Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики. 2017. №1. Ч.2. с 88-90


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Беляев
Дмитрий
Анатольевич, Бордюгова
Ксения
Александровна, Пухаева
Марина
Станиславовна
ЯЗЫКЕ

Источник
Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики

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www.gramota.net/materials/2/2017/1-

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ISSN
2911
1
67
) 201
. Ч.
2
УДК 811.11
The article is
devoted to the analysis of means expressing the concept “Indefinite Quantity” in the German lan-
guage. The authors put the special emphasis on the thesis that the “Indefinite Quantity” is expressed with the help
of notional and functional parts of speech, w
hich have definite lexico
grammatical characteristics. In particular,
the basis of the research, it was established that the means expressing these characteristics
enrich the abundance
in ways expressing the “Indefinite Quantity” in the German word stoc
Key words and phrases:
indefinite quantity; quantifiers; concept; quantity;
functional
semantic field;
lexico
grammatical field; the German language; parts of speech.
Belyaev Dmitrii Anatol'evich
, Ph.
D. in Philosophy
Bordyugova Kseniya Aleksandrovna
Pukhaeva Marina Stanislavovna
Lipetsk State Pedagogical P.
Semenov
Tyan
Shansky University
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
THE MEANS EXPRESSING THE CONCEPT

“INDEFINITE QUANTITY” IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE
We are surround
ed by a vast amount of objects that have various quantitative saturations, which should be fa
tened to the definite lexeme in speech.
It can be expressed by different lexico
grammatical means in the language.
In Ancient times the concept “
Quantity
” became
the object of scientific reflex
ion on the philosophic layer
cognition. “
Quantity
” is the amount or number of material or abstract things that are not usually estimated by sp
tial measurement.
The category of quantity was thoroughly examined by the
Ancient Greek philosophers as well as by the naturalists
of the Renaissance. To them refer
Plato, Aristotle
,
Pythagoras,
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Immanuel Kant.
the
19th
and
early
20th
centuries the gap between philosophy and philology was succ
essfully bridged by Fe
dinand Mongin de Saussure, a Swiss linguist, who combined the basic tenets of two branches of science and created
the structuralism theory. Ferdinand Mongin de Saussure’s principals influenced the foundation of cognitive lingui
tics,
which considered the term “concept” to be of major importance [14].
Besides, the significance of the concept “
Quantity
” determined intense linguistic interest to this problem, which
was closely examined by the modern scholars and lexicologists, such as E.
V.
Gulyga, E.
Shendels [6],
A.
A.
Chelnokova [10], L.
G.
Akulenko [2], K.
A.
Bordyugova [5], N.
Pankev
ich [7], E.
Shubina [12]
and
some others. The linguists state that the concept “
Quality
” affects lexico
grammatical fields in the language.
Firstly, the choice of the topic is conditioned by the broad interest in ontological categories of general linguistics.
Secondly, it is stipulated by the absence of integrated and interdisciplinary researches of the means expressing
Quantity
” in German lingui
stics.
Also, the quantity is divided into definite and indefinite amount. In turn, the indefinite quantity breaks up into
indefinitely large and indefinitely small one.
The present study is devoted to the means expressing indefinite quant
i-
ty in the modern
German language.
The current paper aims at the specification of means expressing the concept “
Indefinite Quantity
” in German,
studies the use of different parts of speech for the implementation of this concept, and analyzes their characteristics
and semantic aspects.
The methodological framework of our study is based on the theoretical principals and cognitive empirical methods
examining
quantitative relations in the indefinite
numeral measurement. They consist of the following components:
case study,
theoretical analysis of scientific works on this topic, examination of diction
ary entries by means
continuous sampling method, synthesis and generalization.
The term “concept” in the second half of the twentieth century was firmly embedded in the philos
ophical, cultu
al and linguistic research area.
According to D.
A.
Belyaev’s fundamental investigation, the “concept” is a dynamic
term, which has the discursive and narrative nature. The “concept” implies the lingual
semantic singularity, which
simultaneo
usly combines the sense, comprehension and individual interpretation [4, c. 4].
The first full
blown theory on the concept of quantity in the language was stated
by L.
G.
Akulenko in 1990.
The
functional
semantic fields were brought to the forefront. Modern Russian linguists concentrated on such aspects
of language as standard language and quantitative units (A.
N.
Polyansky [8] and A.
D.
Shmelyov [11]).
V.
Gulyga and E. I. Shendels suggested the new fundamental approach of studying the quantity in Germa
n.
Their comprehensive analysis of different means expressing indefinitely large and small quantity let the authors
generalize these means of expression and organize them as the complex lexico
grammatical field [6].
According to A.
A.
Chelnokova’s classifi
cation, indefinite quantity is repres
ented in the German language
way of the following notional and functional parts of speech: the plural forms of notional parts of speech, the i
definite article, the questions: wie viel
How much?
,
wie groß
How larg
, intensifiers:
so wie
,
fast
wie
as well as
, adverbs: dieser
this
),
jener
that
, oft
often
,
meistens
mostly
am meisten
most often
selten
seldom
,
ein bisschen (
a little
), adjectives vielerlei (
various
), mehrfach (
multiple
zahlreich (
numerous
vollzälig
whole
), massenhaft (
mass, popular
), unzählig (
countless
),
groß (
big
), riesig (
huge
), winzig (
tiny
einige (
a bit
,
unwichtige (
unimportant
), quantitative pronouns: alle(rlei) (
all
), sämtliche (
all of them
), mehrere (
several
),
10.02.00
Языкознание
viele(rlei) (
many, much
), einige (
some
), etliche (
some
), manche(rlei) (
some, many
), beide (
both
), ein paar (
few
),
wenige (
little
), keine(rlei) (
no, neither
), ein wenig (
little
), jedermann (
any, every
irgendwelche (
any, some
),
the
lexical means
, which can substitute for the indefinite article: welch ein (
which
), solch ein (
such
), man (~
),
irgendein (
any, some
), ein solcher (
such
), etwas (
anything
), nichts (
nothing
), was für ein (
which
), manch ein
neither, many
), niemand (
nobody
), the phrase
s:
die Nummer von (
the number of
die Variante von
the variant of
die
Serie von (
the series of
[10, c. 232].
E.g.

Ich nehme an, du fragst dich, warum
ich mir den Namen und
die Nummer von
jedem
Teilnehmer
aufschreibe, sagte Harkness.
(McVries burst out laughing. “If you win, you won’t need a book to make you a rich
man, will you?” Harkness frowned. “Well… I suppose not. But it would still make one
heck of an interesting book,
I
think.” They walked on, and Harkness continued taking
names and numbers
[15, S. 28].
The indefinite quantity is implied
by the verbs:
sammeln (to collect), vereinigen (to connect)
. In Germanic and
Romanic languages the verbs do not have special forms for expressing single
acting ideas. Compare:
germ.
schieße
, eng.
to fire, to shoot
Basing on L.
G. Akulenko’s researches, we believe that the indefinite
quantity can be
divided and undivided [2].
Quantifiers also render the concept of indefinite quantity [1, c. 13]. Though in various languages it is represented
differently, for example, in French: ruisselet, m (petit russeau, cours d'eau d'importance relativement peu considérable)
“a stream” in the phrase “un ruisselet de qch” doesn’t point out a concrete obje
ct but refers to some amount
objects, e.g. “un
ruisselet d'hommes” [5, c. 42].
In German E. L. Shubina (2015) distinguishes nine groups of quantifiers [12].
The seventh group of “indefinitely large quantity of people and things” consists of the following nouns:
der Berg
a mountain
), der Haufen (
a heap
), die Menge (
a crowd
), der Schwall (
a flow
), der Schwung (
a portion
), der Strom
a stream
), die Unmenge (
heaps
), die Unzahl (
a lot of
), die Welt (
the world
). We can add to these groups the le
emes representing large units of measurement. E.g. die Tonne (
), die Milliarde (
a milliard
), das Millennium
the millenium
), die Meile
a mile
) etc [
Там
,
. 240].
In the foreign literature of the twentieth century we can come across indefinite and fictitious pseudo numbers,
which are used for creating the humorous effect, for exaggeration, or when mentioning the precise number of su
jects is undesirable.
E.g.
Undecillion, duodecillion, decillion and other numerals, having the ending
-
zillion. The numeral “Zillion” was put into usage in 1944 by the writer and journalist, Damon Runyon. But b
fore
it careful readers could notice some other pseudo numerals in the fiction in translation: “Bazillion” (
bazillion
(1939, NY Times), “Jillion” (
jillion
) (1942) и “Squillion” (
squillion
) (1943) [13].
There is
a
list of pseudo numerals in German:
bajillion, bazillion, bizillion, brazillion
(zu
Brazil
= Brasilien),
l-
lion, fantillion, gazillion, gagillion, gajillion, godzillion
is the compound word, formed of
: Godzilla (
ゴジラ

a fic-
tional giant monster originating from a series of
tokusatsu
films of the same name
from
Japan, plus the ending
-
zillion.
It is t
he largest number ever. The monster of numbers. Invented by Jonathan Goldstein and spoken
of on the CBC R
dio show “Wiretap”
[16]
grillion, hojillion, jillion, kabillion, kajillion, katrillion (katrillion
= Katrina

a hurricane
caused extensive devastation and loss of life when the levees failed, leaving floodwaters to engulf the city) + mil
lion
kazillion, killion, quazadrillion, robillion, skillion, squidillion, squillion, trazillion, umptillion
(zu
umpteen
= „zig“) etc.
It should be also mentioned that pseudo numerals in German occur mostly in the translations from the Anglo
Saxon
literary works.
The other way expressing the indefinite quantity in German is an indirect description through paradigmatic co
m-
ponent of the utterance, i.e. through the emotional attitude of the speaker.
E.g. Ausgiebig (
abundant
), ausreichend (
sufficient
),
das geht ins Uferlose (
it tends to infinity
), endlos (
endless
),
ganz unbegreiflich wieviel (
it is impossible to guess the number of…
), grenzenlos (
bondless
), im Übermaß (
in plenty
ist nicht zu zählen (
unnumbered
), kein Ende nehmen (
endless lasting
), kein
e Grenze kennen (
to know no bounds
),
keiner kann zählen (
it is impossible to count
), ohne Einschränkung (
without restriction
), ohne Maß (beyond
all
measure), schrankenlos (
unlimited
), die Überfülle (
the plenty of…
), uferlos (
endless
), unabsehbar (
immense
beschränkt (
unlimited
), unendlich (
boundless
), ins Unendliche (
to tend to infinity
), unermesslich (
immeasurable
unübersichtlich (
vast
), zahllos (
countless
) etc.
This principle works regarding to the quantifiers of indefinitely small quantity. E.g. An den Fingern anzählen
it
can be counted on one hand
), die Bagatelle (
a trifle
), einen Dreck wert sein (
not to be worth a red cent
), kaum
bemerkbar (
barely perceptible
), leicht zählbar (
it is easy to count
), (der) Mangel an etw. (
a lack of…
), nicht genug
insufficient
), nicht merklich (
imperceptibly
), nichts zu sehen (
to see nothing
),
unzureichend
deficient
) etc [9].
Set phrases express indefinitely large and indefinitely small quantity as well. E.g.
Kein Aas!

not a (living) soul.
Es konnte kein Apfel zu
r Erde

There's no room to swing a cat
Stirbt der Fuchs, so gilt der Balg
It is good
to
gain even a flock of wool from the black sheep
The patterns, which have a diverse degree of measurement, in which lexical constituents duplicate, also can ide
tify
the indefinite quantity. E.g.
Angriff auf Angriff
one attack after another
redete
,
redete
,
redete
he spoke,
spoke, spoke…
, Jahr für Jahr (
year after year
),
von
Jahr
Jahr
year in year out
) [3,
. 110].
Moreover, the morphemes render the concept
of indefinitely large and small quantity. To them refer: semi
suffix
arm: kinderarm (
childless
), blutarm (
anemic
), futterarm (
without food
), gedankenarm (
unprincipled
); su
fixes
chen: das Spiegelchen (
a mirror
), das Häuschen (
a house
), das Freundchen (
friend
), das Gärtchen (
a garden
);
el: das Büschel (
a bunch
), das Bündel (
a bundle
);
elchen: das Dingelchen (knickknack, a thing), das Büchelchen
book
);
lein: das Bächlein (
a tiny brook
), das Äuglein (
eyes
);
elle: die Bagatelle (
dribs and drabs
), die Fontanelle
ISSN
2911
1
67
) 201
. Ч.
2
a spring
), die Sardelle (
anchovy
); semi
prefixes: Hunde
: der Hundelohn (
a small reward
), das Hundegeld
pittance
), hundertfach (
hundredfold
) [7].
Prefixes, borrowed from Greek and Latin, show the derivational potential in German:
Hypo
: die Hypoazidität
low acidity,
die Hypotension
hypotension.
Prefixes:
Mikro
: die Mikroanalyse
microanalysis
, die Mikroätzung
microetching
Mini
: das Mini
Bike

mini
bike
, die Miniaturschaltung

microchip
Nano
and Piko
: das N
nometer

nanometer
, das Pikoamperemeter

picoamperemeter
Makro
der
Makrobefehl

macroinstru
tion
. Hyper
: die Hyperazidität

hyperacidity
Maxi
: das Maxikleid

maxi
-dress
, der Maximaldruck
maximal
pressure
Mega
: die Megalopolis

a megalopolis
Poly
: der Polyglotte

a polyglot
. Multi
: die Multielementan
lyse

a multielement analysis
Super
: der Superdonator
a super donor
Extra
: die Extrakosten

extra costs
.
Ultra
: die Ultraschallwellen
ultrasonic waves
[Там же].
With all the above m
entioned and the conducted analysis it can be said that the concept of quantity and number
in the German language is a category that can be viewed through different units of speech and language:
plural
forms of notional parts of speech, indefinite article and its substitutions, questions
, intensifiers, adverbs
, adjectives,
quantitative pronouns
, quantifiers, set
phrases and phraseological units.
Pseudo numerals and morphemes, which are undergone the process of borrowing from the foreign languages, enrich
th
e abundance in ways expressing the indefinite quantity in the German word stock.
References
Аксенова
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СРЕДСТВА ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ КОНЦЕПТА

«НЕОПРЕДЕЛЁННОЕ КОЛИЧЕСТВО» В НЕМЕЦКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Беляев Дмитрий Анатольевич
, к. филос. н.
Бордюгова Ксения Александровна
Пухаева Марина Станиславовна
Липецкий государственный педагогический университет имени П.
Семенова
Тян
Шанского
dm.
belyaev
gmail
.com;
aksenova
mail
[email protected]
Статья посвящена анализу средств выражения концепта «Неопределённое количество» в немецком языке. Особое внима-
ние авторы обращают на положение о том, что неопределённое количество эксплицируется с помощью самостоятельных
служебных частей речи, которые обладают определёнными лексико
грамматическими характеристиками. В частности,
основе изучения данных средств выражения установлено, что они обогащают разнообразие способов, с помощью которых
проявляются характеристики неоп
ределённой количественности в основном запасе лексических единиц немецкого языка.
Ключевые слова и фразы:
неопределённое количество; квантификаторы; концепт; количество; функционально
семан
тическое поле; лексико
грамматическое поле; немецкий язык; части
речи.


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