C. This presentation aims to put the Balaĝ ‘The Crying Cow’
into the
general religious and literary context, thus painting a more nuanced picture of this
genre in the Mesopotamian cuneiform l
iterature. In the next step the basic
methodology for the textual
reconstruction will be shown, illustrating the
reconstruction of the composite text by using various
��43 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Before the Old
bylonian Period (c. 1800
1600 BCE
), Sumerian had
already ceased to exist as a
spoken language, but these lamentations were
down in Sumerian nevertheless. Many tablets
provide the Sumerian text with an
additional translation into Akkadian, which was the spoken
language at the time. The
habit of non
verbatim translations and the possibility of multiple
��44 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;claim that they do not know Arabic properly. In fact, it is not always clear to what culture and literary
tradition do these works belong and what is the origin of values, stereotypes, prejudices, and mental
tructs that they contain. Some aut
hors exotic
ize the Western culture, while others apparently write
for the Western audience, integrating orientalist imagery and ideas to strike a common chord with the
readers; this happens even with their Arabic works, wh
ich they, maybe unconsciously, intend for
translation. This study will explore how and for whom the Western and Arab worlds are depicted in
Arab Mahjar literature, how much these writers are affected by Orientalism and Occidentalism, and
what information a
bout Arabs would a Western reader find in these works.
a (Tallinn University, Estonia)
Wandering Through the Landscape: The Way of Perceiving Space and P
lace in Guo Xi’s
According to one of most distinguished artists and theorists
of the 11th
century China, Guo Xi,
painted landscapes represent worlds that are accessible to the viewer, but the very idea of entering the
painting is, at the same time, completely devoid of mystification. The painter believes that on a mental
level a pe
rson is able to become part of the painted landscape exactly as the person belongs to the
actual world. On the condition, of course, that the landscape has been painted perfectly. However,
even amongst masterpieces he highlights landscapes which seem more
“those in which you
may live, and those through which you may wander” (
ke ju ke you
). One prerequisite for
attaining perfection is the painter’s self
discipline and the right attitude; the second requirement is
adherence to the technical rules
of observation and representation, which are described with great
attention by Guo in his treatise Lofty Appeal of Forests and Streams (
Linquan gaozhi
This paper examines the method of landscape observation, as described by Guo Xi, in the attempt
determine the potential role of the Neo
Confucian worldview, which started to spread in the
painter’s lifetime, in shaping his views.
KOROBOV, Vladimir
(Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Some Reflections on Taxonomies i
of Asanga
The exposition of
presented in Mah
na canon by a condensed treatise
written by Asanga, consist of various taxonomies. The Western academic
tradition mainly understands this collection of taxonomies as a terminological voca
bulary or lexicon of
terms, topics, and definitions outlining a range of problems presented i
At the same time the Buddhist exegetical tradition holds all the taxonomies, included in
in tote, the demonstration (
ston pa
) of “a p
erception of not
self” (
“perception of suffering” (
) and “perception of impermanence” (
According to
Venerable Par
“is the final, judgmen
tal, absolute and non
(Dhammajoti, 10). Again, according to Va
subandhu: “
is so called because it sustains its
own characteristic. This dharma f
toward the
in the highest sense, i.e.,
toward the character
istics of dharma
s, thus it is
” (Dhammajoti, 11).
If these
functions (to sustain its own
characteristic, to demonstrate
, to be the final
��45 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;KOUTCHOUKALI, Ima
r (Tallinn University, Estonia)
What the Grammatical Features in the 1001 Nights
Us about the History of Arabic
my Master’s thesis I will analyz
e the register of Arabic known as „Middle Arabic“ as it occurs in
the classic Arabian epos „One Thousand and One Nights“. The history of the Arabic language is
marked by an interaction
of two different language registers: on one hand the classical language, used
mostly in writing, and on the other the spoken varieties.
Although the notion that the spoken variants of Arabic are incorrectly acquired variations of
classical Arabic has been
rejected by most serious linguists, the interaction between the two remains a
subject which can continue to provide us with information on the history of Arabic
in general. By
critically analyz
ing various grammatical elements
such as clitics, pronouns,
��46 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Among the examples to be discussed will be the Taiwanese modern
dance group’s
Gate”) adaptations of the “Nine So
ngs”, a famous chapt
er of the “Songs of the South “
(4th cent.
), some works of the Shanghai artist Yang Yongliang (born 1982) referring to the traditional Qu
Yuan (340
278 BC
) iconography, contemporary poetry in
style and an edition of
Taiwanese seal art using modelled on selected Tang verse.
I will develop the term “alternative view” out of a discourse of cultural politics in and between the
two Chinas during the lecture.
KUCIAK, Jakub (University
of Jagiellonia, Kraków, Poland)
Myth and Genealogy in Service of Politics on Ex
ample of Euripides’ Tragedy Ion
The author analyzes the Euripidean tragedy Ion. In this article an attempt is made to explain some
important elements, such as the date when the play could have been staged and
the political situation
in Athens in that time. The essential questions were the mythical and genealogical innovations in this
tragedy. The author looks for sources of these innovations and their influence on the propaganda
meaning of Ion. Regarding the pr
oblem of the date when the tragedy was staged, there are some
��47 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;KÕIV, Mait (University of Tartu,
The Genealogies of Ancient Argos: B
��48 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Women’s participation in military operations is a relatively new phenomeno
n. Traditionally, in
Middle East, women’s role in military actions has been seen as raising sons who can fight. With the
raise of non
governmental groups who are implementing non
conventional strategies to succeed in
their objectives, women’s participation
in military operations has become a topical matter. Many of
such groups have begun to recruit women and involve them in various tasks, including martyrdom
operations. There are several aims for recruiting female combatants, including facilitating easier
��49 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;dramatically important
changes in the region. In the frames of this project, traces of hidden and direct
methods of spreading Iranian Shia ideology in the area of “Shii
te crescent” will be examined.
icular attention in propoganda is given to language and rhetorics as method
s of positive self
presentation. For
��50 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;categories of Budd
hist training and education towards attaining
. The important technical term
meaning the mental action or effort necessary to be applied in the learning and training process is,
‘observing, reflecting upon’.
n National Academy of Sciences)
The Role of Interpretation of Fuzuli’s Texts in the Formation and Dev
elopment of his Literary School
In each period since the founding of the literary school of Fuzuli, his literary school subjected to
features of approach and attitude. As a result the literary school of Fuzuli has different specific
features during each period of its development. In order to demonstrate the relationship of each
century to the work of the poet, the followers went with th
e flow of time. The single stream of each era
has created various stages of Fuzuli`s literary school. Therefore, there is a need to clarify the position
of readers of Fuzuli and in this way the position of the era. In this paper we study the role of the
terpretation of Fuzuli’s texts in the formation and development of the poet`s literary school.
Among the reasons for the longevity of most of Fuzuli’s literature is the resonance created by him,
a trace left in the mind of readers and in literary history.
The study of these interactions partially
��51 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;MASTRANGELO, Carmela (Sapi
enza Unive
rsità di Roma, Italy)
Sanskrit and Pāli Grammatical Traditions: Influence and Inte
raction Between South
India and Ceylon
This paper aims to cast light upon the tradition in Sanskrit grammar (
) spread locally in
Southern India between the 9th and
the 12th c. AD. More specifically, it deals with a prakriyā work
i.e. work which provides examples of word formation in order to comment on Pā
inian sūtr
. It also focuses on the basic grammar manuals referring to the two schools of
founded by Kāccayana and Mog
allāna respectively
that were
used in nea
rby Ceylon
around the 12
c. CE
. Through the comparison of these Sanskrit and Pāli texts widely circulating at
that time in the Southern area, the main aim of this pre
sentation is to identify some Buddhist features
in Sanskrit grammatical works as well as to find a possible Buddhist influence on the purely
Brahmanical vyākara
MAZO, Olga (Russian State Univers
ity for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia)
restlers in Folklore Narratives
Mongolian wrestling (böh barildah), together with riding and archery, is one of the most popular and
important sports in Mongolia. During our expeditions to Mongolia and Inner Mongolia (China) in
2015, we collected a
lot of narratives about legendary and real wrestlers. According to the data
in many regions wrestles are supposed to have a special type of chest lacking interribs intervals, and
after their death wolves can foster their cubs there. In many Mongolian regio
ns people believe that if
someone steals the wrestler’s bones and brings them to his homeland, good wrestlers would born there
and not in the place where the wrestler lived. So bones can be considered to be the container of the
wrestler’s inner power (hijm
or). The wrestler’s cloth is also a container of hijmor. The wrestlers don’t
put their clothes on the ground before the competition as the cloth can be stolen in order to obtain the
wrestler’s power, or a famous wrestler can give his cloth to a younger wre
stler to help him win. The
MICHALSKI, Marcin (Adam Mickiewicz University in Po
znań, Poland)
Recapturing the Self: Arabs and Islam in Contemporary Arabic Tran
slations of European
This paper analyzes how terms and expressions relating to the Arab world and Islam in selected works
of European literature are transformed in their Arabic translations published in the last half century. In
translation into Arabic, the language
of a predominantly Islamic culture, elements such as the terms
naming Arabs as a people or Muslims as a religious community, the name of Muhammad as the
Prophet of Islam, etcetera, cease to be foreign and exotic and become local and familiar. However,
��52 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;view may be perceived in an ent
irely different manner inside the Arabo
Islamic culture, e.g. as
correction of obvious factual errors.
MÖLDER, Holger (Tallinn University of Technology
, Estonia)
The Narrative of Islamic State and the Lemmas of Midd
le Eastern Security Environment
The emerg
ence of the Islamic State (IS) in the Middle Eastern regional security environment had a
significant impact on the global international system. The creation narrative of the Islamic State is
based on the legacy of the (Islamic) Caliphate established in the
7th century. The Islamic State
considers itself as the true successor of the Caliphate that was abandoned in 1925 when Hussein bin
Ali, the Mecca Sharif, renounced his title after the Nejd invasion to Hejas and the latter was
incorporated into the domain
of Saudi dynasty of Nejd, which soon developed into Saudi Arabia. The
Sunni tradition has been non
hierarchical as it does not draw clear lineages to the legacy of Prophet
��53 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;NUKKE, Mare
t (Tallinn
University, Estonia)
The Structure of Japanese
Aesthetics: An Attempt of Definition Through
the Concepts of
In the 21
century the
Japanese postmodern concept of
aesthetics has been the focus of the
research of cultural anthropologists, sociologists, linguists and philosophers.
or “cute” is a
phenomenon that could be manifested in different forms
as toys and mascots, or design and fashion,
but also behavio
ur and rel
ationship could be described as
. While several authors h
��54 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;Erd
al, M. (1991)
Old Turkic word formation. A functional approach to the lexicon
. Wiesbaden, Otto
Evans, N.
Wilkins, D. (2000) The semantic extensions of perception
verbs in Australian languages.
Vol. 76, No. 3, 546
With the distribution and viewing of South Korean video productions spreading among the North Korean
residents, the influences of the “Korean Wave” are star
ting to show in the changes to their lives and social
aspects. There has been a need to conduct a comprehensive review regarding what kind of power the
“Korean Wave” phenomenon is exercising beyond the division in the “divided Korean Peninsula” and
continued or been reproduced in the situations of the two divided Koreas, a cultural approach is significant
in that it allows for the dismantling and understa
nding of the compositions of multi
layered awareness and
action styles. This study set out to investigate what kind of “subculture” was created in the North Korean
society as a result of its residents watching South Korean video productions, as well as wha
t kind of
opportunities and limitations it would present for the internal North Korean regime and the common social
and cultural community between North and South Korea. Subculture is a local and differentiated structure
that forms a subgroup in the cultur
al network. Thus it was discussed whether subculture would establish
itself as culture to embrace North Korea through a network of distributing, viewing and sharing comments
on South Korean video productions.
��55 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;of the Iranian regime were engaged in an attempt to frame the process inside the “ideological red
lines”. These are the deep seated identities rooted in the Iranian mindset, from which any deviation is
unattainable. Those exchan
ges reveal the multiple identities contesting in Iranian foreign policy
making. These are both the devices for validating and confining the foreign policy steps of the Islamic
Republic of Iran.
The study is based on constructivist assumptions and is founde
d on a methodological framework
introduced by A. P. Tsygankov. The work does not aim to explain the formation of identity. However,
the aim is to analyze the prevalent identities and their causes in Iranian foreign policy making today.
Therefore, the resul
ts of the study are certainly not deterministic arguments. Rather, the understanding
of different identities helps to make assertions of what is currently possible in the context of Iran’s
foreign policy.
PETROV, Nikita (Russian State Univers
ity for the Hu
manities, Moscow)
Mythology of Epic Bards: Epic’s Performance Conte
xt in Central and Northern Asia
The presentation poses a question of correlation between Asian and Mongolian epic narration and
mythological beliefs, which serve as background and source of
materials for the tales of gift
acquisition and interdictions of epos performance, and, thus, for the first time a detailed description of
contextual “epic mythology” appears. Even though the folklorists primarily managed to get access to
the epic tales,
they also got their hands on material which can be qualified as secondary, additional,
and recorded by pure chance. Beliefs of epos performance and mythological tales are scattered across
collections of field materials, footnotes in editions of texts of ar
chaic and classical epos, prefaces and
commentaries, hard
reach journal publications, and few and far between interviews with narrators.
The given text comprises a background for the performance of epic works and is, in fact, a quaint
blend of epic myth
ology and the live, narrative one. One can trace the connection of bogatyr tales and
telling to during or before the hunt for the Abakan tatars, Siberian peoples, who speak Ural
languages, Tungus (nanais and evenks), numerous mongol
speaking peoples,
and Turkic peoples.
The religious and magic function of the texts, which are sacral for the culture, reveals itself in
various traditions: from the Russian bylina (in reproducible form) and up to the Mongolian Epic of
Beliefs and interdictions relat
ed to the performance of epic works actualize the following ideas and
motifs: a bad performance of narrations
the advent of host
spirit of the narration
punishment of a
death of the narrator.
The appearance of bogatyr from the narration or t
he host
spirit makes it possible to overcome the
distance between the past of the narration and the real present in the situation of performance. This
bears similarity to “Go to hell!”, by which a devil himself comes and takes a child sent. The person of
he singer is also important, as are the variations of the performance gift acquisition. D.
K. Zelenin, B.
N. Putilov, and V.
M. Zhirmunskiy wrote about it.
Mythological narratives on the acquisition of the narrator’s gift and the punishment for the
r use of it (possibly a text about the punishment for a mistake in the performance), are,
apparently, genetically related to the legends of the acquisition of a shaman gift. The social institution
of shamanism, once wide
spread in the Turkic
Mongolian worl
d, in turn, mediates these latter legends.
The distribution areal of the bogatyr tale, on the other hand, might define the presence of such a
“contextual epic mythology” phenomenon. Thirdly, the presence of similar mythological tales might
relate to the de
veloped institution of professional narrators, in which believes the majority of members
of the community.
��56 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;POŁCZYŃSKI, Mich
ał (Georgetown University, USA)
Turks and Tatars and Cossacks, Oh My!: Establishing a New Vocabulary for Power and Patronage in
an Frontier in the 16
This paper examines the vocabulary through which royal and sultanic authority was expressed,
received, and negotiated in the context of the Ottoman/Polish
Lithuanian frontier in the sixteenth
A failure to establish a mutually recognized border in 1542 and a sustained need for peaceful
relations resulted in nearly a century of overlapping claims to territorial ownership. Consequently, the
Lithuanian and Ottoman rule in the region was rea
lized during this period by constantly
renegotiating the personal authority of both sovereigns over the populations of their mutual, contested
frontier. These negotiations took place in official documents that were issued by Ottoman and Polish
Lithuanian p
ower brokers in a number of languages: Ottoman Turkish, Turkic Crimean vernacular,
Italian, Polish, Latin, and Ruthenian. A mutually intelligible vocabulary was expressed simultaneously
through these multiple languages and was quickly established in order
to facilitate rivalling claims to
personal authority in the frontier zone. By unpacking the multiple meanings of terms used to describe
various frontier populations and their relationships with king and sultan, it is possible to re
seemingly incong
ruent episodes of codominium and parallel dominium in what was one of the longest
Ottoman frontiers in Christian Europe.
POLGÁR, Szabolcs
(University of Szeged, Hungary)
Nomads, Traders, Steppe Empires in Medieval Eurasia (with Speci
al Regard to Khazaria a
nd Volga
The paper focuses on the relations of the sedentary and nomadic empires of Eurasia from the point of
view of commerce and trade. The Silk Road ran via the Eurasian steppe zone, and the nomads were
interested in international trade. The
nomad elites, founding ’empires’ in the steppes, were interested
in a permanent trade with their sedentary neighbours, as opposed to the great empires of China or
Persia. The history of China’s relations with nomadic empires can be a good indication of the
contrasted interests. There were similar relations in the western periphery of the steppe; the Byzantine
Empire endeavoured to have trade contacts with the nomads only in a small degree. The nomadic
empires often obtained the sedentary empires by force
to make trade contacts. There were special
cases. The Khazars and Volga Bulghars organized a successful commercial system with their
sedentary neighbours in Eastern Europe. The original model was Khazaria, and all its neighbours took
part in it. The succes
s of the system was based on some special factors: a mutual interest in the
international trade of three participants
the nomads, the Islam, and the Rus’. After the decline of
Khazaria the Volga Bulghars continued the trade in a restricted territory.
POŠKAITĖ, Loreta (
Vilnius University, Lithuania)
A Search for the Differences
��57 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;PUTNINA
, Margarita (Riga Drikung Ngaden Chol
ing Buddhist community, Latvia)
The Phenomenon of Love and Compassion in the C
ontext of Safe Global Community
��58 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;proper act, the conversion from Islam to another religion (
) is seen by some governmen
ts as
worthy of a death penalty even today. This paper will discuss the cases of conversion using the
example of one of the most long
lived Islamic states in history, the Ottoman Empire. After a brief
overview of what the situation with conversion was in t
he period of the expansion of the imperial
borders, the paper will focus on the developments
of the second part of the 19
century, when both
became officially
permitted by the Ottoman government.
i (Tallinn University, Es
Approaches to Min
dfulness in Tibetan Tradition
In my paper I approach mindfulness through J
igme Lingpa’s short text called
Dran (sm
ti) dang shes
bzhin (samprajanya) las ’phros pa’i gtam don rab ’byed pa’i thur ma
“Investigating the Meaning of
Mindfulness („recollection“) and Awareness („continuous state of knowin
g“)“. This text is found in
Collected Works of Jigme Lingpa
and belongs under
the category of short advices
gtam tshogs
that are eleven folios long. So far it has not received the
attention that it deserves, therefore I will try to
give a short overview of Jigme L
ingpa’s view on the relation of
dran pa,
which mostly has the
meaning of recollection here, and
shes bzhin
, which is the result of recollection
full awareness,
ding of how things are. According to Jigme Lingpa, even though these two terms have a
relation of cause (
dran pa
) and result (
shes bzhin
), the exact meaning implied in these concepts
depends on the level of practice one is engaged in.
ity of Tartu, Estonia)
s of Jesus in the New Testament
The New Testament contains two genealogies of Jesus, one in the Gospel of Matthew and another in
the Gospel of Luke. They differ from each other in several respects
a fact that has been
theologians for a long time. This paper explores some of the similarities and differences in these lists
��59 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;ROON, Maarj
a (Tallinn University, Estonia)
The Abortive Liberalizations of Iran. President Khatami’s Reform Movem
ent and the 2009 Green
The name “Islamic Republic of Iran” contains two somewhat contradictory terms. “Islamic” refers to
the rule of God and “Republic” to the rule of people. Twice in the recent history of Iran the debate
over the balance of power between God and the p
eople has been so intense that there were large
protests and strikes. The first (often called the “Reform Movement”) occurred after Muhhamad
Khatami became president in 1997, the second (the “Green Movement”) after the 2009 presidential
Usually t
he explanations for the occurrence and failure of these movements stress Iran’s
uniqueness or aspects of the leaders’ personalities. However, Guillermo O’Donnell’s and Philippe C.
Schmitter’s democratic transition theory and the concept of “abortative libe
ralizations” can also help
to understand the dynamics of these events, the reasons why the leaders decided to allow a greater
freedom of press, and why this caused an popular upsurge with people demanding more rights.
At the same time, the two cases, as ex
amples of non
transitions, help to develop the transition
theory further by demonstrating which conditions allow the conservatives to stop the events triggered
by the liberalization and hinder the co
operation of the moderates in the government and in the
ROUTAMAA, Judith & NAZARI, Abdollah (SIL International
& Turkish American Association)
Language and Religion among the Turkmen of Iran: Observations on
the Speech of Three
The interplay between the language and religion of the Turkm
en of Iran has been little documented to
date. One recently conducted study (Nazari and Routamaa 2015) notes that religion plays a
foundational role in the culture and worldview of the Iranian Turkmen, and that as a result religious
terms and themes overfl
ow spontaneously into the language, regardless of linguistic genre or domain.
This paper seeks to further investigate the relationship between language and religion, focussing in
particular on the speech of three generations (elderly, middle
aged and young
), with the aim of
highlighting trends and analysing reasons for possible similarities or differences in the nature and
i dar tarix
e siasi ejtema
The socio
political history of the Turkmen
]. Tehran: Nashr
e Elm
Johanson, L. & Christine, B. (eds) (2006):
Iranian contact areas:
Historical and Linguistic
. Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz
Joshua Project (2015): Available online at:
Lewis, M. Paul (ed) (2009):
Ethnologue: Languages of the world
. Dallas: SIL International. Online
��60 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;RÄTHEL, Maximilian (Georg
University Göttingen, Germany)
Georg Friedrich Gr
otefend and the Decipherment of Cuneiform
For contemporary scholars of Ancient Near Eastern Studies, the learning of cuneiform languages and
signs is an
integral part of their studies and will accompany them throughout their academic life. But
only a few people know that without the work of the German philologist Georg Friedrich Grotefend at
the beginning of the 19
century, the decipherment of the cuneif
orm signs would not be possible today.
In fact, Grotefend never planned the decryption of the cuneiform signs to be a ground
effort; rather, the reason for his efforts was just a bet he had with a friend about whether it would be
possible to decip
her a completely unknown system of syllabic signs on its own terms. Therefore,
Grotefend took the opportunity and, after some weeks, was able to read the names of several kings
along with their titles as they were presented in the Old
Persian inscriptions
found at Persepolis.
Actually, Grotefend did not realize the importance of his discovery and thus never published it in a
broader sense. In fact, he went on to work as a school teacher and lecturer at the university. Just a
small group of people in Götting
en were aware of his achievement while elsewhere it slowly sunk into
oblivion. It was not until some decades after his death at the end of the 19
century that copies of his
manuscript were re
discovered and finally published for a broader mass of scholar
s and researchers,
ultimately making Grotefend the father of cuneiform
By describing and analysing the ways in which Grotefend tried and was able to decipher the Old
Persian cuneiform signs, the aim of this paper is to show that these philolo
destroy, as they are curren
tly doing in Syria an
d Iraq.
The Islamists have shown no mercy towards the
tage of the Mesopotamian civiliz
ation, destroying sculptures and pillaging ancient cities that are
thousands of years old. Many Syrian and Iraqi museums and archaeological sites
were looted by
various people, not only by IS troops. Looters can be local and foreign alike, and among them are not
��61 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;only Syrians or Iraqis but also many looters from other countries too. These looters have stolen or
broken many artefacts and damaged arch
aeological sites.
The cultural heritage damaged by IS includes remains from ancient Mesopotamian high cultures
such as the Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations, and also the great cultural legacies from the Persian,
Hellenistic, Parthian, Roman, Byzantine
and Islamic periods. Another problem is the illegal trade and
exportation of artefacts, illicit activity that is extremely high in Syria and Iraq.
Azm, S. Al
Kuntar, B. I. D. 2015. ISIS’ Antiquities Sideline. The New York Times. 2.09.2015,
sideline.html?_r=3, last visited
Catastrophe! The Looting and Destruction of Iraq’s Past, 2008. Emberling, F., Hanson, K. (eds.). The
Oriental Museum of the University of Chicago, Oriental
Institute Museum Publications No. 8.
Casana. J. 2015. Satellite Imagery
Based Analysis of Archaeological Looting in Syria. Near Eastern
Archaeology, Vol. 78, No. 3, Special Issue: The Cultural Heritage Crisis in the Middle East
(September 2015), pp. 142
E. Cunliffe, W. Pedersen, M. Fiol, T.Jellison, C. Saslow, E. Bjørgo, G. Boccardi 2014. Satellite
Damage Assessment to Cultural Heritage Sites in Syria. UNOSAT, 2014,
http://unosat.web.cern.ch/unosat/unitar/downloads/chs/FINAL_Syria_WHS.pdf, last
(University of Tartu, Estonia)
The Development of the Yellow Peril Discourse in the Eston
ian Media from 1890s up to 1905
The paper centres on the development of the discourse of the Yellow Peril concept in the Estonian
(Estonian language newspapers) from 1890s up to the Russo
Japanese war (1904
05). In the
end of the 19
century, the concept of the hazard rising from the Orient in the shape of yellow race
getting upper hand in the world was quite distant for the Estonia
ns, although there were some editorial
articles that covered the issue in newspapers and it was a popular topic of public debate in Europe. The
war between Czarist Russia and the Japanese empire (1904
05) engulfed also Estonia into the
discussion of Yellow
Peril and Asian threat, as the military conflict involved some 8,000 Estonian
men conscripted to the Russo
Japanese war. Suddenly a distant problem became very close and
brought along different articles covering the matter. By the research method of text
analysis, the
��62 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;grounded in institutionalized truths but in individual creativity, expressed in a variety of local and
social contexts and shaped by the power of tradition, and generate a very special viewpoint
on gods,
��63 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;etiquette). Therefore, given this shortage of empirical data, it is reasonable to doubt that an established
English moral vocabulary (and the direct translations thereof) that prevails in the acade
mic literature
��64 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;so on) are connected with epic and heroic personages (epic heroes, strongmen and wrest
lers of the
��65 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;SOOSAAR, Kristiin
a (Tallinn University, Estonia)
Changes of Temporary Marriages in M
odern Iran Based on 7th Century Laws
Shi’a and Sunni Islam hold the difference between the legislatio
n of
(lust) marriage since the 7
century. According to Koranic citations and interpretations, it is permitted, and Shi’a Muslims
continue practicing it even nowadays, even though it
was prohibited in the 8
century. However,
during the time of prophet Mu
ammad, laws were different, and according to
Muslim, al
Sunan ʾAbī Dawūd collections of
, which show that people were encouraged to do so at
the time of need a
nd at the time of war.
Concerning modern Iran, my purpose is to analyze Ajatollah Khomeini’s laws on
and to bring out the differences between the prophet’s laws and modern Shi’a laws after the revolution
in Iran 1979.
ne (Univers
y of Latvia, Riga
The Warring Tribes: Representations of Conflict in the
Islamic Odes of
As new forms of war continue to plague the world, it is both interesting and valuable to see how
conflict was resolved between the Arab tribes before
the rise of Islam in the context of a nomadic
is one of the more influential secular literary works of the early Arab literature. The
anthology gathers the best poems of seven highly praised pre
Islamic authors that represent the ancie
Arab wisdom, values, and lifestyle, and offer insight into the foundations that have shaped the cultural
environment and identity of
civilization built upon the desert
dweller communities.
Traditionally the poet was a lead figure in a tribe, voicing
the opinions of his people as well as
recording the historical events of his time. These records were thus transmitted orally to the younger
generations until they were written down. From today’s perspective this ancient literature serves as a
report of the pre
Islamic traditions.
The paper will examine intertribal rivalry, war and conflicts as they are dep
icted in the seven long
odes of
SUN, Yuwen (Peking University, China)
Critical Comments on the Reconstruc
tion of Archaic Chinese
��66 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;towers in New York
a symb
ol of American financial and economic power. Grief was felt in much
lesser degree, if any: Finally the victims were aliens, not Muslims, nor their relatives or compatriots.
Who is leading the Muslim communities, who are the spiritual leaders, who formulate
s the
religious slogans at this moment? The answer to these burning questions would be helpful when trying
to solve the problems of large scale immigration from the countries in the Middle East.
n (Tallinn University, Estonia)
as an Identity Among the Youth B
ased on Japanese Street Fashion
has become one of the keywords descr
ibing Japanese popular culture.
��67 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;we can say that the Lotus
Sūtra is quite clearly divided into several thematic parts that most probably
also have different origins. The first part (Chapters 1 to 9) is dedicated to one of the two main themes
of the sūtra, the explanation of the theory of ’one vehicle’, and is most
ly addressed to the
The second part of the sūtra (Chapters 10 to 20) forms a second thematic core, focused around Chapter
15 on Buddha’s life and its duration. The characters in this part are mostly bodhisattvas and the
message of the text is als
o addressed to them. The first two parts share the idea of the doctrine of skill
in means. The third part of the sūtra (Chapters 21 to 27) is not a thematic whole but consists of the
stories of different bodhisattvas that are directly related to the prior
themes of the sūtra.
Thus, we can say that the sutra has three larger units. The third unit is quite diverse and has no
centre; the second one has a clear central chapter that is Chapter 15; and for the first unit the
generating core is probably Chapter 1,
which is obviously also most crucial for the whole sūtra. This
paper will describe the structural elements of the first chapter of the Lotus Sūtra and attempt to find its
links with other parts of the sūtra.
TŠERNJUK, Mart (Unive
rsity of Tartu, Estonia)
The Concepts of
the First Chapter of
(’course’, ’way’) and
(’inner power’, ’integrity’) are the two main concepts in classical
Chinese philosophy. Surprisingly, there is no explicit use of the Chinese character
in the
of the daoist classic of
(the chapter that is widely considered to be the oldest part of
the book). There are definitely other key concepts
and ideas closely connected to
, but the
particular cha
racter is absent.
found only twice, which means that it also does not get the
attention it has in the latter part of the text.
This paper focuses on how
are represented in the opening chapter, and more generally,
asks questions like what could be the principal id
ea behind this chapter and what is its relati
on with
other inner chapters of
ULANOWSKI, Krzysztof
(University of Gdansk, Poland)
Communication with Gods: The Case of Divinati
on in Mesopotamian Civilization
Divination was a salient characteristic
of Mesopotamian civilization. It was based on the idea that to
some extent the future is pre
determined, but the gods, especially Shamash and Adad (“Shamash, lord
of the judgment, Adad, lord of the inspection”), have made available to man certain indicati
ons of the
future (omens and portents) in the world around him, which can be interpreted (divined) by experts
with specialist knowledge. The future, as crystallized in the present, was not considered by the
Babylonians as created solely by gods but rather
as the result of a dialogue between man and god. The
first and basic assumption of the Mesopotamian civilization is that the gods communicate their
intentions through signs, and that the universe works according to certain principles, the decoding of
requires only knowledge and expertise. The Mesopotamians believed that the gods wrote into
the universe, and that is why the world could be read by those who were wise enough (some kind of
priests and scholars). The organic body was seen as a text. The sp
ecially prepared priests could explain
the signs sent down by
the gods (in Akkadian the word
means a multilayered reading or
decipherment of texts).
Divination was divided for m
any groups and specializations.
was a reading of sacrificial
nimal’s entrails because the liver was considered to be a choice recipient of supernatural messages.
The very popular way of divination, especially in the NA period, was astrology and meteoromancy,
the days of calendar (hemerologies and menologies, to the
extent that the coincidental or accidental
nature of a specific event on a specific moment of the calendar could be ominous, as it would be a
singular occurrence in itself). Constant respect and recognition were given to the birth of creatures and
their fo
rm when leaving the womb (tocomancy and teratomancy); the disposition of the human body
and the behaviour of men (physiognomy); the contents of dreams (oneiromancy); accidents and their
occurrences and especially unexpected noises that strike the ear (cled
onomancy); the examination of
��68 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;the configurations presented by drops of oil (lecanomancy) or of pinches of flour (aleuromancy).
There were also the less popular practices as ornithomancy and necromancy.
The question is how popular and how often used as a wa
y of communication was the divination
and how seriously was it handled by the ancients?
(Vilnius University, Lithuania)
Of Roots and Routes: Migration, Home and Be
longing in Bollywood’s Films on
Hindi popular cinema (loosely
referred to as Bollywood) is one of the major features of contemporary
Indian public culture, consumed and appreciated by millions of people in India and abroad. Long
despised by intellectuals as kitsch, melodramatic, superficial and trivial, in the past
twenty years
Bollywood has become an object of serious academic research, marked by the dramatic shift from the
(often) Eurocentric theory, which dominated fil
m studies in the ‘70s and ‘80s,
to the appreciation of
diversity in World cinemas, propelled by t
he growth of postcolonial and cultural studies and the
disappearing preoccupation w
ith the forms of ‘high culture’
(Featherstone 2005). The
acknowledgment of the importance of popular culture in the academic researches
unique form o
f cinematic expression and, more importantly, its impact on
the everyday experiences and identities of its spectators.
Since the independence Indian popular cinema was an active participant in the project of imagining
the nation, constantly shifting and
thinking its narratives according to the socio
cultural and
historical transformations in India. After the economic liberalization of 1991 and the increased
migration resulting in many Indians settling abroad, Bollywood presented many film narratives
��69 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;In this research I will use the traditiona
l rhyme dictionary to describe and explain the historical
evolution of pictophonetic characters in pronunciation from ancient to modern.
The theoretical basis of this study is Duan Yucai’s proposition on phonetic elements (
). Duan’s prop
osition has been confirmed by experts and scholars and
has become a principle in Chinese historical phonology.
This research focuses on 3,500 modern pictophonetic characters chosen from “General Normal
Characters Table”
and inspects the historical e
volution of pictophonetic characters
and phonetic elements in pronunciation. Firstly, I will mark the pronunciations of pictophonetic
characters and phonetic elements with International Phonetic Alphabets through four periods: pre
Song, Ming
, contemporary; secondly, I will depict the pictophonetic characters as a
was a pronoun and then became a
copulative verb, functioning as a judging and stressing word, which is still used in contemporary
Chinese. It
WANG, Weimin; QIAO, Quansheng (Shanxi University, China)
The Influence of Thomas Meadows’ Mandarin Orthography on Tho
mas Wade’s Mandarin
Meadows proposed the first published scheme of Pekingese orthography with a Roman
alphabet. Through research we think that Meadows’ orthography was based on Robert Thom’s
orthography, Robert Thom adhered to Morrison’s system of orthography with modificatio
ns, and
Morrison’s orthography was based on Nanking pronunciation according to Thomas Meadows’s note.
��70 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;The latter of the above statements was changed fundamentally in the first decades of the 13
century, when the Mongols conquered a huge part of Eurasia
and established an empire of
unprecedented size under Chingh
is Khan. The aim of the present paper is to find the answer(s) to the
pon yet takes North Korea’s one lightly. Neither Beijing nor Washington
seem to really want to put an end to the whole issue.
This leads to several hypothesis that need to be analyzed:
Beijing is most likely using North Korea as its proxy soft security tool for political and security
As a standalone country, North Korea is a hard security issue, but in the context of Beijing’s
power games, it is a soft security issue.
The situation in North Korea is actually helping the stability in the Region because it draws
attention from other hot issues, such as the Sino
Japanese rivalry.
Beijing is interested in keeping the North Korean status quo for as long as possible.
NAS, Vytis
(Vilnius University, Lithuania)
The Concept of
in t
he Vedas: A Linguistic Approach
The concept of
as „the supreme soul of the universe, self existent absolute“ is well known in
philosophical and theological speculations in the An
cient India since the times of the late Vedic
Literature and was especially elaborated in th
e Upanishads. However, the word
in early
Vedic texts usually means “a prayer, the sacred word”. After taking into account the main
etymological links of the
term, the paper presents the lexical and semantic analysis of
the textual
usages of the word
in the early Vedic texts (mainly in the Rigveda and to a lesser extent in
the Atharvaveda
). This is an attempt to answer questions concerning t
initial meanings of
the word
��71 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;ZHANG, Daqiu (Shanghai Un
iversity of Finance and Economics
, China
Confucius Institute at
Tallinn University
, Estonia
in the Question
nín guìxìng
a Verb in Mandarin Chinese?
The honourable manner in asking for name or age in Chinese seems just to achieve a pragmatic
purpose, but with a more careful scrutiny we can find it has left more questions unanswered,
grammatical in particular: Why
functions as a verb? If it is a ve
rb, is it a transitive or an
intransitive? If it is a transitive, then where is the
object? If it is an intransitive, then why does the
answer to it take an object of any surname? This paper argues that the
is actually a noun in the
lexicon, honour
ably modified by an adjective. The question is actually a shortened one with the
question word unspelt. Similar examples include:
Nín guìgēng
Nín gāoshòu
? My interpretation is that
(1) due to the habitual deletion of question particles like
questions in classic Chinese
chī guò
le (ma)
?), it is possible to delete the high frequent
word in
questions, especially in
honourable manner with
. (2) The answer to the question (
Miǎn guì, xìng Zhāng
) seems to be
as a transitive v
erb, but I argue that it is false. It is just because BE is covert in the main
clause, which should be
��72 &#x/MCI; 0 ;&#x/MCI; 0 ;ZIMONYI, István
(University of Szeged, Hungary)
Identities among the Nomads of Central Eurasia
Nationality among the nomads of Eurasia has special aspects:
The nomadic tribes and tribal
confederacies can be
described as using the model of
, including the common origin, traditions
and language;
The lack of political stability is a key fac
tor in the history of Eurasian steppe. It
means that there is no ethnic continuity from the Middle Ages;
A nomadic way of life is against
the territori
al principles of settled civiliz
ations. The confusion of linguistic and historical aspects is a
e of misunderstanding, the languages can be identified with ethnic groups and the use of affinity
among peoples is logically absurd and unacceptable. Finally, the formation of modern Uygur and
Tatar nations are analysed as examples.
ZISSU, Boaz (Bar
niversity, Ramat Gan, Israel)
Jerusalem and Judean Tombs and Burial Customs in the First Century CE
While the urban necropolis of Jerusalem during the late Second Temple period (2nd c. BCE
1st c. CE)
has been thoroughly studied, the more distant Jewish
rural areas have mostly been neglected. The
planned paper attempts to present an overview of the tombs' architecture, burial customs and
chronology of Jewish burial in the Judean countryside vs. those in the urban centre of Jerusalem
ing the 2nd c. BCE
2nd c. CE.
s necropoleis of the late Second Temple period were extensively studied (Kloner and
Zissu 2007), similarly to the burial grounds of important contemporaneous sites like Jericho, 'En Gedi,
and Qumran (Hachlili 2005, and lit. cit. ther
However, the burial customs of Jewish rural settlements scattered all over the Judean countryside
were never examined as a whole. A primary attempt to study the phenomenon was undertaken in my
PhD thesis (Zissu 2001).
The present study's purpose is to
present an overview of Jewish rock
cut tombs located near farms,
estates, villages, and towns situated in Judea proper [i.e. the area extending from the Samarian border
in the north to the Be'er Sheva Valley in the south and from the Jordan Valley in the e
ast to the Coastal
Plain in the west (Josephus,
, 3, 51)].
The lecture addresses archaeological issues: the location of tombs in relation to inhabited areas, the
architecture of rock
cut burial caves, tomb markers and architectural decoration, spatial d
istribution of
graves, the tomb's chronology, the prevalen
t burial customs and practices.
Hachlili R., 2005,
Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices and Rites in the Second Temple Period
, Leiden
and Boston.
Kloner A., and Zissu B., 2007,
The Necropol
is of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period
. Leuven and
Zissu B., 2001,
Rural Settlement in the Judean Hills and Foothills from the Late Second Temple
Period to the Bar Kokhba Revolt
, PhD Thesis, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Hebrew).





Keynote Speeches

Panels & Section

Poster Presentations






Baltic Alliance for Asian Studies
, Tartu, 7
9 April, 2016

Program and Abstracts


his publication was prepared and published with support from the University of Tartu (bas
e financing
grants PFLKU14909, PHVKU16926, and PHVKU16927) and the Estonian Science Foundation (grant

Copy editor

Elmer Kohandi

Andres Piir, Margus Sarapuu

Margus Sarapuu


: University of Tartu Multimedia

University of Tartu
, Centre for Oriental Studies
, 2016




Baltic Alliance for
Asian Studies


Tartu, 7
April 2016

Program and Abstracts


Andreas Johandi

Vladimir Sazonov

Mart Ternjuk

University of Tartu

Centre for Oriental Studies


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