ПОСОБИЕ МЕД 2 КУРС 2016


ODESA NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
ОДЕСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ МЕДИЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT
КАФЕДРА ІНОЗЕМНИХ МОВ
ENGLISH FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS
ПОСІБНИК З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ 2 КУРСУ
МЕДИЧНОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТУ
ODESA - 2016
ЗМІСТ
Захворювання верхніх та нижніх дихальних шляхів............................................
Туберкульоз легенів …..............................................................................................
Гіпертонія...................................................................................................................
Інфаркт міокарду …..................................................................................................
Захворювання шлунку…………………………………………………………….
Холецистит ….............................................................................................................
Хвороби нирок……………………………………………………………………...
Цукровий діабет …............................................................................................
Ожиріння ....................................................................................................................
СНІД …...........................................................................................................
Грип.................................................................................................................
Правець …........................................................................................................
Дифтерія ….......................................…............….............................................
Гепатит …........................................................................................................
Дитячі інфекційні захворювання ….....................................................................
Види ран …...........................................................................................................
Апендицит…………………………………………………………………………….
Шок ….............................................................................................................
Доброякісні та злоякісні пухлини.............................................................................
Неврози. Лікування неврозів ….............................................................................
Інсульт.....................................................................................................................
Хвороби шкіри…………………………………………………………………….
Хвороби очей .....................................................................................................
Хвороби вух......................................................................................................
Анотації до лікарських засобів ….............................................................................
Препарати ЦНС та ССС ….................................................................................
ЗАХВОРЮВАННЯ ДИХАЛЬНИХ ШЛЯХІВ
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
ЗАХВОРЮВАННЯ ВЕРХНІХ ДИХАЛЬНИХ ШЛЯХІВ
DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
Exercise 1.Topic vocabulary:
aphonia [æ′fəuniə] афонія, втрата голосу
apparent, adj [ə´pærənt] видимий
be confined to, v [ kən´faind] обмежуватися
crypt, n [kript] ямка
dysphagia, n [dis′feidʒiə] розлад ковтання
dyspnea, n [disp′niə] задишка
edema, n [i′di:mə] набряк
erythema, n [eri′θi(:)mə] еритема, почервоніння шкіри
encompass, v [in′ kΛmpəs] стосуватися
excessive, adj [ik´sesiv] надмірний
exudate, n [′eksjudeit] ексудат, випіт
hoarseness, n [´hב:snis] хрипіння
latter, adj [′lætə] останній (з двох)
malaise, n [mə′leiz] нездужання
peel, v (away) [pi:l] сходити
steam, n [sti:m] пар
swallowing, n [′swבləuiη] ковтання
tickling, n [′tikliη] лоскотання
Exercise 2. a) Read the word combinations and translate them:
Membrane: thin membrane, mucous membrane, cellular membrane, permeable membrane
Treatment: long-term treatment, in-patient treatment, surgical treatment, hormone treatment, ineffective treatment, adequate treatment
Fever: slight fever, persistent fever, fever subsided, to cause fever, to suffer from fever
Inflammation: joint inflammation, acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, to reduce inflammation, signs of inflammation
Sign: apparent sign, visible sign, early sign, external sign, unmistakable sign
b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:
Exercise 3. Form nouns with a meaning of “процес, дія або результат дії” with the help of the suffix - ing. Translate them:
Model: water (поливати)→watering (поливання)
Find, act, smoke, walk, train, warm, cool, feel, understand, learn, swell, function, swallow, sweat, think, sneeze
Exercise 4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents of the following word combinations:
Pain on swallowing, edematous and hyperemic tonsils, purulent exudate, nonconfluent membrane, symptomatic therapy, adequate treatment, severely inflamed mucous membrane, cervical adenopathy, frequent cause, excessive use, irritating substances, prominent symptom, sensation of tickling, severity of inflammation, apparent dyspnea, laryngeal edema, marked erythema, voice rest, to relieve discomfort
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
A respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the  respiratory tract. The study of the respiratory disease is known as pulmonology Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
The tonsils normally help to prevent infections. They act like filters to trap bacteria and viruses entering the body through the mouth and sinuses. The tonsils also stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to help fight off infections
Tonsillitis is an acute inflammation of the palatine tonsils, usually due to streptococcal or, less commonly, viral infection. Tonsillitis is characterized by a sore throat and pain, most marked on swallowing and often referred to the ears. High fever, malaise, headache and vomiting are common. As a rule the tonsils are edematous and hyperemic. There may be a purulent exudate from the crypts and a white, thin membrane over the tonsil that is peeled away without bleeding.
Tonsillectomy should be considered if acute tonsillitis repeatedly develops after adequate treatment, or if chronic tonsillitis and a sore throat persist or are relieved only briefly by antibiotic therapy.
Pharyngitis is an acute inflammation of the pharynx. Usually viral in origin, it may also be due to a Group A or other bacteria. It is characterized by a sore throat and pain on swallowing. The pharyngeal mucous membrane may be mildly red or severely inflamed and may be covered with a membrane and a purulent exudate. Fever, cervical adenopathy, and leukocytosis are present in both viral and streptococcal pharyngitis but may be more marked in the latter.
Treatment is symptomatic and includes a diet, scald foot baths, warm compresses on the anterior part of the neck, milk with honey, steam inhalations and gargling. Antibiotic therapy is usually administered in severe forms of pharyngitis.
Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. The most frequent cause of acute laryngitis is a viral URI. Laryngitis may also occur in the course of bronchitis, pneumonia, influenza, whooping cough, measles, and diphtheria. Excessive use of the voice, allergic reactions, and inhalation of irritating substances such as cigarette smoke can cause acute or chronic laryngitis.
Unnatural change of voice is usually the most prominent symptom. Hoarseness and even aphonia, together with a sensation of tickling, and a constant wish to clear the throat, may occur. Symptoms vary with the severity of the inflammation. Fever, malaise, dysphagia, and throat pain may occur in the more severe infections; dyspnea may be apparent if laryngeal edema is present. Indirect laryngoscopy discloses a mild to marked erythema of the mucous membrane that may also be edematous.
There is no specific treatment for viral laryngitis. Voice rest and steam inhalations give symptomatic relief and promote resolution of acute laryngitis.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
What is tonsillitis?
What are the symptoms of tonsillitis?
What kind of pharyngitis do you know?
What are the symptoms of pharyngitis?
What does the treatment of pharyngitis include?
What are the most frequent causes of laryngitis?
What are the symptoms of laryngitis?
What does the treatment of laryngitis include?
Exercise 7. I. Memorize that -itis [aitis] means inflammation of an organ, tissue, etc. Give the terms using this term-element:
Inflammation of the liver -....
Inflammation of the larynx and vocal folds - ... .
Inflammation of the stomach -....
Inflammation of the bronchi - ... .
Inflammation of the middle ear - …
Inflammation of the nerve - …
Inflammation of the peritoneum - …
II. Explain the term meaning "excision". Translate it:
Model: tonsillectomy is excision of the tonsils
Gastrectomy, pancreatectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, laryngectomy, hysterectomy, adenectomy, sclerectomy
Exercise 8. Read the definition and fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets:
(Pharyngoplasty, pharyngomycosis, pharyngotomy, pharyngoscope, pharyngolaryngitis, laryngopathy, laryngograph, laryngology, tracheostomy, tracheorrhagia, tracheitis)
1. Inflammation of the trachea 2. Making an opening in the anterior part of the trachea for tube introduction in order to facilitate breathing 3. Inflammation of both throat and voice box 4. Invasion of the mucous membrane of the throat by fungi 5. An instrument used for inspection of the throat mucous membrane 6. A surgical procedure of making an incision into the throat to remove a tumor or anything obstructing the passage 7. Systematized knowledge of the action and function of the voice box 8. An instrument for making a tracing of movements of the vocal folds 9. Trachea bleeding 10. Anylarynx pathology 11 .Plastic surgery of the throat Exercise 9. Find the corresponding English equivalents; memorize the meanings of these word combinations:
Біль при ковтанні; набряклі мигдалини; гнійний эксудат; симптоматична терапія; парова інгаляція; часта причина; спричиняючи подразнення; суворість запалення; набряк глотки; полегшувати дискомфорт; помітна еритема слизової оболонки; парити ноги; відчуття лоскотання; надмірне використання голосу
Exercise 10. Match the terms with their explanation:
1. aphonia a) liquid containing proteins and white cells escaping through the walls of the intact blood vessels as a result of inflammation
2.erythema b) an acute highly contagious infection generally affecting the throat
3.exudate c) labored or difficult breathing
4.diphtheria d) flushing of the skin due to dilatation of the blood capillaries in the dermis
5. dysphagia e) absence or loss of the voice caused by disease of the larynx or mouth
6. dyspnea f) condition in which the action of swallowing in difficult to perform
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 11. Match the words in italics with their synonyms:
Bleeding leading
Edematous pertussis
Examination application
Fever breathlessness
Whooping cough hemorrhage
Prominent inspection
Use temperature
Dyspnea swollen
Exercise 12. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice according to the model:
Model: I stick a label.
The label is stuck by me.
The nurse sponges the patient's skin.
A poisonous remedy causes death.
The doctor checked up my kidneys
The child takes cod liver oil.
The surgeon rinses his hands.
The doctor administers healing ointments.
The patient takes sedatives.
Exercise 13. Express the following sentences in the Passive Voice:
1. The nurse has put a new outer bandage on the patient's wound.
2. The doctor had determined dull heart sounds by percussion before the electrocardiogram was taken.
3. The surgeon on duty has arrested a profuse abdominal bleeding.
4. The nurses had laid the patient down on a stretcher when the doctor came into the ward.
5. The surgeon has just performed the operation for appendicitis.
6. The surgeon has taken out the stitches today.
7. The nurse has removed the dressing carefully.
Exercise 14. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the translation of the Passive Voice:
Tonsillitis is characterized by sore throat and pain, most marked on swallowing.
Tonsillectomy should be considered if acute tonsillitis repeatedly develops after adequate treatment.
Chronic tonsillitis may be relieved only briefly by antibiotic therapy.
Acute pharyngitis is frequently accompanied by acute tonsillitis.
Mucous membrane is covered with mucopurulent secretion.
The bacteria may be inhaled into the respiratory passages during contact with ill persons.
The pharyngeal mucous membrane may be mildly red or severely inflamed.
Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:
Catarrhal condition of the throat decreases the patient's work capacity.
Bad teeth and chronic inflammation of the tonsils should receive timely treatment.
Pain is most marked on swallowing.
Dyspnea may be apparent if laryngeal edema is present.
Chronic tonsillitis is relieved only briefly by antibiotic therapy.
Symptoms vary with the severity of the inflammation.
Indirect laryngoscopy discloses marked erythema of the mucous membrane.
Exercise 16. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense and voice. Translate the sentences:
Tonsillitis (to characterize) by sore throat and pain, often radiated to the ears.
If chronic tonsillitis and sore throat persist, the patient (to perform) tonsillectomy.
Pharyngitis (to characterize) by sore throat and pain on swallowing.
The most frequent cause of acute laryngitis (to be) a viral URI.
Symptoms (to vary) with the severity of the inflammation.
In tonsillitis a membrane (to peel away) without bleeding.
Indirect laryngoscopy (to disclose) a mild to marked erythema of the mucous membrane.
Exercise 17. Explain the following terms (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis) using the following plan:
It is inflammatory disease of …
It is a disease of the upper respiratory tract.
It is manifested by the following symptoms …
It can be treated by …. .
If untreated it may result in … .
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть словосполучення:
Біль при ковтанні
набряклі мигдалини
гнійний ексудат
симптоматична терапія
парова інгаляція
часта причина
спричиняючи подразнення
набряк глотки
полегшувати дискомфорт
слизової оболонки
парити ноги
відчуття лоскотання
2. Дати відповіді на запитання:
1.What is tonsillitis?
2. What are the symptoms of tonsillitis?
3. What are the symptoms of pharyngitis?
4. What does the treatment of pharyngitis include?
5. What are the most frequent causes of laryngitis?
6. What are the symptoms of laryngitis?
7. What does the treatment of laryngitis include?
3. Розкрити поняття:
Тонзиліт, фарингіт, ларингіт
ЗАХВОРЮВАННЯ НИЖНІХ ДИХАЛЬНИХ ШЛЯХІВ
DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
Exercise 1.Topic vocabulary:
abundant, adj [ə´bΛnd(ə)nt] рясний
airways, n [´εəweiz] дихальні шляхи
chill, n [t∫il] озноб
complication, n [kבmpli′kei∫(ə)n] цскладнення
concomitant, adj [kən´kבmit(ə)nt супровідний
coryza, n [kə´raizə] нежить
weakened, adj ['wiːk(ə)nd] ослаблений
findings, n [faindiŋz] отримані відомості (дані)
healing, n [′hi:liŋ] загоєння, вилікування
humidifier, n [hju:′midifaiə] зволожувач повітря
myalgia, n [mai′ældʒiə] міальгія, мускульний біль
onset, n [בnset] початок (хвороби)
Purulent, adj [′pju(ə)rələnt] гнійний
presumptive, adj [pri´zΛmptiv] можливий
rusty, adj [´rΛsti] кольор іржі
specimen, n [´spesimin] зразок
sputum, n [′spju:təm] suppressant, n [sə′pres(ə)nt] препарат для ослаблення (наприклад, кашлю)
viscid, adj [´visid] в’язкий
URI = upper respiratory infection інфекція верхніх дихальних щляхів
wheezing, n [′wi:ziŋ] хрипіння
Exercise 2. a) Read the word combinations and translate them:
Infection: viral infection, fungal infection, primary infection, recurrent infection, rare infection, bacterial infection
Sputum: mucopurulent sputum, thick sputum, rusty sputum, blood streaked sputum
Symptom: common symptom, unpleasant symptom, visible symptom, acute symptom, mental symptom
Disease: rare disease, curable disease, congenital disease, contagious disease, treatable disease
Cough: mild cough, persistent cough, chronic cough, dry cough, barking cough
b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:
Exercise 3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents of the following word combinations:
Acute, self-limited inflammation; complete healing; weakened patients; critical complication; a common cold; secondary bacterial infection; slight fever; back and muscular pain; onset of bronchitis; small amounts of viscid sputum; abundant and mucoid sputum; a severe uncomplicated case; persistent fever; airways obstruction; prolonged symptoms; oral fluids; to relieve malaise; concomitant chronic pulmonary disease; purulent sputum; the most common causes; persistent chills; additional findings; blood streaked or rusty sputum; lethal complications; poorly aerated lungs, appropriate specimen.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:
DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages. Bronchitis can either be of brief duration (acute) or have a long course (chronic).
Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection. It usually begins with the symptoms of a cold, such as a runny nose, sneezing, and dry cough. However, the cough soon becomes deep and painful. The cough produces yellow or green sputum. These symptoms may be accompanied by a fever of up to 102°F (38.8°C). Wheezing after coughing is common. There may also be pain behind the sternum (breastbone) and fever. Symptoms may be relieved by drinking plenty of fluids and inhaling steam or using a humidifier. Cough suppressants are used only when the cough is dry and produces no sputum.
Most cases clear up without further treatment, but acute bronchitis may be serious in people who already have lung damage. Antibiotics are indicated when there is concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, when purulent sputum is present, or when high fever persists and the patient is more than mildly ill.
Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma including alveolar spaces and interstitial tissue. The most common causes in adults are bacteria.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is often preceded by an URI. The onset is often sudden with a single shaking chill; persistent chills suggest an alternative diagnosis. This is ordinarily followed by fever, pain with breathing on the involved side (pleurisy), cough, dyspnea, and sputum production. The temperature rises rapidly to 38 to 40.5° C; the pulse is usually 100 to 140/min; and respirations accelerate to 20 to 45/min. Additional common findings are nausea, vomiting, malaise, and myalgia. The cough may be dry initially, but usually becomes productive with purulent, blood-streaked or rusty sputum.
Serious, potentially lethal complications include overwhelming sepsis, sometimes associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome and/or septic shock.
Pneumococcal pneumonia should be suspected in anyone with an acute febrile illness associated with chest pain, dyspnea, and cough. A presumptive diagnosis can be based on the history, changes on chest x-ray, and culture of appropriate specimens. Treatment depends on the kind of pneumonia.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions:
1. What is acute bronchitis often preceded by?
2. What is bronchitis?
3. What are the symptoms of bronchitis?
4. What is the most common cause of pneumonia?
5. What is pneumonia?
6. What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
7. What are the complications of pneumonia?
Exercise 6. Form adjectives with a meaning “відносин” using the suffix-al. Translate them.
Model: face (обличчя)→facial (лицевий)
Abdomen, accident, nature, function, norm, hormone, centre, experiment, biology, artery, bronchus, intestine,
Exercise 7. Memorize the meaning of the following term-elements.
Bronch(o)-[brבηkəu] - combining form of Greek origin denoting bronchus
Pneum(o)-[nju:məu] - combining form of Greek origin denoting breathing, lung, air
Pulm(o)-, pulmon(o)-[pΛlmə(nə)] - combining form of Greek origin denoting lungs
Read the definition and fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets:
(Bronchoedema, bronchoplasty, bronchogenic, bronchoconstriction, pneumoalveolography, pneumobilia, pneumocardial, pneumodynamics, pneumoectomy, pulmonary, pulmonologist, pulmonohepatic)
1. Pertaining to the lungs and heart 2. X-ray examination of the air sacs of the lungs 3. A specialist in lung diseases 4. Narrowing of the bronchus lumen 5. Pertaining to the lungs 6. Swelling of the mucosa of the bronchial tube 7. Presence of air or other gases in the bile system 8. Surgical alteration of the configuration of a bronchus 9. Changes in breathing process 10. Originating from the bronchi 11.Pertaining to the lungs and liver 12.Resection of lung tissue Exercise 8. Match the terms with their explanation.
1. hypoxemia a. Inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, in which the alveoli become filled with the inflammatory cells and the lung becomes solid
2. pneumonia b. A rise in body temperature above the normal, i.e. above an oral temperature of 36.6ºC.
3.coryza c. Reduction of the oxygen concentration in the arterial blood, recognized clinically by the presence of central and peripheral cyanosis.
4. leucocytosis d. A catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose due to either a cold or hay fever
5. fever e. an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood
1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 9. Find the corresponding equivalents; memorize the meanings of these word combinations:
Тривалі симптоми, повне загоювання, обструкція дихальних шляхів, важкий неускладнений випадок, найбільш поширена причина, стійкій озноб, в'язке мокротіння, летальні ускладнення, слизове мокротиння, кров з прожилками або іржаве мокротиння, супутнє хронічне легеневе захворювання, початок бронхіту, уражена сторона
Exercise 10. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the translation of the Passive Voice:
1. Acute infectious bronchitis is often preceded by symptoms of a URI.
2. Dyspnea may be noted secondary to the airways obstruction.
3. Oral fluids are advised during the febrile course.
4. Antibiotics are indicated when there is concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
5. A chest X-ray is indicated if symptoms are serious or prolonged.
6. Pneumococcal pneumonia should be suspected in anyone with an acute febrile illness.
7. A presumptive diagnosis can be based on the history, changes on chest X-ray, culture and gram stains of appropriate specimens.
Exercise 11. Fill in the correct form of the verb in the Active or Passive Voice:
1. Considerable skill, patience and tact (to require) to examine a child.
2. Yesterday he (to awake) with a severe headache.
3 The doctor thought that the patient (to recover) from his illness but on the contrary he (to get) worse.
4. I (to feel) wretched for I (to catch) a severe cold the day before
5. Infectious diseases (to transmit) by direct contact or through the respiratory route.
6. The medical students (to practise) in the clinic at patient's bed-side in order to learn to recognize and treat various diseases.
7. The man (to die) unless he (to operate on) without delay.
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Acute bronchitis may develop after a common cold.
2. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms and signs.
3. Oral fluids are advised during the febrile course.
4. Antibiotics are indicated when there is concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
5. Persistent chills suggest an alternative diagnosis.
6. Lab studies usually show leucocytosis with a shift to the left.
7. A diagnosis can be based on the history, changes on the chest X-ray.
Exercise 13. Fill in the missing prepositions. Some of prepositions may be used more than once. Translate the sentences:
in by (2) on during(2) to for
Oral fluids are advised … the febrile course.
Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally per year, and results … about 4 million deaths
If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is admitted … hospital.
Acute bronchitis is characterized… the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum.
Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis, followed … exposure to air pollutants.
Treatment of pneumonia depends … the underlying cause.
Acute bronchitis often develops … an upper respiratory infection such as the common cold or influenza.
Exercise 14. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense and voice. Translate the sentences:
1. Rest (to indicate) until fever subsides.
2. The onset of the disease (to be) often sudden with a single shaking chill.
3. Treatment (to depend) on the kind of pneumonia.
4. Dyspnea (to note) secondary to the airways obstruction.
5. Onset of cough (to signal) onset of bronchitis.
6. The cough usually (to become) productive with purulent, blood-streaked sputum.
7. Treatment (to depend) on the kind of pneumonia
Exercise 15. Explain the following terms. Use the given scheme:
Bronchitis, Pneumonia
1.It is inflammatory disease of …
It is a disease of the upper respiratory tract.
It is manifested by the following symptoms …
It can be treated by …. .
If untreated it may result in … .
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть словосполучення:
Тривалі симптоми
повне загоювання
обструкція дихальних шляхів
найбільш поширенa причина
стійкій озноб
в'язке мокротиння
летальні ускладнення
слизове мокротиння
кров з прожилками або іржаве мокротиння
супутнє хронічне легеневе захворювання
початок бронхіту
уражена сторона
2. Дати відповіді на запитання:
1. What is acute bronchitis often preceded by?
2. What is bronchitis?
3. What are the symptoms of bronchitis?
4. What is the most common cause of pneumonia?
5. What is pneumonia?
6. What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
7. What are the complications of pneumonia?
3. Розкрити поняття:
Бронхіт, пневмонія
PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
ТУБЕРКУЛЬОЗ ЛЕГЕНІВ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
BCG vaccine
(Bacillus Calmette-Guerin), n phr [bǝ'silǝs 'kælmǝt gǝ'rɛn] вакцина БЦЖ
(бацилла Кальметта-Герена)
blood streaked ['blʌd 'stri:kt] з прожилками крові
detection, n [di'tekʃn] виявлення
discharge, n [dis'ʧa:ʤ] виділення
fluctuate, v ['flʌkʧʋeit] змінюватися, варіюватися
heal, v [hi:l] зцілюватися
identify, v [ai'dentifai] встановлювати, визначати
immunocompromised [iˏmjʋ:nǝ'kɒmprǝmaizd] з послабленим імунітетом
lesion, n ['li:ʒn] ураження, пошкодження
Mantoux test, n ['mæntʋ 'test] реакція Манту
mediastinum, n [ˏmi:diǝs'tainǝm] середостіння
meninges, n [mǝ'ninʤi:z] оболонки головного мозку
nodular, adj ['nɒdjʋlǝ] вузликовий, нодулярний
phthisiatrician, n [ˏfƟi:ziǝ'triʃn] фтизіатр
rales, n pl. ['ra:lz] хрипи
resurgence, n [ri'sɜ:ʤǝns] рецидив
smoulder, v ['smǝʋldǝ] тліти
sputum, n ['spju:tǝm] мокротиння
superadd, v [ˏs(j)u:pǝr'æd] додаватися
tubercle, n ['tju:bəkl] туберкул, вузлик
vulnerable, adj ['vʌlnǝrǝbl] уразливий, незахищений,
Exercise 2. a) Memorize the plural forms of nouns of Latin and Greek origin:
Latin
singular plural
-us [ǝs]
bacillus -i [ai]
bacilli
-a [ǝ]
vertebra -ae [i:]
vertebrae
-um [ǝm]
bacterium -a [ǝ]
bacteria
Greek
-sis [sis]
synthesis -ses [siz]
syntheses
b) Choose the correct plural form:
Noun Plural
diagnosis a diagnoses b diagnosises
stimulus a stimula b stimuli
datum a datums b data
formula a formule b formulae
nucleus a nuclei b nucleum
analysis a analys b analyses
spirillum a spirilla b spirillae
Exercise 3. Form nouns with the help of the suffix -(a)(t)ion. Translate the pair of words into Ukrainian:
Model: to infect – infection
інфікувати – інфекція
to characterize, to form, to inhale, to fluctuate, to detect, to combine, to populate, to vaccinate, to examine, to auscultate, to palpate, to complete, to migrate.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian:
the causative agent of the disease, the formation of nodular lesions, to set up a primary tubercle, natural immune defenses, to smoulder for months or years, to fluctuate with the patient’s resistance, to transmit by coughing and sneezing, blood streaked sputum discharge, the detection by X-ray screening, vaccination with BCG vaccine, tuberculous rales in the lungs, a yearly Mantoux test, a resurgence of pulmonary tuberculosis, in immunocompromised patients, to seek help from phthisiatrician.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:
PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) is an infectious bacterial disease. The causative agent of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis that was first identified by R. Koch in 1882. The lungs are primarily involved, then the infection can spread to other organs. The disease is characterized by the formation of nodular lesions (tubercles) in the mediastinum. These lesions are small rounded masses of cells, produced by bacteria. They are firm and spheroid. As a rule, PT is spread with tiny droplets that float in the air after sneezing or coughing by the infected person.
In pulmonary tuberculosis the bacillus is inhaled into the lungs where it sets up a primary tubercle and spreads to the nearest lymph nodes. Natural immune defenses may heal it at this stage. Alternatively, the disease may smoulder for months or years and fluctuate with the patient’s resistance. Many people become infected but show no symptoms. Others develop a chronic infection and can transmit the bacillus by coughing and sneezing.
In the early stages of pulmonary tuberculosis the patient usually complains of general malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite and as a result loss of body weight, caused by tuberculous intoxication. The subfebrile fever persists for a long time. Then cough superadds.
Symptoms of the active form of pulmonary tuberculosis include high fever that ranges from 38° to 39°C, profuse night sweats, breathing difficulty, and cough with blood streaked sputum discharge.
Pulmonary tuberculosis is treated by various combinations of antibiotics. The treatment may last up to 6-8 months. Preventive measures must include the detection of cases by X-ray screening of vulnerable populations and vaccination with BCG vaccine of those with no immunity to the disease. Regular physical examinations are necessary as well: auscultation reveals characteristic tuberculous rales in the lungs; palpation identifies the swollen lymph nodes in the neck or other areas. Another method of detecting pulmonary tuberculosis is a yearly Mantoux test.
Recently, there has been a resurgence of pulmonary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients (i.e. who have HIV or AIDS). The number of patients with the disease has also increased due to patients not completing drug courses.
In some cases the bacilli spread from the lungs to the blood-stream, setting up millions of tiny tubercles throughout the body (miliary tuberculosis), or migrate to the meninges to cause tuberculous meningitis. Entering by mouth bacilli may spread to abdominal lymph nodes, leading to peritonitis, and sometimes spread to other organs, joints, and bones.
Though pulmonary tuberculosis is curable, it is a terminal disease if not treated in time. So, if a person develops any signs slightly resembling pulmonary tuberculosis, he should immediately seek help from phthisiatrician.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
1. What kind of disease is pulmonary tuberculosis?
2. What is pulmonary tuberculosis caused by?
3. What kind of formations is the disease characterized by?
4. How can a person become infected with pulmonary tuberculosis?
5. What are the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis at the early stage and in the active form?
6. What does the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis consist of?
7. How can pulmonary tuberculosis be prevented?
8. What complications may pulmonary tuberculosis lead to?
Exercise 7. Match the symptoms of pulmonary TB given in English with their Ukrainian equivalents:
1. subfebrile or high fever
2. general malaise and fatigue
3. cough with sputum discharge
4. rales in the lungs
5. profuse night sweats
6. nodular lesions
7. loss of body weight
8. swollen lymph nodes a) втрата ваги
b) хрипи у легенях
c) вузликові ураження
d) субфібрильна чи висока лихоманка
e) кашель з виділенням мокротиння
f) набряклі лімфатичні вузли
g) надмірна пітливість уночі
h) загальне нездужання та втома
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Exercise 8. Match the kinds of diagnostic tools with their explanations:
1. X-ray screening
2. vaccination
3. Mantoux test
4. physical examination
5. auscultation
6. palpation
7. blood analysis
8. sputum analysis a) a method of skin testing aimed at detecting tuberculosis, named after the French physician
b) examination by touch for the purpose of diagnosing disease
c) the procedure during which a patient is thoroughly examined from head to toes
d) the laboratory analysis of specimen taken from the patient for culturing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms
e) laboratory examination of physical / chemical properties and the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, etc.
f) process of giving injections of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against it, thus, preventing disease
g) the act of listening, either directly or through a stethoscope or other instrument, to sounds within the body as a method of diagnosis
h) a radiographic image of the body internal organs and structures, usually used for diagnostic purposes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 9. Find the synonyms in the text to the words and word-combinations given below:
therapy – crepitation –
inoculation – excessive perspiration –
check-up – productive cough –
nodular leasion – cause of disease –
Exercise 10. Re-write the sentences translating the words and word-combinations in italics:
Регулярні медичні огляди must be carried out twice a year.
Кашель з виділенням мокротиння is called productive cough.
During the check-up the physician heard вологі хрипи in the patient’s lungs.
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a смертельне захворювання, if not treated in time.
It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis на ранніх стадіях of some diseases.
People with туберкульозом легенів suffer from втрати ваги caused by tuberculous intoxication.
Втрата апетиту is a very important symptom, which a physician must always pay particular attention to.
There are a lot of бактеріальних інфекційних хвороб such as scarlet fever, whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, etc.
Exercise 11. Insert the necessary preposition:
at; by; due to; in (2); to (2); of
In pulmonary tuberculosis there are a lot of nodular lesions … the mediastinum.
Yesterday the patient complained … general malaise, slight fatigue and headaches.
Profuse sweats … night serve the grave sign of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Swollen lymph nodes … the neck indicated the presence of infection in the body.
People having no immunity … diseases often suffer from various infections.
TB spreads throughout the world … … patients not completing drug courses.
People with pulmonary TB can transmit it … coughing and sneezing.
The bacilli of pulmonary TB can migrate … the meninges and cause tuberculous meningitis.
Pay attention!
1) He can / could work here. Він може працювати тут. (логічна посилка)
2) He may / might work here. На мій погляд, він працює тут. (я не певен, за моїм розсудом)
3) He must work here. Він працює тут. (упевненість)
Він має працювати тут. (наказ)
4) He should work here. Йому слід попрацювати тут. (порада)
Exercise 12. Insert the appropriate modal verb:
She … not go to the library because she has no time. (logical conclusion)
“You … go for a walk every day,” the doctor said. (obligation)
He … go to the movies in the evening. (hypothetic possibility)
You … work more at your pronunciation. (advice)
He … invite you to the theatre. (hypothetic possibility)
The child … not walk though he is 2 years old. (capability)
… I take your pencil? (permission)
You … follow his instructions. (certainty without fail)
The equivalents of modal verbs:
can = to be able to: I am able to treat people. – Я можу (здатен) лікувати людей.
may = to be allowed to: I am allowed to go home. – Мені дозволяють піти додому.
must = to have to: I have to prepare for the exam to pass it successfully. –
Мені доводиться готуватися до екзамену, щоб скласти його на відмінно.
to be to: The examination is to be held next Monday. –
Огляд назначено на наступний понеділок.
Exercise 13. Translate the sentences into English using the equivalents of modal verbs:
Вона зможе робити уколи через кілька занять.
Цьому хворому дозволили ходити після операції.
Мені доводиться йти на роботу пішки.
Вони повинні прооперувати його наступного тижня.
Зараз ми можемо провести цей експеримент.
Хворим не дозволяється приймати ліки самим.
Йому доведеться лікуватися в стаціонарі.
Студентам дозволять провести огляд пацієнта самостійно.
Exercise 14. Put questions to the underlined words:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes pulmonary tuberculosis.
This disease may affect bones, joints, lymphatic glands, kidneys.
Coughing can become worse at night and in the morning.
A considerable elevation of temperature is observed in pneumonic forms.
Loss of body weight may be the typical sign of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Natural immune defenses can sometimes heal the disease in the early stages.
There is a resurgence of pulmonary TB among immunocompromised patients.
Millions of tiny tubercles are carried throughout the body by the blood stream.
Exercise 15. Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense form. Translate them into Ukrainian:
The causative agent of tuberculosis (to discover) by Koch in 1882.
The microscopic examination (to reveal) pus cells in sputum yesterday.
The patient states that the fever (to persist) at a level of 38°C for several months.
Profuse night sweats (to serve) the evidence of a severe form of tuberculosis.
Loss of body weight (can, to cause) by tuberculous intoxication.
Cough (to superadd) after the disease has been in progress for some time.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (to produce) characteristic tuberculous changes in the mediastinum.
In the early stage of pulmonary TB the patient (may, to complain) of a general malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite and bodyweight.
Exercise 16. Fill in the table and describe pulmonary tuberculosis:
1. Type of disease 2. Set of symptoms 3. Data of examinations 4. Treatment 5. Complications Exercise 17. Translate the sentences into English using modal verbs or their equivalences:
Тобі слід звернутися до лікаря, щоб попередити це захворювання.
Імунна система організму може зцілювати туберкульоз на дуже ранній стадії.
За допомогою аускультації лікар зміг виявити незрозумілі хрипи в легенях хворого.
Туберкульоз легень може поширюватися по всьому організму та викликати смертельні ускладнення.
Туберкульоз може розвиватися дуже швидко у людей з послабленим імунітетом.
Профілактичні заходи проти туберкульозу обов’язково мають включати рентген та реакцію Манту.
Якщо у пацієнта кашель триває протягом довгого часу, то, в першу чергу, необхідно підозрювати туберкульоз.
Щоб уникнути ускладнень, ти повинен закінчити повний курс лікування.
Завдання для самостійної роботи
студентів (СРС)
І. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
1. бактеріальна хвороба
2. збудник захворювання
3. передавати через чихання
4. скаржитися на втому
5. кашель з виділення мокротиння
6. виявити вологі хрипи у легенях
7. у хворих з послабленим імунітетом
8. поширюватися через кровоток
9. призводити до менінгіту
10. звернутися за допомогою до фтизіатра
ІІ. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
1. What kind of disease is pulmonary tuberculosis?
2. What is pulmonary tuberculosis caused by?
3. How can a person become infected with pulmonary tuberculosis?
4. What are the symptoms of the active form of pulmonary tuberculosis?
5. What does the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis consist of?
ІІІ. Розкрийте поняття: туберкульоз легень, туберкул
HYPERTENSION
ГІПЕРТОНІЯ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
aging, n ['eɪdʒɪŋ] старіння
arterial, adj [ɑ:'tiəriəl] артеріальний
alcohol intake, n [ˈɪnteɪk] вживання алкоголю
asymptomatic, adj [æˌsɪmptəˈmætɪk] безсимптомний
exert, v [ɪɡ'zɜ:t] здійснювати
expectancy, n [ɪkˈspɛkt(ə)nsi]   очікування
hydrargyrum, n [hai 'drɑ:ʤɪrəm] ртуть
hypertension, n [ˌhaɪpəˈtɛnʃən] гіпертонія
hypotension, n [ˌhaɪpə(ʊ)ˈtɛnʃən] гіпотонія
insufficient, adj [ˌɪnsəˈfɪʃənt] недостатній
measurement, n [ˈmɛʒəmənt] вимірювання; вимір
moderate, adj [ˈmɒdərɪt] помірний
persistent, adj [pəˈsɪstənt] стійкий
potassium, n [pəˈtæsɪəm] калій
sedentary, adj [ˈsɛdəntərɪ] сидячий
stroke, n [strəʊk] інсульт
Exercise 2. Speak correctly:
thiazide - diuretics – ['θaɪəzɪ:(ai)d ˌdaɪjuˈretɪks], calcium channel blockers – [ˈkalsɪəm ˈtʃænl ˈblɒkəs], beta blockers – [ˈbiːtə ˈblɒkəs ], vasodilators – [veizəʊ daɪ 'leɪtəs], angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors – [ænʤiəʊ'tensɪn kən'və:tɪŋ 'enzaɪm ɪn 'hɪbɪtəs], angiotensin receptor blockers – [ænʤiəʊ'tensɪn
ri 'septə ˈblɒkəs].
Exercise 3. Form new words adding the prefixes hyper-(above) and hypo-(under). Translate them into Ukrainian:
Model: tension – hypertension
Activity, function, genesis, immunity, metabolism, secretion, sensitivity, vaccination, thyroidism
Model: tension – hypotension
Hydration, leukocytosis, mobility, nutrition, toxisity, vitaminosis, uresis, salivation, glycemia
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word-combinations into your native language:
Cardiac chronic medical condition; systemic arterial blood pressure; primary hypertension; secondary hypertension; obvious medical cause; persistent hypertension; risk factors for stroke; chronic kidney failure; moderate elevation; shortened life expectancy; dietary and lifestyle changes; associated health complications; ineffective or insufficient; accelerated hypertension; direct cause; sedentary lifestyle; potassium deficiency; salt sensitivity; inherited genetic mutations; family history of hypertension.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
HYPERTENSION
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a long term medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. It happens when blood flows through the blood vessels with a force greater than normal, when the force of the blood pumping through the arteries is too strong. The more pressure the bloodexerts on the artery walls, the higher the blood pressurewill be.
Blood pressure involves two measurements, systolic and diastolic. Normal blood pressure is 120 over 80 mm of Hg (Hydrargyrum, mercury). The first figure is the systolic blood pressure, the pressure there is in the arteries when your heart is contracting. The second, or lower figure, is the diastolic blood pressure, which is the pressure in your arteries between heart beats. High blood pressure is anything above 140/90 mm/Hg. Hypertension is the opposite of hypotension. Hypertension is classified as either primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension," which means high blood pressure with no obvious medical cause. The remaining 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) is caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications, although drug treatment may prove necessary in patients for whom lifestyle changes are ineffective or insufficient.
Mild to moderate essential hypertension is usually asymptomatic. Accelerated hypertension is associated with headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, nausea, and vomiting.
Although no direct cause for hypertension has been identified, there are many factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, stress, obesity, potassium deficiency, salt sensitivity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of developing hypertension. Risk also increases with aging, some inherited genetic mutations, and having a family history of hypertension.
Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include:
• reducing salt intake• reducing fat intake• losing weight• getting regular exercise• quitting smoking• reducing alcohol consumption• managing stress
If lifestyle changes are not sufficient blood pressure medications are used. First line medications for hypertension include thiazide-diuretics, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, vasodilators, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. These drugs may be used alone or in combination. The majority of people require more than one medication to control their hypertension.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text:
What is hypertension?
What is systolic blood pressure?
What is diastolic blood pressure?
What blood pressure is considered to be normal?
What may persistent hypertension lead to?
What is accelerated hypertension associated with?
What increases the risk of developing hypertension?
What medicines do the first line medications for hypertension include?
Exercise 7. Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones:
quitting smoking скорочення споживання солі
reduce dietary sodium intake зниження споживання жирів
managing stress підтримання нормальної маси тіла
reducing alcohol consumption регулярні фізичні вправи
reducing fat intake відмова від куріння
getting regular exercise зниження споживання алкоголю
maintaining normal body weight управління стресом
reducing salt intake зменшення вживання натрію
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 8. Find antonyms of the following words:
effective shortened
prolonged secondary
decreased hypotension
hypertension ineffective
deteriorate elevated
sufficient intake
consumption improve
primary insufficient
Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:
diuretic drug, agent, or nerve that can cause dilatation of the walls of blood vessels
calcium any of a group of complex proteins or conjugated proteins that are produced by living cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
vasodilator a peptide of physiological importance that is capable of causing constriction of blood vessels, which raises blood pressure
angiotensin a substance that inhibits a metabolic or physiological process
enzyme a sensory nerve ending that changes specific stimuli into nerve impulses
receptor a malleable silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group
inhibitor an agent that blocks a physiological function
blocker acting to increase the flow of urine
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 10. Find the translation of the following word combinations in the text:
Високий кров'яний тиск; тривалий медичний стан; підвищений тиск; перша цифра виміру; діастоличний та систоличний кров'яний тиск; 120 на 80 мм ртутного стовпчика; первинна та вторинна гіпертониія; очевидна причина недуги; 5–10% випадків хвороби; стійка гіпертонія; діуретики групи тіазидів; фактори ризику розвитку інсульту; блокатори кальцієвих каналів; основна причина хронічної ниркової недостатності; інгібітори ангіотензинперетворюючого ферменту (АПФ); скорочення тривалості життя; протікати безсимптомно; бути пов'язаним з головним болем, сонливістю, сплутаністю свідомості, порушенням зору, нудотою і блювотою; малорухливий спосіб життя; дефіцит калію; блокатори рецепторів ангіотензину.
Exercise 11. Is it true or false?
Systolic blood pressure is pressure between heart beats.
Primary hypertension means hypertension without any predisposing reasons.
Persistent hypertension may lead to heart failure.
There are many symptoms accompanying hypertension.
Losing weight helps to treat hypertension.
Moderate elevation of blood pressure doesn’t influence life expectancy.
Primary hypertension is more spread than secondary one.
Drugs are prescribed when hypertension is very high.
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined words:
The heart has to work harder to pump the blood around the body.
Blood pressure involves two measurements.
Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm/Hg.
Hypertension is classified as either primary hypertension or secondary hypertension.
Moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy.
Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control.
Accelerated hypertension is associated with headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, nausea, and vomiting.
The first line of treatment for hypertension includes some lifestyle changes.
Exercise 13. Open the brackets put the verbs into the appropriate tense (Active or Passive):
Occupation (not to play) an important role in the etiology of hypertension.
Hypertension in the older age group (to associate) with loss of elasticity of the aorta and its main branches.
Hypertension (to be) more common in the female than in the male.
Hypertension (to tolerate) better during the child-bearing years in the female than hypertension in male.
Lifestyle changes (to recommend) together with medications.
Accelerated hypertension (to associate) with headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, nausea, and vomiting.
Dietary and lifestyle changes (to decrease) the risk of associated health complications.
No direct cause for hypertension (to identify) yet.
Exercise 14. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words or words combinations from the box:
At home decisions ; at least; measurement; drug stores; readings; in the past 30 minutes; health care provider; at night
Blood pressure measurement
Blood pressure is a … of the force on the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body.
You can measure your blood pressure… . You can also have it checked at your health care provider's office, a fire station, or with blood pressure machines in … and other places.
How to Prepare for the Test
Before you measure your blood pressure:
Rest for …5 minutes before blood pressure is taken.
Do not take your blood pressure when you are under stress, have had caffeine or used a tobacco… , or have exercised recently.
Take two or three … at a sitting. Take the readings 1 minute apart. Remain seated. When checking your blood pressure outside the doctor's office, note the time of the readings. Your … may suggest that you do your readings at certain times.
You may want to take your blood pressure in the morning and … for a week.
This will give you at least 12 readings and will help your health care provider make … about your blood pressure treatment.
Exercise 15. Put the sentences into the correct order to measure your blood pressure:
How the Blood pressure measurement is performed
As the air continues to be let out, the sounds will disappear. The point at which the sound stops is recorded. This is the diastolic pressure.
You or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower edge of the cuff should be 1 inch above the bend of your elbow.
The cuff will be inflated quickly. This is done either by pumping the squeeze bulb or pushing a button. You will feel tightness around your arm.
Next, the valve of the cuff is opened slightly, allowing the pressure to slowly fall.
Your arm should be supported so that your upper arm is at heart level.
Sit in a chair with your back supported. Your legs should be uncrossed, and your feet on the floor.
As the pressure falls, the reading when the sound of blood pulsing is first heard is recorded. This is the systolic pressure.
Roll up your sleeve so that your arm is bare.
Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into English:
Постійний високий кров’яний тиск може призвести до інфаркту міокарда, серцевої недостатності, інсульту та ниркової недостатності.
Первинна гіпертонія зазвичай виникає без причин.
Вважається, що нормальний тиск – це 120/80.
Якщо зміна способу життя та здорове харчування не допомагають вилікувати гіпертонію, то можуть бути назначені ліки.
Немає очевидних причин, які могли б викликати гіпертонію.
Сидячий спосіб життя, куріння, погане харчування та зловживання алкоголем підвищують ризик розвитку постійної гіпертонії.
Успадковані генетичні мутації можуть бути однією з причин розвитку гіпертонії.
Статистика показує, що у багатьох людей з підвищеним кров’яним тиском є надлишкова вага.
Exercise 17. Describe the term “Hypertension” according to the table:
1. General characteristics 2. Symptoms 3. Analyses 4. Treatment 5. Complications Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What may persistent hypertension lead to?
2. What are the consequences of moderate elevation of blood pressure?
3. What is accelerated hypertension associated with?
4. What increases the risk of developing hypertension?
5. How is hypertension usually treated?
Дайте визначення:
гіпертонія
первинна гіпертонія
вторинна гіпертонія
гіпотонія
систолічний кров’яний тиск
діастолічний кров’яний тиск
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
ІНФАРКТ МІОКАРДУ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
consciousness, n ['kʌnʃəsnis] свідомість
exertion, n [igz'ɛ:ʃn] напруження
experience, v [iks'piəriəns] відчувати
indigestion, n [indi'dƷestʃən] нетравлення
ischemia, n [is'ki:miə] ішемія
interruption, n [intə'rʌpʃn] порушення
plaque, n [pla:k] бляшка
rupture, n ['rʌptʃə] розрив
Exercise 2. Speak correctly:
Myocardial infarction [maɪəˈkɑːdɪəl ɪnˈfɑːkʃ(ə)n ], blood supply [blʌd səˈplʌɪ ], angina pectoris [anˈdʒʌɪnə ˈpektərɪs], epigastrium [ˌɛpɪˈɡastrɪəm], echocardiography [ˌɛkəʊkɑːdɪˈɒɡrəfi], dispnea [dɪspˈniːə], erythrocyte [ɪˈrɪθrə(ʊ)sʌɪt], thrombus [ˈθrɒmbəs], accelerated heartbeat [əkˈseləreɪtɪd ˈhɑːtbiːt].
Exercise 3. Remember roots, suffixes, and prefixes related to the heart and blood vessels:
component meaning example
CARDIO- heart echocardiogram = sound wave image of the heart.
CYTE- cell thrombocyte = clot forming cell.
HAEM- blood haematoma - a tumour or swelling filled with blood.
THROMB- clot, lump thrombocytopenia = deficiency of thrombocytes in the blood
ERYTHRO- red erythrocyte = red blood cell
LEUKO- white leukocyte = white blood cell
VAS- vessel / duct cerebrovascular = blood vessels of the cerebrum of the brain.
HYPER- excessive hyperglycaemia = excessive levels of glucose in blood.
HYPO- deficient / below hypoglycaemia = abnormally low glucose blood levels.
-EMIA condition of blood anaemia = abnormally low levels of red blood cells.
Exercise 4. Read and learn the following word combinations. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. Interruption of blood supply – порушення кровопостачання
Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to a clot.
2. Occlusion of the coronary artery – закупорка коронарної артерії
Occlusion of the coronary artery which carries blood containing oxygen and other nutrients essential to the normal functioning of the heart muscle may be partial or complete.
3. Physical exertion – фізичне навантаження
Anybody who engages regularly in intense physical exertions is strongly advised to have routine echocardiographic screening.
4. Chest pain – біль у грудній клітині
Chest pain is discomfort or pain along the front of your body between the neck and upper abdomen. Any organ or tissue in the chest can be the source of pain including heart, lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, tendons, or nerves.
5. Silent myocardial infarction – безсимптномний інфаркт міокарду
A heart attack does not always have obvious symptoms, such as pain in the chest, shortness of breath and cold sweats. In fact, a heart attack can actually happen any symptoms. It is called a silent heart attack, or medically referred to as silent ischemia (lack of oxygen) to the heart muscle.
6. Echocardiography – ехокардіографія
Echocardiography is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of the heart. The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.
Exercise 5. Match the words from the left column with their synonyms in the right:
occlusion
muscle tissue
detect
shortness of breath
lipids
trigger
loss of consciousness
heart attack rates
treat
ischemia fatty acids
fainting
cure
incidence of MI
restriction in blood supply
blockage
cause
myocardium
diagnose
dyspnea
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Myocardial infarction commonly known as a heart attack is the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion of a coronary artery after the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. The resulting ischemia if left untreated for a sufficient period of time can cause damage or death of heart muscle tissue.
Heart attack rates are higher in intense exertions, such as psychological stress or physical exertion. Acute severe infection, such as pneumonia, can trigger myocardial infarction. Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, older age, tobacco smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, excessive alcohol consumption.
The onset of symptoms in myocardial infarction is usually gradual, over several minutes. Chest pain is the most common symptom of acute myocardial infarction and is often described as a sensation of tightness, pressure, or squeezing. Chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscle is termed angina pectoris. Pain radiates most often to the left arm, but may also radiate to the lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and epigastrium.
Other symptoms include weakness, nausea, vomiting, and palpitation. Loss of consciousness and sudden death can occur in myocardial infarction. Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one quarter of all myocardial infarctions is “silent”, without chest pain or other symptoms.
Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and various blood tests. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Most cases are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. The risk of a recurrent myocardial infarction decreases with blood pressure control and lifestyle changes, regular exercise, a certain diet for patients with heart disease, and limitation of smoking and alcohol intake.
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:
1. What is myocardial infarction?
2. What can untreated ischemia lead to?
3. What is the most common cause of myocardial infarction?
4. What are the important risk factors for myocardial infarction?
5. List all possible symptoms of myocardial infarction.
6. What diagnostic tests are used to detect heart muscle damage?
7. What does immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction include?
8. What should people do to decrease the risk of a recurrent myocardial infarction?
Exercise 8. Read and translate the following word-combinations:
Interruption of blood supply; rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque; intense exertions; obesity, chronic kidney disease and heart failure; a sensation of tightness, pressure, or squeezing; angina pectoris, a feeling of indigestion and fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and palpitation, to decrease the risk of a recurrent myocardial infarction.
Exercise 9. What do these medical terms mean?
1. dyspepsia
2. thrombus
3. flatulence
4. emesis
5. palpitation
6. retching
7. dyspnea
8. anorexia a) gases
b) vomiting
c) shortness of breath
d) loss of appetite
e) nausea
f) accelerated heartbeat
g) indigestion
h) clot
Exercise 10. What symptom is described?
Malaise, angina, heartburn, murmurs, dyspnea, sweating, arrhythmia, indigestion
1. Difficulty in breathing;
2. Process of eliminating fluid through the pores of the skin;
3. Burning sensation beneath the breastbone caused by irritation of the esophagus;
4. Feeling of unease or a mild sickness;
5. Difficulty in digesting food, accompanied by abdominal pain, belching, etc.;
6. Pressure in the chest;
7. Abnormal sound heard through a stethoscope over the region of the heart;
8. Any deviation from the normal rhythm in the heartbeat.
Exercise 11. What disease is described?
Heart attack, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, hypertension, pneumonia, obesity
a) high pressure (tension) in the arteries;
b) a medical condition when a patient has too much body fat;
c) an inflammation of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi;
d) a process of progressive thickening and hardening of the artery walls as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining;
e) chest discomfort that occurs when there is decreased blood oxygen supply to an area of the heart muscle;
f) a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood;
g) the death of heart muscle from the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot;
h) inflammation of the gall bladder due to bacterial infection or the presence of gallstones.
Exercise 12. Fill in the table “Myocardial Infarction”:
1 Definition 2 Causes 3 Symptoms 4 Risk factors for recurrent MI 5 Examinations 6 Treatment Exercise 13. Read the passage on heart transplantation and fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions:
After, in, for, as, to, of, from
One of the most important advances ….. heart surgery during the 1960s was the transplantion of the health heart immediately ….. the death of an individual (the donor) ….. a recipient suffering ….. incurable heart disease. In the 1980s new advances in the design and construction ….. an artificial heart – both the entire organ and such parts as the valves and large blood vessels – showed some promise in treating cardiovascular disease. The artificial heart has often been used …… a temporary measure until a permanent human donor heart can be located. In addition, it is often unclear how long the recipient will have to wait ….. a donor.
Exercise 14. Re-write sentences opening the brackets:
Last year the patient Green, aged 65, (to admit) to the hospital with acute chest pain. He (to experience) shortness of breath and pain that (to radiate) to the left arm. The doctor immediately (to suspect) a heart attack and (to make) the patient (to take) an ECG. The diagnosis (to confirm) by the abnormal reading of the ECG. The blood analyses (to reveal) a number of cardiac enzymes. The cardiologist (to administer) his patient an adequate treatment. To relieve pain he (to give) nitroglycerin. Fortunately, the patient (not to have) any complications, because the doctor’s help (to be) prompt and thorough. Very soon patient Green’s condition (to improve).
Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. A myocardial infarction is also known as a heart attack.
2. A MI means the death of heart muscle.
3. A MI is caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot.
4. Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with blood and oxygen.
5. Blockage of a coronary artery deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen.
6. The onset of symptoms in myocardial infarction is usually gradual.
7. Acute severe infection, such as pneumonia, can trigger myocardial infarction.
8. In MI pain radiates most often to the left arm.
Exercise 16. Translate into English:
1. Інфаркт міокарду – це серцевий напад, спричинений зупинкою кровопостачання ділянки серця, що викликає пошкодження серцевого м'яза.
2. Найбільш поширеним симптомом є біль у грудях або дискомфорт, який може переміщатися в плече, руку, спину, шию або щелепу.
3. Дискомфорт може іноді відчуватися як печія. Інші симптоми можуть включати утруднене дихання, нудота, слабкість, холодний піт, або відчуття втоми.
4.Аспірин є підходящим негайним лікуванням при підозрі на ІМ.
5. Нітрогліцерин може бути використаний, щоб допомогти з болем в грудній клітині.
6. Після інфаркту міокарда рекомендуються зміни способу життя, поряд з довгостроковою перспективою лікування за допомогою аспірину, бета-блокаторів і статинів.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення:
постачати кров та кисень
пошкодження сердечного м’язу
відчуття тиснення
висока частотність сердечних нападів
обмеження споживання тютюну та алкоголю
сильний грудний біль
печія та нетравлення шлунку
відчувати слабкість та нездужання
розрив атеросклеротичної бляшки
серцева недостатність
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What is a myocardial infarction?
What does the blockage of the coronary artery cause?
What are all possible symptoms of MI?
What diagnostic tests are used to detect heart muscle damage?
What should people do to decrease the risk of a recurrent myocardial infarction?
III. Розкрийте поняття терміну: інфаркт міокарду
The diseases of the stomach
Захворювання шлунку
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
antacid n [ˌænt'æsɪd] антацид, нейтралізатор кислотності
anti-inflammatory drug n [‘æntiɪnˈflæm əˌtɔri ‘drʌg] протизапальний засіб
belching n [belʧiŋ] відрижка
bile adj. [baɪl] жовчний
bloating n [blo͟ʊtɪŋ] здуття
consumption n [kən'sempʃ(ə)n] вживання
cytoprotective agent n ['saitə(u) prə'tektiv 'eɪdʒ(ə)nt] цитопротекторний засіб
gastroscopy n [gæ'strɔskəpi] гастроскопія
heartburn n [ˈhɑːtbɜːn] печія
heal n, v [hi:l] загоювання, загоюватися
ibuprofen n [ˌaɪbjuːˈprofən] ібупрофен
helicobacter pylori n [‘helikəu’bæktə pai’lɔ:rai] хелiкобактер пiлори
indigestion n [indi'dʒesʧ(ə)n] розлад травлення
inhibitor n [in'hibitə] інгібітор
lining n ['lainiŋ] вистелення
pernicious aneamia n [pə'niʃəs ə'ni:mɪə] злоякісна анемія
pertain v [pəˈteɪn] належати, підходити
proton pump inhibitor n ['prəʊtɔn pʌ̱mp in'hibitə] інгібітор протонової помпи
reflux n [ˈriːflʌks] зворотній відтік
stomach biopsy n ['stʌmək 'baɪɔpsɪ]] біопсія шлунка
Exercise 2. Using adjective ending – ic or –al write a word for each of the following definitions:
E.g. Pertaining to the caecum - caecal
Pertaining to the stomach –
Pertaining to the intestines –
Pertaining to the duodenum –
Pertaining to the epigastrium –
Pertaining to the rectum –
Pertaining to the anus –
Pertaining to the liver –
Pertaining to the pancreas -
Exercise 3. Choose the word or phrase that doesn’t go with the topic “gastritis”:
gastritis vomiting abdominal disease stomatitis
AIDS loss of appetite jaundice urticaria
tuberculosis bile ducts feeling of fullness convulsive
peptic ulcer stool samples pernicious anemia hepatic insufficiency
nausea bronchitis stomach cells renal impairment
Exercise 4. Read the following word-combinations and translate them into your native language:
The lining of the stomach, extensive alcohol consumption, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chronic bile reflux, dull, vague, burning, sharp or gnawing pain, blood-streaked vomiting, bloating and belching, pernicious anemia and heartburn, complete blood count test, to trigger the inflammation, over-the-counter antacids, life-threatening consequences of the disease, to weaken the stomach protective mucosa, damaging effect of acid, to be more susceptible, to contribute to ulcer recurrence, to stimulate acid secretion in the stomach, to aggravate the pain, between the breastbone and the navel.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
The diseases of the Stomach
The stomach is an important organ in the body that plays a vital role in digestion of foods, releases various enzymes and also protects the lower intestine from harmful organisms.
Most common disorders affecting the stomach are gastritis and gastric ulcer.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Gastric (peptic) ulcer is a sore (lesion) in the stomach's mucous membrane. It contains special cells producing acids and enzymes, that help break down food, and mucus protecting the stomach lining from acid. When the stomach lining is inflamed, it produces less acid, enzymes, and mucus.
The causes of these two diseases are very much alike.
The main acute causes are extensive alcohol consumption or prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, traumatic injury or severe infections. Chronic causes are chronic bile reflux. But the primary cause is the infection caused by bacteria, Helicobacter pylori. The bacteria produce substances that weaken the stomach's protective mucosa and make it more susceptible to the damaging effects of acid and pepsin.
Gastritis and gastric ulcers are often linked to heavy alcohol consumption. Caffeine stimulates acid secretion in the stomach aggravating the pain and contributes to recurrence.
People with gastritis and peptic ulcers experience dull, burning, sharp or gnawing abdominal pain between the breastbone and the navel. The patient may suffer from nausea, belching, bloating and heartburn.
Patients with gastritis suffer from vomiting that may be clear, green or blood-streaked, depending on the severity of the inflammation. Other symptoms typical for gastritis are indigestion and pernicious anemia.
A diagnosis of gastric disease is made on the basis of the symptoms, complete blood count test, presence of H. pylori, urinalyses, stool samples, endoscopy, stomach biopsy, etc.
Once the cause of the disease is identified, exposure should be avoided. If some food is triggering the inflammation, you should exclude it. Over-the-counter antacids in liquid or tablet forms treat mild gastritis and peptic ulcer. Antacids neutralize stomach acid and can provide fast pain relief. Proton pump inhibitor appears to inhibit H.pylori activity. Cytoprotective agents protect the tissues lining the stomach. Consumption of hot or spicy food is contraindicated. Patients with pernicious anemia are given B12 injections. Most patients use a combination of antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor to treat H.pylori infection.
If left untreated, gastritis may lead to stomach ulcers and stomach bleeding. Life-threatening consequences of the disease can be stomach cancer.
Exercise 6 Answer the following questions:
What are the functions of the stomach?
What is the function stomach lining?
What are the diseases of the stomach?
What are alike symptoms do gastritis and peptic ulcer have?
What are the causes of gastritis and peptic ulcer?
How are gastric diseases treated?
What is the diagnosis of gastric diseases based on?
What are the complications of gastritis?
Exercise 7. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones:
зловживання алкоголю over-the-counter drugs
печія та нудота life-threatening consequences of the disease
ліки, що дозволені до продажу без рецепту heartburn and nausea
загрозливі для життя наслідки хвороби contribute to recurrence
сприяти рецидиву abdominal bloating
розгорнутий аналіз крові pernicious aneamia
блювота з домішками крові extensive alcohol consumption
посилювати біль complete blood count test
злоякісна анемія blood-streaked vomiting
здуття черевної порожнини aggravate the pain
Exercise 8. Say whether the sentences are true or false:
Peptic ulcer is an erosion of the stomach mucosa.
Gastritis is caused by autoimmune disorders.
Cytoprotective agents are used to fight with the H.pylori.
Peptic ulcer is characterized by fever and rash covering the whole body.
Feeling full after only a few bites of food is one of the symptoms of gastritis.
Treatment of gastritis includes taking antacids and antibiotics.
The most common symptom of peptic ulcer is pain in the pelvic cavity.
Many patients with gastritis may experience no symptoms at all.
Exercise 9. Match the following terms with their definition:
Gastritis Expelling the wind from the stomach noisily through the mouth
2. Belching
An adjunct to diagnosis that involves removing a small sample of living tissue from the body for examining under the microscope
Peptic ulcer is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found in the stomach, and may be present in other parts of the body, such as the eyeGastrectomy A flexible instrument, comprising fiber optics or a miniature video camera, that permits internal visual examination of the stomach
Biopsy painful sore in the lining of the stomachGastroscope Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSAIDs An inflammation of the stomach lining (mucosa)
8. Helicobacter pylori The surgical removal of a part of the stomach
Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box:
Alcohol, spicy foods, infection, perforate, H.pylori, pernicious aneamia, bile reflux, NSAIDs
…………… or smoking can make gastritis worse.
Consumption of ……………. and alcohol should be strictly prohibited in patient with gastritis.
You’re more likely to develop gastritis if you’re at risk of …………..
You may need surgery if your ulcers ………….., bleed or obstruct the stomach.
…………….. weakens the lining so acid can reach the stomach and duodenal wall.
…………….. are a class of drugs that provides analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
Chronic cause of gastritis may be …… that is a backflow of bile into the stomach.
……………. occurs when the stomach lacks red blood cells or hemoglobin needed to properly absorb and digest vitamin B12.
Exercise 11. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:
1. Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to зловживанню алкоголем, chronic vomiting, stress.
2. The patient has been suffering from a здуття черевної порожнини for a prolonged period of time.
3. Ліки, що дозволені до продажу без рецепту may relieve pain in mild forms of gastritis.
4. Gastric cancer is загрозливий для життя наслідок хвороби caused by the atrophic gastritis.
5. The patient was complaining of відрижку that gave him only a temporary полегшення of pain.
6. It is important to administer a patient розгорнутий аналіз крові to identify the inflammation or some other deviation from the norm.
7. Злоякісна анемія was a fatal disease before about the year 1920, when George Whipple suggested raw liver as a treatment.
8. Хронічний відтік жовчі is considered to be one of the least causes of gastritis.
Exercise 12. Look through the text and find out expressions synonymic to the given ones:
The major cause, to make pain worse, acid production, alcohol intake, hemorrhage, dangerous results, drugs sold without prescription, the return of the disease.
Exercise 13. Choose the correct word that completes each of the following sentences:
Ulcer and cirrhosis are not (rare, rear) diseases among those who are prone to alcohol.
The animal insulin can (course, cause, corse) allergic reactions.
At later stages gastric cancer can be treated but rarely can be (diagnosed, cured).
When gastric cancer is found at an early stage, there is better chance of (convalescence, premature death).
Smokers, who have stopped smoking, (lower, increase) their risk of getting gastritis.
Stomach cancer is a disease in which (malignant, benign) cells appear in the stomach.
Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses (chemical drugs, rays) to stop the growth of cancer cells.
After the stomach surgery the patient should take vitamin (supplements, addition) and injections of vitamin B12.
Exercise 14. Learn the following Greek and Latin terms denoting medicine:
________algia – pain in an organ
________scope – denotes a viewing instrument, used for examining smth
________itis - denotes inflammation of an organ
________logy – denotes a branch of science
________tomy - combining form meaning “cutting, incision” of an organ
________ectomy - meaning “excision” of the part specified by the initial element
________rrhagia – means “profuse discharge,” “abnormal profuse flow”
________malacia – means softening, or loss of consistency, of an organ or tissue
Exercise 15. Add the missing part of the clinical terms pertaining to the pathology of the stomach:
Gastro __________(an instrument inserted through the mouth to inspect the inside of the stomach)
Gastr __________ (the surgical removal of a part of the stomach)
Gastr________(inflammation of the stomach lining)
Gastro_________ (softening of stomach lining due to poor blood supply or an inflammation)
Gastroentero______ (the branch of medicine that is concerned with the disorders of the gastrointestinal tract)
Gastros ______ (surgical incision into the stomach)
Gastro__________ (a bleeding from the blood vessels and the stomach lining)
Gastr___________ (pain in the stomach or abdominal region)
Exercise 16. Translate sentences into your native language paying attention to Gerund:
Reading of scientific journals is useful. – Читання наукових журналів дуже корисно.
I like being read. – Я люблю, коли мені читають.
Having examined the patient the doctor made a diagnosis. – Оглянувши пацієнта, лікар поставив діагноз.
After having been examined by a doctor, the patient got a prescription. – Після того, як його оглянув лікар, пацієнт отримав рецепт.
1. I remember having been treated for pneumonia at this hospital.
2. The scientist continued investigating the properties of blood gases.
3. The dissecting room is worth visiting.
4. The patient had to give up going in for sport because of the disease of the joints.
5. After having been told the results of the X-ray examination the physician wrote them down in the patient's case history.
6. No physician can make a proper diagnosis without having examined the patient.
7. The patient with gastritis keeps complaining of her stomachache despite the prescribe treatment.
8. The doctor insisted on doubling the dose of anti-aneamia drug to the patient with pernicious aneamia.
Exercise 17. Complete the sentences choosing suitable words from the box:
Moaning, prescribing, secreting, defining, having, smoking, relieving, bleeding
There are millions of people all over the world who gave up ………….
The gastric glands begin ………… before food enters the stomach.
The patient started ………. when the doctor began palpating his abdomen.
Erosions, ulcers and tumours can cause ………………..
Administration of drugs is an important part of ……… symptoms of gastritis.
The patient complained of …………. severe headaches which were not relieved by medications.
Making a correct diagnosis and ……………..a proper treatment leads to a quick recovery.
The blood can’t be transfused without …………. its blood group.
Exercise 18. Put questions to underlined words:
Stomach acids contribute to ulcer formation.
Slight elevation of temperature is observed in acute gastritis.
A diagnosis can be based on the history changes of the chest X-ray.
The patient has noticed that her gastric pains appear after eating.
There are several types of gastritis.
The pain often occurs between meals and early in the morning.
The bacteria have produced substances that weaken the stomach’s mucosa.
The patient felt much relief after having taken this drug.
Exercise 19. Open the brackets and translate the sentences:
Indirect laryngoscopy usually (to disclose) marked erythema of the mucous membrane.
Next Monday the patient suffering from severe liver damage (to make) a dialysis.
Preventive measures already (to carry) out to prevent early signs of gastric cancer.
The patient (to feel) relief after he (to take) this medicine 2 hours before.
While the doctor (to examine) the patient, he (to notice) the enlargement of lymphatic glands.
If gastritis (not to treat) properly, it will lead to even cancer of the stomach.
The patient (to suffer) from chronic gastritis for over 3 years.
This patient (to become) ambulatory 2 weeks ago.
Exercise 20. Translate into English:
1. Гастрит – це запалення слизової оболонки шлунка, спричинене надмірним вживання алкоголю чи не стероїдним препаратами.
2. Більшість людей, які хворіють на гастрит, спочатку не відчувають розладів травної системи.
3. Виразка шлунку супроводжується нудотою, блювотою з домішками крові, відрижкою, та іншими розладами травної системи.
4. Пацієнти повинні уникати вживання гострої їжі, алкогольних напоїв та припинити палити.
5. Антацидні препарати дуже часто призначають для лікування гастриту.
6. Антацидні препарати дуже добре нейтралізують кисле середовище у шлунку і швидко знімають біль.
7. Гастрит може проходити з підвищеною або зниженою кислотністю.
8. Пацієнти можуть відчувати печію та здуття черевної порожнини.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
1. загрозлива для життя хвороба
2. печія та здуття черевної порожнини
3. ліки, що дозволені до продажу без рецепту
4. розгорнутий аналіз крові
5. злоякісна анемія
6. вистилка шлунку
7. зловживання алкоголю
8. значне полегшення
9. наслідки хвороби
10. блювота з домішками крові
Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
1.What are the diseases of the stomach?
2. What are the symptoms of gastritis and peptic ulcer?
3.What are the causes of gastritis and peptic ulcer?
4.How are gastric diseases treated?
5.What is the diagnosis of gastric diseases based on?
6.What are the complications of gastritis?
ІІІ. Дайте визначення: гастрит, виразка шлунку
ХОЛЕЦИСТИТ
Cholecystitis
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
Advent, n [´ædvənt] поява
Cholelithiasis, n [,kבləliθi'eisis] жовчокам’яна хвороба
Correlate, v [´kבrilait] бути у співвідношенні
Disability, n [,disə´biliti] непрацездатність
Incision. n [in´siʒ(ə)n] надріз
Irritate. v [´iriteit] дратувати
Exercise 2. a)Read the following word-combinations and translate them:
Treatment: emergency treatment, effective treatment, immediate treatment, inpatient treatment, long-term treatment
Diagnosis: correct diagnosis; definite diagnosis; delayed diagnosis, initial diagnosis
Inflammation: severe inflammation; painful inflammation; acute inflammation; to reduce inflammation; signs of inflammation
Substance: dangerous substance; harmful substance; toxic substance; pure substance; soluble substance
b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:
Exercise 3. Translate the following word-combinations:
obstruction of the cystic duct; accumulation of bile; swelling of the gallbladder; normal blood flow; insufficient oxygen; delayed diagnosis; morbidity and mortality; intense pain; umbilical area; tender and distended; cold perspiration; severe tenderness; irritation of the peritoneum; slight jaundice of sclerae; greasy, fatty, or fried foods; to result from the effect of toxic substances; several small incisions; surgical site infection
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:
Acute Cholecystitis
Cholecystitis (Greek, -cholecyst, "gallbladder", combined with the suffix -itis, "inflammation") is inflammation of the gallbladder, which occurs most commonly due to gallstones (cholelithiasis). Blockage of the cystic duct with gallstones causes accumulation of bile in the gallbladder and increased pressure within the gallbladder. Concentrated bile, pressure, and sometimes bacterial infection irritate and damage the gallbladder wall, causing inflammation. Inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder can be reduced to areas of the gallbladder, which can lead to cell death. The main forms of cholecystitis are the following: catarrhal, purulent and gangrenous.
Risk factors for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis are similar and include increasing age, female sex, pregnancy, certain medications, obesity, and rapid weight loss. Females are twice as likely to develop cholecystitis as males. Uncomplicated cholecystitis has an excellent prognosis; however, more than 25% of patients require surgery or develop complications. Complications of acute cholecystitis increases morbidity and mortality. The patient with cholecystitis is known to complain of intense pain, localized in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical area
The gallbladder may be tender and distended. During the attack of pain the face is moist with cold perspiration, the skin is pale, and the tongue and lips are dry. Even a slight palpation reveals severe tenderness due to irritation of the peritoneum. Approximately in 50% of cases there is slight jaundice of sclerae. The pain grows much worse when the patient is lying on his right side. It may also correlate with eating greasy, fatty, or fried foods. Diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea are common.
The chemical blood analysis is known to reveal some changes; they result from the effect of toxic substances in the liver. For most patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis, the definitive treatment is surgical removal of the gallbladder, cholecystectomy.
Purulent form of cholecystitis is highly dangerous to life and requires an emergency operation. An even more severe course is observed in gangrenous cholecystitis. Recovery is achieved by surgical treatment, it being followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy.
Since the advent of laparoscopic surgery in the early 1990s, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed using several small incisions located at various points across the abdomen. Several studies have demonstrated the superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to open cholecystectomy. Patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery report less incisional pain postoperatively as well as fewer long - term complications and less disability following the surgery. Additionally, laparoscopic surgery is associated with a lower rate of surgical site infection.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text:
What is cholecystitis?
What are the main forms of cholecystitis?
What are the manifestations of cholecystitis?
Where is the pain localized in attack of cholecystitis?
When does the pain grow worse in acute cholecystitis?
Where can the pain irradiate in case of acute cholecystitis?
Exercise 6.Memorize the meaning of the following term-elements.
Chole- [kבli] - combining form of Greek origin denoting bile
Hepato- [hepatב] - combing form of Greek origin denoting liver
Read the definition and fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets.
1. A malignant tumour of the liver in newborns or children
2. A specialist in liver diseases
Any disease of the liver
4. The scientific study about liver diseases - ... .
5. Gallbladder - ... .
6. A malignant tumour of the liver
7. Inflammation of the gallbladder
8. The surgical cutting (incision) of the gallbladder
9. Surgical removal of the gall-bladder
10. Any disease of the gallbladder
11. Originating in the liver
12. An abnormal enlargement of the liver caused by congestion, inflammation, or a tumour
13 .Inflammation of the gallbladder, characterized by fever, jaundice and weakness
14.Radiography of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast medium
(hepatology, hepatitis, hepatoblastoma, hepatoma, hepatologist, hepatopathy, hepatomegaly, hepatogenous, cholecystitis, cholecyst, cholecystectomy, cholecystopathy, cholecystotomy, cholecystography)
Exercise 7.Match the explanations with the terms.
1. A condition in which bowel evacuations occur infrequently and cause difficulty or pain. a. inflammation
2. A yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, indicating excess bilirubin in the blood. b. gall-bladder
3. The process of examining part of the body by careful feeling with the hands or fingertips c. constipation
4. A pear-shaped sac lying underneath the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored d. palpation
5. The body’s response to injury, which may be acute or chronic. It is characterized by five signs: swelling, pain, redness, warmth and dysfunction e. jaundice
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 8. Find the corresponding equivalents; memorize the meanings of these word combinations.
місце хірургічної інфекції, невелика жовтяниця склер, біль в розрізі, пупкова область, сальні, жирні або смажені продукти, накопичення жовчі, швидка втрата ваги, недолік кисню, сильний біль, сильна хворобливість
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to the construction Complex subject:
This diet seems to be good for the patients and should be recommended.
The basic mode of action is thought to be the same.
An ECG-based diagnosis may prove to be extremely difficult in patients with re-infarction.
A new imaging system is expected to give radiology additional information to guide biopsy recommendation.
Coronary patients are established to be at an increased risk of cardiac infarction.
Environmental factors are known to of significance.
Additional studies are required to determine the precise role of protein.
Sometimes pain is observed to appear suddenly in quite healthy persons.
The chemical blood analysis is known to reveal some changes, they resulting from the effect of toxic substances in the liver.
This phenomenon has been found to have a wide occurrence.
Exercise 10. Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense of the Indefinite group. Translate the sentences:
1. Products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion (to be absorbed) from the gastrointestinal tract by the liver in which they (to undergo) further chemical processes.
2. The liver (to destroy) toxic substances which usually (to be formed) in the intestinal tract as well as some poisons which (to enter) the body from without.
3. Jaundice (to be known) to be the disease which (to be due to) the presence of a large amount of bilirubin in the blood and tissues.
Exercise 11. Choose the appropriate form of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences:
1. The patient was known ... stool retention accompanied by nausea a month before his present admission to the hospital. ( a) to have; b) to have had; c) to be having)
2. Sensitivity to antibiotics was reported ... not only in this patient but in all the other members of the family as well since their early age. ( a) to be present; b) to have been present)
3. Prophylactic vaccination was found ... since no cases of hepatitis were diagnosed after its administration. ( a) to be effective; b) to have been effective)
4. Skin irritation was revealed ... after each parenteral administration of this preparation. ( a) to occur; b) to have occurred; c) to be occurring)
Exercise12. Put questions to the underlined words:
Hydrochloric acid is greatly diminished or absent in untreated cases of chronic gastritis.
Cases of appendicitis have been noted even in infants.
Tuberculosis may affect not only the lungs but also other organs.
The pain often occurs between meals and early in the morning.
Blood pressure involves two measurements.
The blood analysis revealed moderate leucocytosis and an elevated ESR.
People with ulcers may experience serious complications.
The bacterium produces substances that weaken the stomach’s protective mucosa.
Symptoms vary with the severity of the inflammation.
On admission to the hospital the patient complained of a severe pain in the epigastrium.
Exercise 13. Translate into English:
Причинами виникнення холециститу є ураження різними інфекційними хворобами.
Останнім часом виникнення холециститу пов'язують також з вірусною природою (внаслідок вірусного гепатиту).
Сприяють виникненню холециститу застій жовчі в жовчному міхурі, наявність жовчних каменів, дискінезія жовчних шляхів, яка виникає під впливом стресових станів і негативних емоцій, розладнання функцій ендокринної, центральної і вегетативної нервових систем.
Велику роль у цієї хвороби відіграють переїдання, особливо жирної їжі, надмірна маса тіла, гіподинамія, шкідливі звички: споживання алкоголю,курінняВиділяють гострий і хронічний холецистит, які важко піддаються лікуванню.
Холецистит часто ускладнюється запаленням жовчних шляхів (холенгітом), іноді запаленням підшлункової залози (панкреатитом).
Основні ознаки гострого холециститу: нападоподібні болі в правій половині живота, що іррадіюють в праве плече, лопатку; нудота і блювота; озноб і підвищення температури тіла; можливі жовтяниця і свербіння шкірного покриву.
Небезпечне ускладнення холециститу— перитоніт.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть словосполучення:
жовтяниця склер
накопичення жовчі
пупкова область
гнійна форма холециститу
нудота і блювота
сильний біль
сильна хворобливість
2. Дати відповіді на запитання:
What is cholecystitis?
What are the main forms of cholecystitis?
What are the manifestations of cholecystitis?
Where is the pain localized in attack of cholecystitis?
When does the pain grow worse in acute cholecystitis?
Where can the pain irradiate in case of acute cholecystitis?
3. Розкрийте поняття: Cholecystitis
RENAL DISEASES
ЗАХВОРЮВАННЯ НИРОК
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
albuminuria, n [æl'bju:mi'nju:riǝ] альбумінурія (наявність білків у сечі)
ascending, adj [ǝ'sendiŋ] висхідний
bacteriuria, n [ˏbæktiri'ju:ǝriǝ] бактеріурія (наявність бактерій у сечі)
calculus, -i (pl.), n ['kælkjʋləs, -lai] камінь (у нирці чи жовчному міхурі)
cloudy, adj ['klaʋdi] каламутний
concomitant, adj [kǝn'kɒmitǝnt] супровідний
dull, adj [dʌl] тупий
glomerulus, -i (pl.), n [glə'merələs, -lai] гломерула, клубочок
haematuria, n [ˏhemǝ'tjuǝriǝ] гематурія (наявність крові в сечі)
loins, pl. n [lɔinz] поперек
penetrate, v ['penitreit] проникати
persistent, adj [pə'sistənt] тривалий
purulent, adj ['pjʋərələnt] гнійний
renal failure, n ['ri:nəl 'feiljə] ниркова недостатність
scarred, adj ['ska:d] вкритий рубцями
stag-horn, adj [stæɡhɔːn] розгалужений
swelling, n ['sweliη] набряк, опухлість
subside, v [səb'said] спадати
ultimate ['ʌltimeit] остаточний

Exercise 2. Form the plural form of the following nouns. Pronounce the pair of words correctly:
E.g. calculus – calculi
glomerulus, alveolus, bronchus, nucleus, bacillus, stimulus, terminus, ramus, fungus, coccus, focus.
Exercise 3. a) Refresh your knowledge about the kidneys by answering the questions:
1. What system do the kidneys belong to?
2. Where are the kidneys located?
3. What are the kidneys covered by?
4. What is the structural unit of the kidneys?
5. What are the functions of the kidneys?
6. What diseases of kidneys do you know?
b) Read the abstract and fill in the gaps with appropriate words:
surrounded by, third lumbar vertebrae, the urinary system,
connective renal capsule, filter blood, lies
Kidneys are the primary organs of __________. They are the organs that __________, remove wastes from it and then excrete them in the urine. The paired kidneys are located between the twelfth thoracic and __________: one on each side of the vertebral column. The right kidney usually __________ lower than the left one. Each kidney is held in place by connective tissue and is __________ a thick layer of adipose tissue. __________ closely envelopes each kidney and provides support for the soft tissue that is inside.
Exercise 4. a) Match the term element with its meaning:
pyel(o) heart
hepato lung
cardio nerve
angio liver
pulm(o) chest
neuro brain
pector kidney pelvis
cerebr(o) vessel
b) Guess what is meant:
pulmonologist, angioplasty, cerebrology, hepatocyte, pyelonephritis, neurologist, pectoralgia, cardiodynamics
1. Study of the brain
2. Inflammation of the kidney pelvis
3. Specialist who deals with nervous diseases
4. Specialist in lung diseases
5. Pain in the chest
6. Cell of the liver
7. Surgical restoration of blood vessels
8. Mechanism of the heart activity
Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian:
to remove waste products, to cause renal diseases, to subside within a month, to penetrate into the urinary tract, to lead to renal failure, to reveal any renal disease, to be replaced by the non-functional tissue, an inflammation of the glomeruli, an ascending infection of the kidney, concomitant diseases, dull pain in the loins, without producing any symptoms, ultimate loss of the kidney, migration of a stone, resultant stasis and infection, frequency or urgency of urination.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
RENAL DISEASES
Kidneys are the organs of the urinary system. They serve as the body’s filters that remove waste products from the body and regulate the water balance. If the kidneys’ function is seriously damaged, this causes the development of various renal diseases such as nephritis, pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, pyonephrosis (purulent inflammation of the kidney), hydronephrosis (“water inside the kidney”), renal failure, kidney cancer.
Nephritis (nephro – combining form denoting kidney) is a group of inflammatory renal diseases. The most common type of nephritis is glomerulonephritis. It is the inflammation of the glomeruli, small round filters located in the kidney. Glomerulonephritis usually develops a few weeks after a streptococcal infection of the throat or skin. The symptoms of glomerulonephritis are fatigue, high blood pressure, swelling of the face, hands, ankles and feet. With proper medical treatment, symptoms usually subside within a month.
Pyelonephritis (pyel(o) – combining form denoting the pelvis of the kidney) is an ascending infection of the kidney, caused by bacteria that penetrates into the urinary tract from outside through the urethra. It may also ensue in the course of such concomitant diseases as cystitis in women, glomerulonephritis, or urinary stone disease (urolithiasis). Pyelonephritis can be acute or chronic.
Acute pyelonephritis often begins suddenly with chills. The patient has the general set of symptoms: malaise, headache, profuse sweating, nausea and vomiting. Then, the fever raises rapidly up to 39-40 °C. It is usually accompanied with the dull pain in the loins on the side of the affected kidney. The urine is cloudy and bloody due to the presence of bacteria, protein, and erythrocytes in it. Chronic pyelonephritis results from the undertreated acute form of the disease. It is often asymptomatic and can be detected only by means of urinalysis or if the patient has persistent hypertension. In chronic pyelonephritis, the normal renal tissue is replaced by the connective non-functional one. The kidney becomes small and scarred that leads to renal failure. Among other complications are pyonephrosis and urosepsis (presence of urine waste products throughout the body).
Nephrolithiasis (nephro – meaning kidney, lithi – meaning stone), or renal calculi, is another renal disease. Its manifestations are extremely variable. In many cases, stones are carried in the kidneys for years without producing any symptoms. Sometimes, a mild infection develops in the pelvis around a tiny stone. If the stone is large, or several are present, the infection may result in the destruction and ultimate loss of the kidney. The size of a calculus varies from very small gravel to a large stag-horn stone which can fill the renal pelvis. The biggest risk factor for kidney stones is not drinking enough fluids. Kidney stones are more likely to occur when less than 1 liter of urine is produced during a day.
Migration of a stone can cause obstruction with resultant stasis and infection. Persistent or repeated obstruction leads to pyonephrosis or hydronephrosis. When a stone enters and obstructs the ureter, renal colic occurs. There may also appear nausea, vomiting, perspiration, frequency or urgency of urination, etc.
To reveal any renal disease, a full urological investigation must be carried out. It includes urinalysis that detects such signs of urinary tract infection as haematuria, albuminuria, bacteriuria, etc.; a urine test strip that reveals the presence of leukocytosis; blood tests; microbiological culture of the urine and antibiotic sensitivity testing.
If timely revealed and treated, renal diseases can be successfully cured with the return of the normal kidney function.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:
1. What is the main function of the kidneys?
2. What does the renal damage cause?
3. How is a group of inflammatory renal diseases called?
4. What is glomerulonephritis? What are its manifestations?
5. What are the causes of pyelonephritis?
6. How are the acute and chronic forms of pyelonephritis manifested?
7. What are the complications of pyelonephritis?
8. What is nephrolithiasis? What is the risk factor of the disease?
9. What does the migration of a renal calculus lead to?
10. How can renal diseases be revealed?
Exercise 8. Match the English word-combinations with their Ukrainian equivalents:
1. to produce urine a) стійка гіпертонія
2. affected kidney b) тест-смужка для аналізу сечі
3. variable manifestations c) легка інфекція
4. mild infection d) уражена нирка
5. stag-horn stone e) подальший застій
6. urine test strip f) розгалужений камінь
7. resultant stasis g) виробляти сечу
8. persistent hypertension h) різні прояви
Exercise 9. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words / word-combinations:
urgency of urination, perspiration, hematuria, bacteriuria, cloudy,
renal colic, swelling, albuminuria,
1. When a renal calculus enters the ureter and obstructs it, __________ __________ appears.
2. Presence of bacteria in urine is called __________ .
3. Abnormal enlargement of face, hands or feet due to excess water in the body is known as __________.
4. The excretion of fluid through the sweat glands of the skin is called __________ .
5. When urine is not transparent or clear, it is __________ .
6. When the urine contains a large amount of proteins, it is called __________ .
7. The constant need to pass urine is also known as __________ _____ ___________.
8. Presence of blood cells in urine is a sign of __________ .
Exercise 10. Guess the renal / urinary disease:
1. malignant tumour of a kidney that leads to death;
2. purulent inflammation of a kidney;
3. presence of stones in the kidney;
4. inflammation of small round filters, located in the kidneys;
5. accumulation of fluid in the renal pelvis due to outflow obstruction;
6. ascending renal infection caused by bacteria that penetrates through the urethra;
7. inability of the kidneys to perform their functions;
8. penetration of urine waste products into the blood.
Exercise 11. Find synonyms to the following word-combinations in the text:
1. renal filters
2. accompanying disease
3. kidney insufficiency
4. excessive sweating
5. high blood pressure
6. edema of feet
7. kidney stones
8. blockage of ureter
Exercise 12. Translate the words in italics into English:
1. Пошкоджені гломерули do not filter the blood properly.
2. If there is a (an) запалення нирок, they cannot function normally.
3. Kidneys are our body’s filters which видаляють відходи from the blood.
4. Renal calculi can be carried for years не викликаючи жодних симптомів.
5. The most common symptom for all renal diseases is набряк обличчя, рук та ніг.
6. The majority of pyelonephritis occurs due to bacteria that cause other супутні хвороби.
7. Постійна закупорка сечоводу with a calculus can lead to подальшого застою та інфекції.
8. Before treating glomerulonephritis, the doctor carried out аналіз на чутливість до антибіотиків.
Exercise 13. Say whether the following statements are true or false. If they are false, correct them:
1. Any kidney disease can be revealed with a urinalysis.
2. Hematuria implies the presence of proteins in the urine.
3. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the renal pelvis.
4. In pyonephrosis there is no pus accumulating in the kidney.
5. Persistent hypertension is a sign of chronic pyelonephritis.
6. The urine can be cloudy because of the presence of bacteria in it.
7. A stag-horn renal calculus doesn’t occupy the whole renal pelvis.
8. If a man drinks a lot of water, he is at risk of developing renal calculi.
Exercise 14. Insert the preposition where necessary:
1. Following … a strict diet means to avoid spicy and fatty food.
2. The patient experienced dull pain … the side of the affected kidney.
3. The presence of urine waste products … the body leads … urosepsis.
4. Some of genitourinary diseases are accompanied … painful urination.
5. The urinalysis was carried … yesterday, so you’ll find out your results soon.
6. The treatment of pyelonephritis consists … removing the underlying cause.
7. He bent forward to pick up the pill and suddenly felt burning pain … the loins.
8. To prevent the disease … recurrence, it is necessary to complete the course of treatment.
Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Chronic pyelonephritis leads to kidney failure.
2. Two forms of pyelonephritis are distinguished.
3. Pyelonephritis implies an ascending urinary tract infection.
4. Bacteria causing the UTI penetrate into the body through urethra.
5. Cystitis, glomerular nephritis, urorolithiasis may result in pyelonephritis.
6. The signs of urinary tract infections are haematuria, albuminuria, bacteriuria.
7. Appropriate antibiotics relieve the inflammatory process in the kidney.
8. The urine is cloudy and bloody as there are bacteria, protein, and erythrocytes in it.
Exercise 16. Re-write sentences using the appropriate tense form. Translate them:
1. Purulent inflammation of kidney (to know) as pyonephrosis.
2. Persistent hypertension (to indicate) the problems with kidneys.
3. He (to suffer) from obtuse pain in the loins since last month.
4. People with renal pathologies (should, to avoid) spicy and fatty food.
5. The detection of pyelonephritis (to be) always possible due to urinalyses.
6. During the previous examination the patient (to complain) of painful urination.
7. The patient (to recover) quickly from pyelonephritis, if he (to complete) his treatment.
8. The onset of pyelonephritis (to accompany) with malaise, profuse sweating, nausea and vomiting.
Exercise17. Read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the use of the pronouns one/ones. Say what function they perform in sentences:
1. Hard beds are healthier than soft ones.
2. These stretchers are broken. Take those ones.
3. I’ve lost my inhaler. I need a new one immediately.
4. Don’t put this white gown on, it's dirty. Put this one on.
5. If you haven’t got average syringes, small ones will also do.
6. Do you remember Dr. Green? – Is that the one who operated on me last year?
7. The doctor has asked me to bring another case history. This one is crumpled.
8. In chronic processes the normal organic tissue may be replaced by the non-functional one.
Exercise 18. Translate sentences into English using pronoun one/ones:
1. Ця історія хвороби вже заповнена, та – ще ні.
2. Ці пігулки однакові. Яку з них я маю прийняти?
3. Я розбила свій термометр, мені потрібен новий.
4. Права легеня складається з трьох доль, ліва – з двох.
5. Пієлонефрит – це бактеріальна хвороба, а не грибкова.
6. Лікар виписав мені антибактеріальні ліки, а також протизапальні.
7. Зараз він знаходиться у цій палаті, але згодом його переведуть до іншої.
8. Хронічні процеси призводять до заміщення функціональної тканини нефункціональною
Exercise 19. Role-play the dialogue. What are the patient’s complaints? What is the possible diagnosis?
Doctor:Are you having any trouble with your waterworks?
Mr. Jones: Well, I do seem to have to go to the toilet more often that I used to.
Doctor:How often is that?
Mr. Jones:It depends, but sometimes it’s every hour or even more often.
Doctor:What about at night? Do you have to get up at night?
Mr. Jones:Yes. Nearly always two or three times.
Doctor:Do you get any burning or pain when you pass water?
Mr. Jones:No, not usually.
Doctor:Do you have any trouble getting started?
Mr. Jones: No.
Doctor:Is the stream normal? I mean is there still a good strong flow?
Mr. Jones:Perhaps not quite so good as it used to be.
Doctor: Do you ever lose control of your bladder? Any leaking or dribbling?
Mr. Jones: Well, perhaps a little dribbling from time to time.
Doctor:Have you ever passed blood in the urine?
Mr. Jones:No, never.
Exercise 20. Describe the terms glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis using the plan below:
1. General characteristics 2. Symptoms 3. Investigations / Analyses 4. Treatment 5. Complications Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть словосполучення:
видаляти продукти розпаду
регулювати водний баланс
викликати ниркове захворювання
ниркова недостатність
рак нирок
набряк обличчя, рук та ніг
висхідна інфекція нирок
супутні хвороби / інфекції
ниркові каміння
повна втрата нирки
розгалужений камінь
викликати закупорку сечоводу
Дайте відповіді на питання:
1. What is the main function of the kidneys?
2. What does the renal damage cause?
3. How is a group of inflammatory renal diseases called?
4. What is glomerulonephritis? What are its manifestations?
5. What are the causes of pyelonephritis?
6. How are the acute and chronic forms of pyelonephritis manifested?
7. What are the complications of pyelonephritis?
8. What is nephrolithiasis? What is the risk factor of the disease?
9. What does the migration of a renal calculus lead to?
10. How can renal diseases be revealed?
Розкрийте поняття:
1.гломерулонефрит
2. пієлонефрит
3. нефролітіаз
4. піонефроз
5. гідронефроз
6. бактеріурія
7. гематурія
8. альбумінурія
Diabetes mellitus
ЦУКРОВИЙ ДІАБЕТ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
1. blurred, adj [blɜːd] розпливчастий
2. complaint, n [kəmˈpleɪnt] скарга
3. deficiency, n [dɪˈfɪʃənsi] дефіцит, вiдсутнiсть
4. ensure, v [ɪnˈʃʊə(r)] забезпечувати
5. fail, v [feɪl] зазнати невдачi, провалитися
6. gradual, adj [ˈɡrædʒuəl] поступовий
7. juvenile, adj [ˈdʒuːvənaɪl] юнацький
8. precede, v [prɪˈsiːd] передувати
9. properly, adj [ˈprɒpəli] правильно
10. require, v [rɪˈkwaɪə(r)] вимагати
11. result from, v [rɪˈzʌlt] виникати внаслідок
12. result in, v [rɪˈzʌlt] приводити
13. respond to, v [rɪˈspɒnd] реагувати
14. subtle, adj [ˈsʌtəl] ледь відчутний
15. suspected, adj [səˈspekt] підозрюваний
16. trigger, v [ˈtrɪɡər] спонукати
17.thirst, n [θɜːst] спрага
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and sentences with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
Vision: blurred vision; double vision; field of vision; to lose one’s vision; to have another vision; tunnel vision. The optician told me I had twenty-twenty vision.
Deficiency: insulin deficiency; deficiency disease; Zinc deficiency.
Absorption: glucose absorption; intestinal drug absorption; molecular absorption; gas absorption.
Failure: the body’s failure; heart failure; kidney failure. Failure is the first step to success. Fear of failure must never be a reason not to try something.
Changes: gradual changes; a change for the better; metabolic changes.
Exercise 3. Complete the table with the missing words (you may need a dictionary):
VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
failure inherited
injection treat develop dependent
Exercise 4.Translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian:
Insulin deficiency, gestational diabetes, treatable forms, the most common type, glucose absorption, a common complaint, rapid vision changes, inherited diabetes, gradual changes, subtle or absent symptoms, prolonged high blood glucose, suspected cases, to use insulin properly, blurred vision, prescribed therapy, self-glucose monitoring.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus, often simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. At least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.
There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes). Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections.
Type 2 diabetes results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes). Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics, particularly excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
Gestational diabetes is when pregnant women who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications. Both type 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that usually cannot be cured.
The classical symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes while type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent. The elevated plasma glucose levels cause marked glucosouria and an osmotic diuresis resulting in dehydration.
Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis; type 1 should always be suspected in cases of rapid vision change, whereas with type 2 change is generally more gradual, but should still be suspected.
The main complications of diabetes mellitus are diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, foot ulcers. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure and damage to the eyes.
Prevention and treatment involve a healthy diet, physical exercise and maintaining a normal body weight. Treatment regimens differ according to the diabetes type. All patients should be instructed in self-glucose monitoring.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
What is diabetes mellitus?
How many types of diabetes you know?
What is type 1 diabetes?
What is type 2 diabetes?
What is gestational diabetes?
When did insulin become available?
What are the classical symptoms of diabetes?
What is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis?
What are the main complications of diabetes?
Exercise 7. Find the terms that match the following definitions.
The state or condition of discharging abnormally large quantities of urine, often accompanied by a need to urinate frequently Chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake An abnormal desire to consume excessive amounts of food Increased urination due to the presence of certain substances in the fluid filtered by the kidneys. This fluid eventually becomes urine. These substances cause additional water to come into the urine, increasing its amount Damage to or disease of a kidneyExcessive loss of body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processesThe presence of glucose in the urine Exercise 8. Match the following English word combinations with the Russian ones:
the body’s failure швидка змiна зору
an absolute insulin deficiency неспроможнiсть органiзму
a high blood glucose level бути контрольованим медикаментами
triggered by certain infections загальна скарга
lifestyle factors забезпечувати ефективнiсть
rapid vision change виробляти iнсулiн
to produce insulin високий рiвень глюкози в кровi
a common complaint визваний деякими iнфекцiями
to ensure the effectiveness абсолютна недостатнiсть iнсулiну
to be controlled with medications фактори способу життя
Exercise 9. Make the corresponding pairs:
metabolic sugar
to inject resistance
gestational condition
diabetes changes
blood disease
insulin insulin
chronic diabetes
classical population
self-glucose therapy
vision symptoms
prescribed monitoring
Exercise 10. Approve or contradict the following statements:
There are two main types of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections.
The main complications of diabetes mellitus are diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, foot ulcers.
The cause of diabetes does not always depend on the type.
Exercise 11. Fill in the table with appropriate translation of the words and terms:
metabolic produce збільшений поступово
genetics trigger зневоднення підозрювати
Diabetes population certain поглинання забезпечувати
cure depend on розпливчастий subtle Exercise 12. Read some facts about diabetes and fill in the gaps with the word combinations given in the table below:
complications diabetes capital under the age
sedentary lifestyle delay 'silent killer disease'
middle-income group silent epidemic 246 million people in the world
kidney failure 3.2 million people feeling thirsty
1. Diabetes is a …………… and according to WHO there are ……………. living with diabetes. This is almost 6% of the world's adult population.
2. India is the……….. of the world. It is estimated that currently there are 40 million people with diabetes in India and by 2025 this number will swell to 70 million. This would mean every fifth diabetic in the world would be an Indian.
3. Diabetes causes 6 deaths every minute and one in 20 deaths in the world is due to the condition. Every year it is estimated that ………….in the world die due to the diabetes or its related causes.
4. Diabetes is an important……………… as there is usually no early symptom of the disease. The commonest early symptom is……………………. .
5. Almost 90 to 95% of diabetes is of type 2 or maturity onset type; that affects people in their middle age. Type 1 or juvenile diabetes affects 70,000 children………………of 15 years every year.
6. The major cause of increase in the incidence of diabetes is a ………… . Exercise and diet can either reduce or .…… the incidence of diabetes by over 50%.
7. Diabetes is the number one cause of …………… in the world. Besides this every year it is responsible for 5% or 5 million blindness in adults and one million limb amputations. Diabetes is also an important cause of heart disease, stroke and cataract.
8. The current cost of treating diabetes and its ………… in the world is estimated as US $ 215-375 billion. The disease is growing fastest in developing countries where there are more people in the lower and …………. .
Exercise 13. Fill in the table:
Causes of diabetes Signs and symptoms Analyses Treatment Complications Exercise 14. Fill in prepositions where necessary:
A lot of people worldwide suffer …… diabetes.
Doctors should instruct their patients … self-glucose monitoring.
The cause of diabetes depends ….. the type.
Glucose absorption leads … changes in the shape of the lenses of the eyes.
Type 2 diabetes may be controlled … medications.
He complained … splitting headache.
I was ill … bronchitis and had to stay out … … school … a week.
Exercise 15. Put the questions to the underlined words:
There are three main types of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes results from insulin resistance.
Several million people worldwide suffer from diabetes.
The classical symptoms of diabetes are polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia.
Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications.
Symptomatic hyperglycemia may persist for days or weeks.
All patient should be instucted in self-glucose monitoring.
Exercise 16. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense and voice:
The patient (to suffer) from diabetes for 10 years.
The cause of diabetes (to depend) on the type.
Type 2 diabetes (to result) from insulin resistance.
Diabetes (to suspect) in case of rapid vision changes.
Symptomatic hyperglycemia (persist) for days or weeks.
All patients (to instruct) in self-glucose monitoring.
Treatment regimens (to differ).
Insulin (to become) available in 1921.
Lifestyle and genetics ( to cause) type 2 diabetes.
One of the main Mr. Willis’s complaints (to be) blurred vision.
Exercise 17. Translate into English:
Схуднення є частим симптомом діабету.
У світі мешкає прилизно 183 млн осіб із недіагностованим цукровим діабетом.
Пацiент скаржиться на слабкiсть та безсоння.
Дієта під час цукрового діабету є необхідною складовою лікування.
Основним методом діагностики є визначення концентрації глюкози в крові.
Характерними симптомами є невгамовна спрага та надмірне сечовиділення
Деякi люди мають алергiю на рiзнi лiки.
Після відкриття інсуліну діабет перестав бути смертельним захворюванням.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
швидка змiна зору
неспроможнiсть органiзму
бути контрольованим медiкаментами
загальна скарга
забезпечувати ефективнiсть
виробляти iнсулiн
високий рiвень глюкози в кровi
визваний деякими iнфекцiями
абсолютна недостатнiсть iнсулiну
фактори способу життя
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What is diabetes mellitus?
2. What is type 1 diabetes?
3. What is type 2 diabetes?
4. What is gestational diabetes?
5. What are the main complications of diabetes?
Розкрийте поняття: цукровий дiабет, iнсулiн
OBESITY
ОЖИРІННЯ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
due, adj
due to, соnj
to be due, v ( to)
burden, n
succumb, v
premature, adj
obese, adj
obesity, n
curtail, v
indulgence, n
injurious, adj
secure, v
hazard, n
convince, v
span, n [dju:]
[bə:dn]
[sə'kʌm]
['premətə]
[əu'bi:s]
[əu'bi:siti]
[kɜ:'teɪl]
[in 'dʌldʒəns]
[ɪn'dʒuərɪəs]
[sɪ'kjuə]
['hæzəd]
[kən'vins]
[spæn] належний
внаслідок
обумовлюватися
тягар;вага;ноша
вмерти (від чогось)
передчасний
гладкий, ожирілий
гладкість; ожиріння
скорочувати, урізувати
зловживання
шкідливий
забезпечувати безпеку
ризик
переконувати
тривалість життя
Exercise 2. Read the following words according to the rules of reading:
[n] - station, resolution, institution, dissolution, introduction, session, discussion;
[tә] - nature, picture, future, lecture, creature, rupture, puncture, fracture, mixture;
[әs]- dangerous, viscous, numerous, obvious, nervous, infectious, previous, serious.
Exercise 3. Form words with the help of negative prefixes. Translate into English:
Dis-like, function, connect, agree
Un-fortune, necessary, forgettable, reliable
In-different, human, visible, dissolution, effective
Im-possible, practical, mobile, moral
Ir-regular, responsible, relevant, resistible
Mis-understand, translate, place, pronounce, carriage
Mal-nutrition, formation, position, treatment
Exercise 4. Find the stem in the following words. Point out prefixes and suffices:
Physically, hopefully, necessity, extremity, shortening, blindness, sleeplessness, unnecessary, unfortunately, discomfort, in-patient, overweight, unalterable, treatment, punishment, decreased, inferiority, fatty, instigation, overindulgence, injurious, unknown, disinfection, irreversible, possibly.
Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents to the following English ones:
Heavy burden, shortening of the life span, premature death, average or below average, obese individuals, retention of normal weight, preventive medicine, the energy requirement of the body, a daily caloric intake, a positive energy balance, dietary habits, excessive amounts of starchy food, compensative diminution, risk in overindulgence, a normal gain in weight, consumption of food, to burn the excessive fat, to be due to the efforts.
Exercise 6. Revise grammar material. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the sentences with Complex Subject:
The patient is supposed to have been discharged from the hospital.
He is thought to suffer from pneumonia.
Leucocytosis is known to develop in inflammation.
They seem to study Biochemistry.
He appears to suffer from tuberculosis.
The pain proved to be sharp on physical exertion.
The doctor is likely to discharge this patient.
Acute appendix is sure to be removed immediately to prevent its rupture which may result in peritonitis.
Exercise 7. Read and translate the text:
OBESITY
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, particularly in individuals past middle life. It is a heavy burden which many persons carry about quite without necessity. In many instances, this burden will result in a definite shortening of the normal life span; they are more likely to succumb to premature death from coronary thrombosis, from diabetes, or from infections, such as pneumonia or cholecystitis, as well as many other diseases, than persons in the same age group whose weight is average or below average. Furthermore, the obese individual suffers from unnecessary fatigue, from heat intolerance, and from arthritis, as well as from other serious discomforts, much more commonly than do persons of normal weight. Thus, the prevention of obesity and the retention of normal weight is a matter of importance in the field of preventive medicine.
The important factor in production of overweight is a daily caloric intake which exceeds the energy requirement of the body — in brief; the fat person eats too much rich food.
A positive energy balance may be due to a variety of causes: one of the important factors is dietary habits. Some people tend to eat excessive amounts of starchy or fatty foods. The overweight of persons past middle life is almost always the result of the decreased energy output of the individual, as the years advance, with no compensative diminution in diet intake. People over 50 eat as much as they did at 20, although their activities are greatly curtailed. Probably the most common cause of overweight is the fact that individuals overeat because they enjoy food, and do not realize that there is any risk in overindulgence.
Prevention of overweight centers is teaching each individual that overweight, particularly with increasing age, is an unnecessary hazard to a normal life. The person must be convinced that the "normal" gain of weight with increasing age is injurious, in a direct ratio to the degree of increase of weight to increasing age.
The other essential educational feature that must be emphasized is that weight reduction can best be secured by maintaining a slow and gradually progressive negative energy balance. In other words, the daily consumption of food should be slightly less than the energy demands of the body. Thus, the body will burn the excess fat in place of food.
The branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention and treatment of obesity is known as bariatrics, the field of medicine that encompasses dietary, physical and behavioral therapy approaches to weight loss as well as pharmacotherapy and surgery.
Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:
At what age may overweight frequently occur?
What diseases does obesity usually result in?
What serious conditions does an obese individual suffer from?
What is a matter of importance in the field of preventive medicine?
Why is a daily caloric intake important factor in production of overweight?
What causes may a positive energy balance be due to?
What is the most common cause of overweight?
Why do the persons over 50 more frequently suffer from this heavy burden?
What do the prevention of overweigh centers teach obese individuals?
What can weight reduction best be secured by?
Exercise 9. Choose the proper definitions for the terms:
fat
food
habit
therapy
retention
overweight
obesity
bariatrics
The field of medicine that focuses on the treatment and control of obesity and diseases associated with obesity.
Substance taken in to maintain life and growth.
A substance that contains one or more fatty acids and is the principal form in which energy is stored by the body.
The condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body, mostly in the subcutaneous tissue.
Inability to pass urine, which is retained in the bladder.
Above the weight allowed or desirable.
A sequence of learned behavior occurring in a particular context or as a response to particular events.
the treatment of physical, mental, or social disorders or disease
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 10. Match Russian word combinations in column A with English ones in the column B:
A B
надлишкова вага
тяжкий тягар (ноща)
тривалість життя
передчасна смерть
нетерпимість тепла
профілактика ожиріння
калорійна їжа
надмірна кількість caloric food
excessive amount
premature death
overweight
heavy burden
life span
prevention of obesity
heat intolerance
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 11. Join the parts of the sentence in the column A with the correct ones in the column B:
1. Overweight will result in …
2. The obese individuals are more likely to succumb to premature death from …
3. Furthermore, they suffer from …
4. The prevention of obesity and the retention of normal weight is …
5. A daily caloric intake exceeds the …
6. A positive energy balance may be due to …
7. The overweight of persons past middle life is almost always the result of …
8. The person must be convinced that…
9. The daily consumption of food should be …
10. The body will …
1. …the "normal" gain of weight with increasing age is injurious.
2. …the energy requirement of the body.
3. …unnecessary fatigue, heat intolerance, and arthritis, as well as other serious discomforts.
4. …a matter of importance in the field of preventive medicine.
5. …burn the excess fat in place of food.
6. …slightly less than the energy demands of the body.
7. …a definite shortening of the normal life span.
8. …coronary thrombosis, diabetes, or infections, such as pneumonia or cholecystitis, as well as many other diseases.
9…. dietary habits.
10. …the decreased energy output of the individual.
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined members of sentences:
In many instances, overweight will result in a definite shortening of the normal life span.
The obese individual suffers from unnecessary fatigue, from heat intolerance, and from arthritis, as well as from other serious discomforts.
The prevention of obesity and the retention of normal weight is a matter of importance in the field of preventive medicine.
The important factor in production of overweight is a daily caloric intake which exceeds the energy requirement of the body.
A positive energy balance may be due to a variety of causes.
The overweight of persons past middle life is almost always the result of the decreased energy output of the individual.
Probably the most common cause of overweight is the fact that individuals overeat because they enjoy food, and do not realize that there is any risk in overindulgence.
The body will burn the excess fat in place of food.
Exercise 13. Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. Translate them into Russian:
Overweight, particularly in individuals past middle life, is a burden which a person (to carry) about quite without necessity.
Positive energy balances (to be due to) a variety of causes.
Obese individuals are more likely (to succumb) to premature death from coronary thrombosis, from diabetes, or from infections, such as pneumonia or cholecystitis.
The obese individuals (to suffer) from unnecessary fatigue, from heat intolerance, and from arthritis.
It’s known that a daily caloric intake (to exceed) the energy requirement of the body.
They knew, that some people (to tend) to eat excessive amounts of starchy or fatty foods.
People over 50 eat as much as they did at 20, although their activity (to be greatly curtailed).
Preventions of overweight centers (to teach) each individual that overweight, particularly with increasing age, is an unnecessary hazard to a normal life.
Exercise 14. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term «ожиріння»:
It may be associated with increased risk of illness, disability and death. The obese people may suffer from fatigue, heat intolerance and from arthritis, as well as from other serious discomforts.
The branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of obesity is known as bariatrics.
The important factor in production of overweight is a daily caloric intake which exceeds the energy requirement of the body.
In obesity weight reduction can best be provided by maintaining a slow and gradually progressive negative energy balance. In other words, the daily consumption of food should be slightly less than the energy demands of the body. Thus, the body will burn the excess fat in place of food.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health the past middle life persons.
Exercise 15. Find English equivalents in the text:
Баріатрія, ожирілі люди, стримування нормальної ваги, середній або нижче середнього, профілактична медицина, потреба тіла в енергії, фармакотерапія та хірургія, щоденне споживання калорій, позитивний енергетичний баланс, харчові звички, надмірна кількість крохмалистих продуктів харчування, нормальнtе збільшення ваги, накопичення жиру, споживання їжі, спалювати зайвий жир, страждати від зайвої ваги, насолоджуватися їжею, дієтичні, фізичні та поведінкові підходи, надмірне зловживання, завдяки зусиллям.
Exercise 16. Translate into English:
Відомо, що тучність зустрічається у людей після 40 років.
Напевне, що ожиріння зможе вплинути, в большій ступені, на скорочення тривалості життя.
Виявилось, що причиною раптової смерті цього гладкого пацієнта був коронарний тромбоз.
Навряд чи, людина з нормальною вагою, буде страждати від ожиріння.
Стверджують, що підтримка нормальної ваги та профілактика ожиріння є головним завданням превентивной медицини.
Безсумнівно, що у людини, котра споживає велику кількість жирной їжі, порушиться енергетичний баланс.
Вважають, что люди переїдають, тому, що вони насолоджуються їжею, при цьому, вони не усвідомлюють, що це може призвести до зловживання.
Навряд чи, організм зможе спалити таку велику кількість жиру самостійно.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
At what age may overweight frequently occur?
What is the important factor in production of overweight?
What serious conditions does an obese individual usually suffer from?
What can weight reduction in obesity best be provided by?
What branch of medicine studies the causes, prevention and treatment of obesity?
II. Розкрийте поняття: ожиріння, баріатрія
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Синдром Набутого Імунного Дефіциту
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
contaminate v. [kən'tæmineit] забруднювати, заражати
deficiency n. [dıˈfıʃənsı] недостатність
failure n. ['feiljə] неспроможність, розлад
life-threatening adj. [laɪf ˈθretənɪŋ] загрозливий для життя
latency adj. ['leit(ə)nsi] прихований стан, латентність
malignant adj. [mə'lignənt] злоякісний
morbidity n. [mɔ:'biditi] захворюваність
mortality n. [mɔ:'tæliti] смертність
opportunistic infection, n. [ɒpətjuːˈnɪstɪk ɪnˈfɛkʃ(ə)n] опортуністична інфекція (инфекція, викликана умовно-патогеннимі мікроорганізмами, яка зазвичай не викликає хворобу)
rash n. [ræʃ] висип, висипання
strain n. [strein] штам
susceptible adj. [səˈsɛptəbǝl] вразливий
to thrive (throve; thriven) v. [θrʌiv/ θrəʊv/ θrɪv(ə)n] процвітати
transfusion n. [transˈfjʊːʒ(ə)n] переливання
transmission n. [tranzˈmɪʃ(ə)n] розповсюдження, передача
trigger v. ['trigə] пустити в хід, спонукати
tumour n. ['tju:mə] пухлина, новоутворення
Exercise 2. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading:
-ea- [i:]: sick-leave, treatment, weak, speak, heat;
-ea- [e]: head, bread, dead, death, health;
-cian [ʃ(ə)n]: physician, obstetrician, pediatrician, phthisiatrician, musician;
-tion [ʃ(ə)n]: examination, administration, medication, combination, injection;
-sis (sing.) [sis] ––˃ -ses (pl.) [siz]: analysis – analyses, diagnosis – diagnoses, crisis – crises, synthesis – syntheses, thesis – theses.
Exercise 3. Complete the table with missing forms:
Verb Noun Adjective
to infect destruction transmissible
inflammation administrative
to develop inclusive
cause to involve Exercise 4. Read the word-combinations and translate them into your native language:
A progressive failure of the immune system, life-threatening opportunistic infections, to thrive cancers, malignant tumours, a specific type of cells called a T helper, to trigger the immune system to infections, to share needles for IV drugs, to be susceptible to other diseases, transfusions of contaminated blood, swollen lymph nodes, a latency stage or window period, available antiretroviral medication; mortality and the morbidity; side-effects such as malaise, nausea and fatigue; to eradicate the virus; to prolong the lives of patients.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system contributes to life-threatening opportunistic infections which affect any organ system such as respiratory tract, digestive tract, endocrine system, etc.
HIV infection is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) infecting about 0,6 % of the world’s population.
Two main strains of HIV-1 and HIV-2 cause AIDS. HIV-1 is more common in the Western Hemisphere. Untreated HIV-1 cases eventually lead to AIDS. The patients die from opportunistic infections or malignant tumours associated with the progressive failure of the immune system. HIV-2 is more prevalent in West Africa and it is transmitted less easily and progresses less quickly to AIDS than HIV-1. In both strains, the virus may persist at low levels for years in a host without causing disease. The only sign of infection is the presence of antibodies against the virus. Once immunodeficiency occurs, if left untreated, death usually follows within 2 to 3 years of the first onset of symptoms. The HIV itself doesn’t kill the patient. It destroys the immune system, leaving the patient susceptible to other diseases, like cancer or pneumonia. These diseases are the immediate causes of death.
The AIDS virus is transmitted through bodily fluids such as blood, breast milk, etc. Casual contact with the infected person doesn’t result in the transmission of the virus. The most efficient methods of HIV transmission include sexual, sharing needles for IV drugs, and receiving transfusions of contaminated blood. An infected mother may pass the virus to her unborn child. Susceptibility to HIV infection increases if there is a break in the skin or mucous membrane, which allows the virus to enter the blood stream.
The stages of HIV infection are acute infection (also known as primary infection), latency (window period) and AIDS. During 2-4 weeks post-exposure a person may develop an influenza-like illness, the symptoms of which may include fever, swollen lymph nodes, and pharyngitis, rash and last for several weeks. The latency stage involves few or no symptoms at all and can last from 2 weeks to 20 years. AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection, is defined by various opportunistic infections and cancers that finally lead to deaths.
There is currently no available vaccine for HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or an antiretroviral treatment which can just slow the course of the disease. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection. But, these drugs have some side-effects such as diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue. They don’t completely eradicate the virus, but can greatly prolong the lives of patients infected with HIV.
Exercise 6. Match the English word-combinations with their equivalents:
1. failure of the immune system перша проява симптомів
2. opportunistic infections померти від злоякісних пухлин
3. the presence of antibodies against the virus схильний до інших захворювань
4. the first onset of symptoms смертність та захворюваність
5. susceptible to other diseases загрозливі для життя інфекції
6. mortality and morbidity отримати переливання зараженої крові
7. to die from malignant tumours прогресивне пошкодження імунної системи
8. life-threatening infections розлад роботи імунної системи
9. to receive transfusions of contaminated blood опортуністичні інфекції
10. progressive failure of the immune system наявність антитіл проти вірусу
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:
1. What is AIDS?
2. What are the two main strains of HIV?
3. What is the difference between these two strains?
4. What systems does HIV damage?
5. Why can’t the infected organism fight off infections?
6. How is HIV transmitted?
7. What are the stages of HIV infection?
8. What signs and symptoms is AIDS characterized by?
9.What treatment for HIV or AIDS exists nowadays?
10.What is the action of antiretroviral drugs?
11.Can antiretroviral drugs cure the disease?
12.What are the adverse reactions of HIV drugs?
Exercise 8. Match English word combinations with their definitions:
Immune deficiency 1. the period between infection with a virus or other microorganism and the onset of symptoms
Susceptible 2. the protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.
antiretroviral 3. failure of the immune system to protect the body adequately from infection
tumour 4. It affects patients only or chiefly when the immune system is depressed
antibody 5. a virus which reduces people's resistance to illness
latency (window period) 6. denoting drugs which inhibit the activity of retroviruses
HIV 7. likely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular substance
opportunistic infection 8. a swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant
Exercise 9. Find synonyms to the following words and word-combinations in the text:
Insufficiency, to spread, neoplasm, damage, perspiration, medicine, high temperature, grippe, potentially fatal disease, liable to diseases, to get, eruptions, rate of deaths, rate of diseases, to decrease, adverse reaction.
Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box:
AIDS, transmitted, immune, HIV, infected, opportunistic, transfusion, protective.
AIDS is the worst sexually __________ disease. It is caused by __________, which attacks the immune system. The _____________ system plays an important role in fighting off the diseases. HIV is transmitted through direct contact with the __________________ person’s bodily fluids. HIV is also transmitted by __________ of contaminated blood. HIV reduces the ____________ function of the immune system. When the immune system breaks down, the person will suffer many infections called ___________________ infections. This is the last stage of HIV infection which is called ____________.
Exercise 11. Translate the parts of a sentence given in italics:
1. Ryan White – the 1st teenager patient who was infected with AIDS when перелили заражену кров as part of his treatment.
2. AIDS doesn’t kill the patients, they помирають від злоякісних пухлин or different infections.
3. Animals and insects can’t передавати ВІЛ.
4. HIV causes розлад роботи імунної системи that makes it схильний до інших захворювань.
5. The standard HIV test detects наявність антитіл проти вірусу.
6. Many years may pass since the initial infection before перша проява симптомів.
7. Antiretroviral treatment викликає побічну дію such as нудота and dizziness.
8. Once the immunodeficiency occurs, загрозливі для життя інфекції may appear that can be fatal for a person with the weakened immune system.
Exercise 12. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions from the box:
from, of, in, of, with, by, to, with, to
Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated _____ HIV infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV. Needle sharing is the cause ____ one third of all new HIV infections ____ North America, China and Eastern Europe. The risk ___ being infected with HIV from a single prick ___ a needle that has been used on an HIV infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150. Post-exposure prophylaxis ____ anti-HIV drugs can further reduce the risk. This rout can also affect people who give and receive tattoo and piercing.
According ____ the WHO, the overwhelming majority ____ the world population does not have access ____ safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world’s HIV infections come ______ transfusions of infected blood and blood products.
Exercise 13. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the use of tenses:
1. HIV-1 occurs more often in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, Asia and most of Africa.
2. The patient was diagnosed HIV-1 infection 12 years ago.
3. Before admission to the hospital, the patient had not been in medical care for approximately 6 months.
4. The patient discontinued antiretroviral and antihypertensive medication.
5. The blood analysis will be made in half an hour on an empty stomach.
6. The only medication, that he is taking, is Dapsone for prophylaxis.
7. The patient has just been brought into the postoperative ward.
8. The patient has been suffering from unexplained fatigue for several weeks.
Exercise 14. Open the brackets and translate the sentences:
1. The physician said that previous sanatorium treatment (to be) helpful.
2. The patient said he never (to experience) such an acute pain before.
3. The patient can’t be discharged from the hospital because he not (to recover) yet.
4. The doctor (to write) a prescription when a nurse (to open) the door and (to ask) what injection to make.
5. He (to loose) consciousness and (to moan) all the time.
6. The doctor (to make) a diagnosis after he gets the findings of your blood test.
7. The administration (to change), if he doesn’t feel better tomorrow.
8. Water-soluble vitamins (to excrete) out of the body within one day.
Exercise 16. Put questions to the underlined phrases:
1. Patients with HIV are administered antiretroviral drugs.
2. Symptoms vary with the severity of the inflammation.
3. We had to take the patient for an operation immediately to prevent the rupture of the appendix.
4. The patient had a slightly elevated body temperature.
5. The effectiveness of the immune system will slowly be reduced by HIV.
6. The viruses have produced substances that weaken the immune system.
7. Scientists are observing AIDS in an increasing number of infants.
8. As symptoms had been present for a long time, the patient was administered antibiotics.
Exercise 17. Translate into English:
1. СНІД, або Синдро́м набу́того імунодефіци́ту — тяжке інфекційне захворювання, спричинене вірусом імунодефіциту людини.
2. ВІЛ уражає імунну систему людини та знижує протидію організму захворюванням.
3. СНІД не є смертельною хворобою, але його вірус в організмі впливає на імунну систему й навіть простий нежить може призвести до смерті.
4. ВІЛ може передатися при незахищеному статевому контакті.
5. ВІЛ може передаватися при переливанні зараженої крові, використанні брудних шприців, тощо.
6. ВІЛ може передаватися від ВІЛ-позитивної матері до дитини під час вагітності, пологів або годування груддю.
7. Період «вікна» — час, коли ВІЛ присутній у крові людини, але аналіз на антитіла до нього ще є негативним.
8. Період «вікна» становить від двох до шести місяців й людина може передавати вірус іншим.
Exercise 18. Speak about AIDS, HIV according to the plan:
The type of the disease.
The cause of the disease.
The transmission of the disease.
The symptoms and manifestations of the disease.
The treatment of the disease.
ЗАВДАННЯ
для самостійної роботи студентів
I. Перекладіть словосполучення англійською мовою:
лихоманка та висип
перша проява симптомів
схильний до інших захворювань
загрозливі для життя інфекції
переливання зараженої крові
розлад роботи імунної системи
наявність антитіл проти вірусу
вірус імунодефіциту
померти від злоякісних пухлин
прогресивне пошкодження імунної системи
II. Дайте відповідь на запитання:
What is AIDS?
What systems does HIV damage?
How is HIV transmitted?
What treatment for HIV or AIDS exists nowadays?
What symptoms and diseases is AIDS characterized by?
III. Дайте визначення : СНІД, ВІЛ
ЗАВДАННЯ
для самостійної роботи студентів
I. Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову:
лихоманка та висип
перша проява симптомів
схильний до інших захворювань
загрозливі для життя інфекції
переливання зараженої крові
розлад імунної системи
наявність антитіл проти вірусу
вірус імунодефіциту
померти від злоякісних пухлин r
прогресивне пошкодження імунної системи
II. Дайте відповідь на запитання:
What is AIDS?
What systems does HIV damage?
How is HIV transmitted?
What are the stages of HIV infection?
What treatment for HIV or AIDS exists nowadays?
What symptoms and diseases is AIDS characterized by?
III. Дайте визначення : СНІД, ВІЛ
INFLUENZA
ГРИП
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
advanced, adj [ədˈvɑːnst] задавнений (про хворобу)
congestion, n [kən'dƷestʃən] закладеність
experience, v [ɪkˈspɪərɪəns] відчувати
intervention, n [intə'venʃn] втручання
moderate, adj [ˈmɒd ər ɪt] помірний
outbreak, n [aut'breik] спалах
productive cough [prəˈdʌktɪv kɒf] кашель з мокротінням
rejection, n [rɪˈdʒɛkʃn] відторгнення
sinus, n ['sainəs] пазуха
suppress, v [səˈprɛs] пригнічувати
Exercise 2. Read the following transcriptions. Write them in words and give their Ukrainian equivalents:
[in'fekʃəs] [ǽnti'vairəlz] ['vairəs] [i'mju:n] ['reindƷ] [ə'souʃieit] ['kof] ['bri: ðiŋ] [ri'li:v] [ris'pairətəri] ['fri:kwentli] [ə'proksimətli] Exercise 3. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
Advanced: advanced disease; advanced carcinoma; moderately advanced atherosclerosis; advanced age;
Congestion: chest congestion; congestion of blood; pulmonary congestion; renal congestion; sinus congestion;
Intervention: surgical intervention; minimal intervention; psychological intervention; refuse medical intervention;
Outbreak: outbreak of a disease; influenza outbreak; infection outbreak; produce an outbreak; foot poisoning outbreak.
Exercise 4. Fill in the table with the missing parts of speech (you may need a dictionary):
verbs nouns adjectives
congest experience moderate
suppress infection advance productive
persist Exercise 5. Match the English word combinations with their Ukrainian euivalents and use them in the sentences of your own:
outbreak of the disease кашель з жовтувато-зеленим мокротинням
a wide range of animal species послаблена імунна система
nasal congestion and a sore throat ознаки вторинної інфекції
to relive symptoms потребувати медичного втручання
weakened immune system інфекції вух та носових пазух
to be at risk for developing complications полегшувати симптоми
signs of secondary infections спалах захворювання
cough with yellowish green sputum бути в небезпеці розвитку ускладнення
sinus or ear infections закладеність носу та хворе горло
to require medical intervention широкий діапазон видів тварин
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
INFLUENZA
Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease. The causative agent is a virus. Influenza outbreaks occur suddenly and infection spreads rapidly by talking, coughing and sneezing. Healthy carriers may spread the disease. The incubation period is from 1-3 days. The onset is sudden with chilly sensation, followed by fever. The most common symptoms are chills, fever, nasal congestion, sore throat, muscle pains, headache (often severe), cough, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. The temperature ranges between 37,7 and 40 and persists from 2 to 5 days. The respiratory rate is moderately increased. The pulse in accelerated. Vomiting and diarrhea are frequent. The tongue is dry and coated, the pharynx is usually reddened.
Influenza symptoms can be relieved with bed rest, steam inhalations, and pain relievers. Since influenza is a viral infection, antibiotics are useless in treating it. However, antibiotics are frequently used to treat secondary infections. To be effective, doctor should begin treatment no later than two days after symptoms appear. Antivirals may be useful in treating patients who have weakened immune system or who are at risk for developing serious complications.
Influenza complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. Signs of a secondary respiratory infection include high fever, chills, chest pain associated with breathing, and a productive cough with yellowish green sputum. If these symptoms appear, medical treatment is necessary. Other secondary infections, such as sinus or ear infections, heart and lung problems, may also require medical intervention.
Influenza can be deadly, especially for the weak, young and old, or chronically ill. People with a weak immune system, such as people with advanced HIV infection or transplant patients (whose immune systems are medically suppressed to prevent transplant organ rejection), suffer from particularly severe disease. Other high-risk groups include pregnant women and young children. The flu can also worsen chronic health problems. People with emphysema, chronic bronchitis or asthma may experience shortness of breath while they have the flu, and influenza may cause worsening of coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions to the text:
1. What kind of disease is the flu?
2. How does influenza virus spread?
3. What are the most common symptoms of the flu?
4. How can influenza symptoms be relieved?
5. For whom can influenza be deadly?
6. In which case do patients with the flu require medical intervention?
7. What medical conditions can influenza worsen?
8. What do influenza complications arise from?
Exercise 8. Match the words from the left column with their synonyms from the right one:
to infect to lead to
to occur aggravation
to cause helpful
to subside to appear
congestion lethal
complication obstruction
treatment to pass off
fatal to contract with
useful visible
noticeable management
Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations from Ukrainian into English:
Спалах грипу, швидко розповсюджуватися, відчуття ознобу, сухий та обкладений язик, полегшувати симптоми знеболюючими, запалення горла, лікувати вторинні інфекції, противірусні ліки для пацієнтів з послабленою імунною системою, виникати внаслідок бактеріальних інфекцій, помірно підвищена швидкість дихання, потребувати медичного втручання, пригнічена імунна система.
Exercise 10. Match the terms with their explanations:
Influenza
Infectious disease
Antiviral drug
Chill
Cough
6. Sneezing expelling air or solid matter from the lungs abruptly and explosively through the partially closed vocal chords
a drug destroying or inhibiting the growth and reproduction of viruses
an acute contagious viral infection characterized by inflammation of the respiratory tract and by fever, chills, muscular pain, and prostration
expelling air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane
a disease capable of being transmitted by infections
f) a sensation of coldness, often accompanied by shivering and pallor of the skin.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Exercise 11. Say if the following statements are true or false:
1. Influenza is a hereditary disease.
2. Influenza spreads by talking, coughing and sneezing
3. Antibiotics are useless in treating influenza.
4. Influenza can be deadly even for the strongest people.
5. The causative agent of influenza is a pathogenic bacterium.
6. The incubation period of the flu is from 7 to 12 days.
7. The onset of influenza is sudden with chilly sensation, followed by fever.
8. Influenza complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract.
Exercise 12. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate preposition:
In, at, on (2), against, for, during, by, with, among
The influenza vaccine is an annual vaccine to protect … the highly variable influenza virus.
Influenza vaccination is the most effective method … preventing influenza virus infection and its potentially severe complications.
Vaccines are used not only … humans.
Vaccination is associated … reductions in influenza-related respiratory illnesses, hospitalization and death among persons … high risk, otitis media … among children.
Although influenza vaccination levels increased substantially … the 1990s, further improvements in vaccine coverage levels are needed.
Improved influenza countermeasures require basic research … how viruses enter cells, replicate, mutate, and evolve into new strains.
Many groups worldwide are working … a universal flu vaccine that will not need changing each year.
Influenza viruses can be inactivated … sunlight, disinfectants and detergents.
Exercise 13. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. The flu can occasionally lead to pneumonia.
2. Influenza may produce nausea and vomiting.
3. Influenza is transmitted through the air.
4. Influenza viruses can be inactivated by sunlight, disinfectants and detergents.
5. Frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection.
6. Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics.
7. In the 20th century three influenza pandemics occurred.
8. These pandemics killed millions of people.
9. These pandemics were caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans.
10. Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor (Tamiflu) have been used to treat influenza.
Exercise 14.Open the brackets using the verbs in the appropriate form, translate the sentences:
1. He (to be) ill with the flu since last week.
2. Antiviral drugs (to use) to treat influenza.
3. Influenza often (to confuse) with the common cold.
4. Antibiotics (to prescribe) for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.
5. He (to hospitalize) with a severe form of the flu last week.
6. After two days of being ill with influenza he (to start) having trouble breathing.
7. Patients with the flu (to recommend) to have plenty of rest and drink lots of liquids.
8. Influenza in which no complications occur usually (to last) from 3 to 5 days.
9. The headache and general pains (to relieve) by the use of Aspirin.
10. Many patients (to have) respiratory symptoms such as laryngitis or tracheitis.
Exercise 15. Read the case history. Open the brackets in the correct tense and voice. Translate into your native language:
A 37-year old female (to admit) to the hospital with tachypnea ([tǽ'kipniə] – поверхове дихання), and acute shortness of breath with wheezing. Auscultation (to reveal) decreased breath sounds with inspiratory and expiratory wheezing and the patient (to cough up) small amounts of white sputum.
The patient was a 7-week-old male who (to transfer) to the hospital with a 10-day history of choking (задуха), progressing to his turning red and grasping for breath. Over the prior 2 days, he also (to have) three episodes of vomiting in association with his coughing. His physical examination (to show) both tachycardia and tachypnea. There was no evidence of tracheal abnormalities.
The patient was a 15-year-old male with a history of sickle cell disease. He (to admit) to hospital with a 4-day history of a progressive, productive cough and 2 days of fevers. On admission, his temperature was 41.10C, his respiratory rate was 40/min, pulse was 120 beats/min, and his blood pressure was 80/40 mmHg. He also (to have) a mild respiratory distress (дихальна недостатність). A chest radiograph (to demonstrate) a right lower lobe infiltrate.
Exercise 16. Describe the term “influenza” according to the table:
1. General characteristics 2. Types 3. Symptoms 4. Treatment 5. Complications Exercise 17. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Сьогодні відомо три віруси грипу – А,В,С.
2. Вірус грипу типу А є небезпечним не тільки для людини, але і для тварин.
3. Тисячі людей стали жертвами пташиного та свиного грипу за останні роки.
4. Вірус грипу типу В розповсюджується тільки серед людей.
5. Вірус грипу типу С є найбільш нешкідливим, він інфікує тільки людину.
6. Симптоми грипу типу С зазвичай легкі або зовсім непомітні.
7. Вакцинацію від вірусу грипу потрібно проводити за 2-3 місяці для ймовірного спалаху епідемії.
8. Вакцинація заставляє організм виробляти антитіла, необхідні для боротьби з хворобою.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення:
Спалах грипу
відчуття ознобу
лікувати вторинні інфекції
потребувати медичного втручання
виникати внаслідок бактеріальних інфекцій
полегшувати симптоми знеболюючими
закладеність носу та хворе горло
спалах захворювання
пригнічена імунна система
10. противірусні ліки
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What kind of disease is the flu?
2. How does influenza virus spread?
3. What are the most common symptoms of the flu?
4. How can influenza symptoms be relieved?
5. For whom can influenza be deadly?
6. In which case do patients with the flu require medical intervention?
7. What medical conditions can influenza worsen?
8. What do influenza complications arise from?
Розкрийте поняття: грип
TETANUS
ПРАВЕЦЬ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
bacillus (pl. bacilli), n [bəˈsɪləs] бацила, паличка
delirious [dɪ’lɪrɪəs] шалений, божевільний
сlenched, adj [klentʃt] міцно стиснутий
draw up, v [drɔː] витягувати
ensue, v [ɪnˈsjuː] виникати, випливати
height of disease [haɪt] розпал (пік) хвороби
lessen, v [ˈlesən] скорочувати, зменшуватися
lockjaw, n [ˈlɒk.dʒɔː] тризм щелепи, правець
nightmare , n [ˈnaɪt.meər] кошмар, жах, страшний сон
opisthotonus, n [ou 'pisətonəs] опістотонус
protruded (lips) [prəˈtruːdid] випнуті (губи)
seizure, n [ˈsiːʒər] приступ, напад, припадок
trismus, n [trizməs] тризм ( судорожне зціплення щелеп )
Exercise 2. Read the words paying attention to the rules of reading:
c, s, t, before ia, ie, io [ ]
Position, sufficient, remission, initial, patient, urination, expression, artificial, potential, incubation, special, infectious, facial, essential, permission, insufficient, motion, deficiency.
Exercise 3. Form the words with the help of negative prefixes. Translate them into Russian:
- dis: like, function, connect, agree, locate, place, continue, section, solvent.
- ir: regular, responsible, relevant, resistible, radiation, reversible, reducible.
- im: possible, practical, mobile, moral, balance, maturity, potency, purity.
- un: necessary, reliable, fortunately, consciousness, dress, infected, mixed.
- mal: formation, nutrition, occlusion, position, treatment, presentation, rotation.
Exercise 4. Read the words with the same root. State the part of speech and translate them into your native language:
Face – facial, slow – slowly; connect – connection; pelvis – pelvic; compose – composition; rapid – rapidly; base – basic; recover – recovery; remove – removal; survive – survival; tender – tenderness, restless – restlessness; breath – breathing.
Exercise 5. Translate the following word combinations:
Incubation period; infectious disease; soil, dust and rusted objects such as nails; restlessness, irritability, nightmare and delirium; typical facial expression, urination; in case; to gain entrance into the body; painful spasms; characteristic picture; angles of the mouth; masticating muscles; severe attacks of pain; to lessen in frequency and severity; a terminal disease; a contaminated object; advanced cases; life-threatening breathing difficulty.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the sentences with construction: one (ones), that of (those of).
1. The condition of patient V. is worse than that of patient C.
2. The number of the vertebrae in the coccyx is less than the number of those in the back.
3. The bones of the lower extremities are longer than those of the upper ones.
4. This lecture is more interesting than the one I attended last week.
5. The walls of the left atrium are thicker than those of the right.
6. Some muscles are more elastic than the other ones.
7. I will examine your patient and that of Dr. Ivanov.
8. The wards in the new hospital are better equipped than those in our old one.
Exercise 7. Read and translate the text:
TETANUS
Tetanus is an acute infectious noncontagious disease caused by the Bacillus tetani which enters the bloodstream through a wound or break in the skin and is commonly found in soil, dust and rusted objects such as nails. When they enter a deep wound, spores of the bacilli may produce a powerful toxin, tetanospasmin, which impairs motor neurons, nerves that control muscles.
The incubation period varies from 5 to 15 days. The shorter is the incubation period, the more serious is the disease. The earliest symptoms are restlessness, irritability, nightmare and delirium. Following a short period, a tonic spasm of the masticating muscles occurs so that the patient is unable to open his mouth, producing the characteristic picture known as lockjaw (trismus). Gradually all muscles of the body become affected except those of the forearm and of the hand. At the height of the disease there occurs the typical facial expression known as risus sardonicus, where the patient appears to be laughing, due to the drawing up of the angles of the mouth. The brows are contracted, the eyes are partly closed, the teeth are clenched tightly and the lips are slightly protruded. The body is arched in the position known as opisthotonus. Upon a slightest stimulus the entire body may go into a convulsive seizure, accompanied by severe pain.
The diagnosis of tetanus is based on a physical examination, the signs and symptoms of muscle spasms, stiffness and pain.
Complications include broken bones (the severity of spasms may cause the spine and other bones to break), disability (prolonged immobility due to the use of drugs can lead to permanent disability) and death. Death may ensue within the first 48 hours or at any time up to one week after onset. If the patient survives the first week, his chances of recovery are greatly improved, the spasms gradually lessening in frequency and severity.
Tetanus is a terminal disease. Once a patient was injured by a contaminated object, he should immediately ask for medical help. The first step in treatment is wound cleaning that is removing dirt, foreign objects and dead tissue from the wound, and immunization with the tetanus vaccine. Immunization usually protects against tetanus infection for 10 years. In advanced cases the patient should be hospitalized usually in an intensive care unit and treatment is directed toward stopping toxin production, neutralizing its effects. Patients are also administered antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Sedatives are given for muscle spasm, which can lead to life-threatening breathing difficulty.
Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:
1. What is tetanus caused by?
2. How does Bacillus tetani enters the body?
3. Where can the Bacillus tetani be found in nature?
4. What is the incubation period of tetanus?
5. What are the earliest symptoms of tetanus?
6. What are the characteristic manifestations of tetanus?
7. How can you describe such typical facial expression known Risus Sardonicus?
8. What should be done first after the injury?
9. What is the treatment of the advances cases of tetanus?
Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations:
Cупроводжуватися сильним болем; спазм жувальних м`язів; проникати крізь рану; характерна картина хвороби; поступово зменшуватися по частоті та важкості; інкубаційний період хвороби; міцно стиснуті зуби; пік хвороби; сардонічний сміх; сильнодіюча отрута; виробляти сильнодіючі токсини; видалити відмерлу тканину з рани; погіршувати роботу моторних нейронів.
Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences using the text:
1. The characteristic features of tetanus are … .
2. Severe headache, difficulty in urination, and sweating are … .
3. The patient is unable to open his mouth, producing the … .
4. Gradually all muscles of the body become … of the forearm and of the hand.
5. Risus sardonicus is characteristic facial expression that looks like…….
6. The condition opisthotonus is described as …...
7. The Bacillus tetani flourishes in …….
8. The first step to prevent tetanus is ………
Exercise 11. Match medical terms with the proper definitions:
1. tetanus
2. tetani
3. toxin
4. opisthotonus
5. spasm
6. trismus
7. vaccination
8. immunization a) Spasm of the jaw muscles, keeping the jaw tightly closed.
b) An acute infectious disease, affecting the nervous system, caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani.
c) a spasm in which the spine and extremities are bent forward, the body resting on the head and the heels.
d) the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease.
e) A poison produced by a living organism, especially by a bacterium.
f) A sustained involuntary muscular contraction, which may occur either as part of a generalized disorder, such as a spastic paralysis, or as a local response to an otherwise unconnected painful condition.
g) Spasm and twitching of the muscles, particularly those of the face, hands, and feet.
h) the process of administering weakened or dead pathogens to a sick person or animal.
Exercise 12. Read the sentences and say whether they are true to the text:
1. Tetanus is an inherited disease characterized by painful spasms of the muscles.
2. Tetanus is caused by the Bacillus tetani which gains entrance into the body with contaminated food.
3. Tetanus infection has been associated with burns, animal bites and even chronic sores and infections.
4. Tetanus is a highly contagious disease.
5. Gradually all muscles of the body become affected inclusive those of the forearm and of the hand.
6. The typical facial expression known as risus sardonicus, where the patient appears to be crying, due to the drawing up of the angles of the mouth.
7. The body is arched in the position known as opisthotonus.
8. The treatment of tetanus consists of tetanus immune globulin to neutralize the toxins that the bacteria have created in your body.
Exercise 13. Complete the sentences using the words from the box:
Bacillus tetani, lockjaw, wound, convulsions, risus sardonicus, trismus, neurotoxin, bites
Tetanus is associated with rusty nails and other dirty objects, but any …….. can be a source.
Less common ways of getting tetanus are animal scratches and ………
The first characteristic symptom of tetanus is often a stiffness of a jaw that is called …….
………. prevents the patient from opening his mouth or swallowing.
……. is a grinning expression produced by spasm of the facial muscles; seen in tetanus and certain types of poisoning.
………. grows only in the absence of oxygen, so wounds must be adequately cleaned of dead tissue and foreign substances.
……… can be sometimes severe enough to cause broken bones.
Tetanus spores grow in the body, producing a highly poisonous ……. in the blood, spreading to the nervous system.
Exercise 14. Match two parts of the sentences according to the context:
1. Risus sardonicus is a characteristic, spasm of the facial muscles a) proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis.
2. When symptoms occur early, b) the Greek meaning to "stretch".
3. Tetanus was well known to ancient people, so the word "tetanus" is derived from c) protect their newborns by passing the antibody through the placenta.
4. Infection can be prevented by d) the chance of death is increased.
5. Since the bacterium Clostridium tetani grows only in the absence of oxygen, e) the wound itself may be minor or healed.
6. The infection is usually transmitted through f) wounds must be adequately cleaned of dead tissue and foreign substances.
7. Sometimes, the point of Clostridium tetani entry cannot be found because g) of increased muscle activity.
8. The spasms in tetanus may be of utmost severity to cause h) deep puncture wounds or cuts or scratches that are not cleaned well.
9. A patient with tetanus requires a high daily calorie intake because i) bone fractures.
10. Mothers who have been adequately immunized against tetanus j) with the appearance of raised eyebrows and an open "grin".
Exercise 15. Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. Translate them into Russian:
1. Universal childhood immunization in the 1930s (to lead) to the decline in tetanus cases.
2. The patient (to suffer) from nightmares for about 10 days.
3. In this patient tetanus (to cause) by as a wound after stepping on a nail.
4. The brows (to contract), the teeth (to clench) tightly and the lips (to protrude) slightly.
5. Now the patient’s body (to arch) in the position known as opisthotonus.
6. The entire body of the patient just (to go) into a convulsive seizure, accompanied by severe pain.
7. The patient (to run) a fever as high as 40°C during the attacks for a weak.
8. Death (to ensue) within the first 48 hours or at any time up to one week after onset.
Exercise 16. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Tetanus is characterized by painful spasms of the muscles.
2. The Bacillus tetani gains entrance into the body through a wound or break in the skin.
3. From 1947, the number of tetanus cases began to decline rapidly.
4. The patient may become restless, irritable and even delirious.
5. Gradually all muscles of the body become affected except those of the forearm and of the hand.
6. At the height of the disease there occurs the typical facial expression known as risus sardonicus.
7. The patient appears to be laughing, due to the drawing up of the angles of the mouth.
8. A child who plays outside can get infected with tetanus even from a small injury.
Exercise 17. Translate the sentences into English using Complex Subject Construction:
1. Відомо, що правець є гострим хронічним захворюванням, яке характеризується болісними спазмами м'язів.
2. Виявляється, що при захворюванні Bacillus tetani проникає в організм через рану чи розрив шкіри.
3. Відомо, що інкубаційний період хвороби триває від 5 до 15 днів.
4. Ймовірно, що першими симптомами правця будуть збудженй стан та страшні сни.
5. Кажуть, що в пік хвороби у пацієнта часто траплялись приступи і була висока температура.
6. Без сумніву, шанси пацієнта на одужання збільшуються, якщо він виживає в перший тиждень.
7. Кажуть, що смерть може настати на протязі 48 годин або в будь-який інший час після початку приступу.
8. Доведено, що деякі ліки можуть допомогти у лікуванні правця.
Exercise 18. Describe the term “tetanus” according to the table:
1. General characteristics 2. Symptoms 3. Analyses 4. Treatment 5. Complications Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення:
характеризуватися болючими спазмами в м’язах
потрапити в організм через рану на шкірі
страждати від нічних кошмарів
біль у задній частині шиї і м’язах щелепи
міцно стиснуті зуби
злегка випнуті губи
поступово зменшуватися по частоті та важкості
інкубаційний період хвороби
сардонічний сміх
жувальні м’язи
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What is the incubation period of tetanus?
What is tetanus caused by?
What is Risus Sardonicus?
How can Bacillus tetani enter the body?
Where can the Bacillus tetani be found in nature?
What are the characteristic manifestations of tetanus?
Дайте визначення: правець, сардонічний сміх
DIPHTHERIA
ДИФТЕРІЯ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
apt to smth, adj [æpt] cхильний
culture, n [ˈkʌltʃə(r)] культура (бактерiй)
deleterious, adj [ˌdelɪˈtɪəriəs] шкiдливий
dissemination, n [dɪˌsemɪˈneɪʃən] розповсюдження
dreadful, adj [ˈdredfəl] поганий, жахливий
employment, n [ɪmˈplɔɪmənt] використання, застосування
experience, v [ɪkˈspɪəriəns] відчувати
fibrin, n [ˈfɪbrɪn] фібрин
mandatory, adj ['mændətəri] oбов'язковий, примусовий
menace, n ['menəs] загроза, небезпека
pillar of fauces, n [ˈpɪlər əv ˈfɔːsiːz] пiднебiннi дужки
predispose, v [ˈpriːdɪsˈpəʊz] створювати схильність
raw, adj [rɔː] оголений
robust, adj [rəu'bΛst] дужий, здоровий
stiffness, n [ˈstɪfnəs] онiмiння
successive, adj [sək'sesiv] наступний, послідовний
susceptible, adj [sə'səptəbl] сприйнятливий, вразливий
temperate, adj ['tempərit] помiрний
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
Tract: upper respiratory tract; urinary tract infection; gastrointestinal tract; reproductive tract.
Effect: deleterious effect; drug effect; adverse effect; therapeutic effect; visual effects.
Disease: contagious disease; inherited disease; nutritional disease; neoplastic disease
Menace: a menace to public health; a real menace; to speak with desperate menace; a menacing person.
Exercise 3. Give the synonym to the words from the active vocabulary:
liable, exposed, prone, sensitive
hazard, threat
obligatory, compulsory, forced
destructive, injurious, hurtful
spreading, circulation, distribution
Exercise 4. Complete the table with the missing words (you may use a dictionary):
VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
inherit suspicious
production depend divide care Exercise 5. Match the following English word combinations with Russian ones:
absorbed by blood stream розповсюджуватись при прямому контактi
produce deleterious effect on раптовий початок
spread by direct contact всмоктуватися кровотоком
put in an appearance виробляти шкiдливу дiю на
healthy carrier по розположенню
according to the distribution з’явитися ненадовго
insidious onset здоровий носiй
affect the soft palate and throat бути бiльш схильним до дифтерii
a slight feeling of uneasiness вражати м’яке пiднебiння та горло
to be more liable to diphtheria легке вiдчуття дискомфорту в горлi
Exercise 6.Translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian:
Dissemination, to be more liable to diphtheria, uneasiness in the throat, stiffness of the back of the neck, membranous formation on pharyngeal tissues, the earliest objective manifestation of the disease, the most dreadful of all complications of diphtheria, the outcome of the disease, the soft palate and uvula.
Exercise 7. Read and translate the text:
DIPHTHERIA
Diphtheria is an acute contagious disease caused by specific organism bacillus diphtheria.
It is characterized by local inflammation with fibrin formation of the mucous membranes, usually of the upper respiratory tract, with production of a toxin which when absorbed into the blood stream may produce deleterious effects on various parts of the body, especially the heart and peripheral nerves.
The disease exists throughout the world but is more common in temperate zones and during the colder months, autumn and winter. It is commonly spread by direct contact which must be fairly intimate. Dissemination by third objects such as clothes, toys, etc. may also occur and carriage by milk has been reported many times. Healthy carriers may disseminate the disease to susceptible persons and thus constitute a menace to public health. Children appear to be more liable to diphtheria than adults; although the most robust people may be attacked and those whose health is weakened by any cause are especially predisposed.
The incubation period is three to ten days. The disease may be divided into three main forms according to the anatomical distribution of the membrane: a) faucal or pharyngeal; b) laryngeal; c) nasal.
The onset of the disease is insidious with relatively moderate temperature reaction. In general, following an incubation period of about two days, symptoms set in like those commonly accompanying a cold. A slight feeling of uneasiness in the throat is experienced along with some stiffness of the back of the neck. The earliest objective manifestation of the disease is the formation of a thin film of fibrin on the tonsils which increases in thickness to form characteristic yellowish-white or grayish-white pseudo membrane.
The throat appears to be reddened and swollen. If the pseudo membrane is forcibly removed, it is found to separate from the underlying true mucous membrane with difficulty and leaves a raw, bleeding surface on which in the untreated cases a fresh membrane rapidly reforms. The lesion tends to spread over the pillars and onto the soft palate and uvula. Hence any membranous formation on pharyngeal tissues should immediately be regarded as a suspicion of diphtheria.
Myocarditis is the most dreadful of all complications of diphtheria. It is due to direct action of the toxin on the heart muscle.
Another severe complication is peripheral neuritis. It occurs in the form of paralysis affecting the soft palate and throat. Other forms of paralysis are paralysis of eye or even respiratory muscles, paralysis of a limb or both legs. These symptoms, however, after continuing for a variable length of time, almost always ultimately disappear.
The outcome of the disease depends mainly on one factor, namely, the early administration of adequate doses of antitoxin. Its employment in any recognized or even suspected case of diphtheria is mandatory and no physician can delay its administration. The second important measure is rest, the patient being kept strictly flat.
Patients suffering from diphtheria should be isolated for at least two weeks after the onset of the disease, and then until three successive cultures from the nose and throat taken not less than 48 hours apart are negative.
A diphtheria infection is treated using two types of medication: antibiotics to kill the diphtheria bacteria; antitoxins to neutralize the effects of the toxin produced by the bacteria.
Most people who have diphtheria require a 14-day course of antibiotics.
One should have the diphtheria vaccination because having diphtheria doesn't always prevent from getting the infection again.
Exercise 8. Answer the questions:
1. What is diphtheria caused by?
2.Is it contagious disease?
3.What is the disease characterized by?
4.Where is diphtheria more common?
5.Who is more liable to diphtheria?
6.What is the incubation period of the disease?
7.What are the main forms of diphtheria?
8. What are its main symptoms?
9.What are its main complications?
10. What does the outcome of the disease depend on?
Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:
throat a) very tiny living things which may cause diseases or infections
incubation period b) a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms
toxin c) the passage from the back of your mouth to the top of the tubes that go down to your lungs and stomach
bacteria d) a way in which parts of the body react to disease or injury
inflammation e) the time from the moment of exposure to an infectious agent until signs and symptoms of the disease appear
Exercise 10. Find the equivalents of the following word combinations in the text:
Гостре інфекційне захворювання, місцеве запалення, всмоктуватися кровообігом, слизова оболонка, шкідливий вплив, створювати загрозу, поширюватися при безпосередньому контакті, здоровий носій, бути більш схильним, підозрювати загрозу, найздоровіші (міцні) люди, з'являтися ненадовго, відкласти призначення, об’єктивний прояв, початок захворювання.
Exercise 12. Give English equivalents to the words in brackets:
1. Diphtheria is an (гoстре інфекційне) disease.
2. It is characterized by (місцевим запаленням) with fibrin formation of the (слизової оболонки) of the (верхнiх дихальних шляхiв).
3. The disease exists (у всьому свiтi) but is more common (в помiрнних зонах).
4. It is commonly spread (при безпосередньому контактi).
5. Сhildren appear to be (бiльш схильними) to diphtheria than (дорослi).
6. Most (міцні) people may be (iнфiкованi) and those whose health is weakened by any cause are especially (схильнi).
7. The earliest objective (прояв) of the disease is the formation of (тонкої плiвки на мигдалинах).
8. If the pseudomembrane is forcibly removed, it leaves (оголену кровоточиву) surface.
9. (Результат захворювання) depends largely on one factor, namely, (призначення вiдповiдноi дози антитоксина).
10. Patients suffering from diphtheria should be (ізольованi) for at least two weeks after (початку захворювання).
Exercise 13. Put questions to the underlined words:
The disease may be divided into three main forms according to the anatomical distribution of the membrane.
Most people who have diphtheria require a 14-day course of antibiotics.
These symptoms after continuing for a variable length of time, almost always ultimately disappear.
The outcome of the disease depends mainly on one factor, namely, the early administration of adequate doses of antitoxin.
It is commonly spread by direct contact which must be fairly intimate..
A slight feeling of uneasiness in the throat is experienced along with some stiffness of the back of the neck.
Myocarditis is the most dreadful of all complications of diphtheria.
The lesion tends to spread over the pillars and onto the soft palate and uvula.
Exercise 14. Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense:
1. Whom … the doctor … at the hospital every day? (treat)
2. What … you … now? (study)
3. What … the surgeon already …? (transfuse)
4. What … the surgeon … for two hours? (perform)
5. What … the lecturer … yesterday at 3 o’clock? (report on)
6. What … you … to do before you saw me? (decide)
7. What … the nurse … for an hour before the surgeon began the operation? (sterilize)
8. What … you … tomorrow at 6 o’clock? (do)
9. What … you … tomorrow? (take part in)
10. How many patients … the doctor … tomorrow by 5 p.m.? (hospitalize)
Exercise 15. Speak on following items:
Epidemiology of diphtheria
Symptomatology
Treatment
Complications
Quarantine
Exercise 16. Compose a case history using the key words:
To be admitted to the hospital, to complain of, on physical examination, symptoms, to reveal, laboratory findings, antitoxin treatment, the course of the disease, convalescence.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
розповсюджуватись при прямому контактi
раптовий початок
всмоктуватися кровотоком
виробляти шкiдливу дiю
гостра iнфекцiйна хвороба
з’явитися ненадовго
здоровий носiй
бути бiльш схильним до дифтерii
вражати м’яке пiднебiння та горло
легке вiдчуття дискомфорту в горлi
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What is diphtheria caused by?
2. What is the disease characterized by?
3. What are the main forms of diphtheria?
4. What are its main symptoms?
5. What are its main complications?
Розкрийте поняття: дифтерiя, iнкубацiйний перiод
HEPATITIS
ГЕПАТИТ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
bloating, n [ˈbləʊtɪŋ] здуття
choluria [ˌkɒlə ʹjʋ(ə)rıə] холеурія,наявність жовчі у сечі
communicate, v [kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt] передавати
contaminated, adj [kənˈtæmɪneɪtɪd] заражений, забруднений
countermeasures, n [ˈkaʊntəˌmeʒəs] міри протидії, контрміри
hepatitis, n [ˌhepəˈtaɪtɪs] гепатит
hepatomegaly [hepətə(ʋ) ˈ megaly ] збільшення печінки
incubation period [ˌɪŋkjʊˈbeɪʃən ˈpɪəriəd] інкубаційний (латентний, прихований) період
jaundice, n [ˈdʒɔːndɪs] жовтяниця
needle, n [ˈniːdl̩] голка
sternutation [ˌstəːnjʊˈteɪʃ(ə)n] чихання
suppuration, n [ˈsʌpjʊreɪʃən] нагноєння
vicinity, n [vɪˈsɪnəti] ділянка, зона
Exercise 2. Form the opposites by adding negative prefixes:
______infectious,______measures,______ possible, ______capable, ______born,
______ protected, ______existent, ______contaminated, ______symptomatic.
Exercise 3. Complete the table with missing forms:
VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
loss to measure contaminated
to consume to recover failure to cure invader persistent
to suspect to remain transmission Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following word-combinations:
to recover from hepatitis within a few months; infected body fluids; suppurating sores; to remain a carrier capable of infecting others; to reveal bilirubin in the blood; pain in the vicinity of the liver; shared hypodermic needles; liver failure; to worsen infections of hepatitis; almost non-existent, breast milk, to take countermeasures, personal items, blood transfusions, associated with jaundice, contaminated water, incubation period, amount of the pigment, low-grade fever, to worse the infection, to be similar to
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis may be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, or diseases of the immune system. Five viruses have been identified that attack the liver and produce hepatitis A, B, C, D and E.
Hepatitis can be acute or chronic. The main symptoms of hepatitis include choluria (dark or brown urine, often referred to as the color of Coca-Cola), appetite loss, fatigue, bloating, jaundiced skin, yellowing of the whites the eyes, nausea and vomiting, pain in the vicinity of the liver and hepatomegaly, low-grade fever. The excessive amounts of orange-yellow pigment or bilirubin in the blood indicate hepatitis and produce the yellow appearance associated with jaundice.
Hepatitis A is usually spread by food or water contaminated with infected feces or through close contact with an infectious person. Hepatitis A is highly contagious and once the infection occurs at any community everybody should be vaccinated. It is usually communicated as the result of poor hygiene or through personal contact. The incubation period for hepatitis A lasts about two or six weeks, so the disease can spread widely before countermeasures are taken. Most patients recover within a few months. After a single infection, a person is immune for the rest of their life.
Hepatitis B is spread through infected body fluids like blood, semen, suppuration, or breast milk. It does not spread by simple physical contact, holding hands, sharing eating utensils, coughing, and sternutation. The incubation period for hepatitis B lasts from one to six months, so it is usually impossible to tell how it was acquired. Someone infected with hepatitis B may fully recover and have no symptoms and yet remain a carrier capable of infecting others through sexual contact, shared hypodermic needles, and shared food or drinks.
Many individuals who are infected with hepatitis C have no symptoms and never realize that they have the disease. This disease is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions, tattoo procedures, shared personal items (e.g. toothbrushes, manicuring equipment). People with strong immune systems may recover spontaneously from hepatitis C without treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who are not treated or not cured by treatment may live normal lives, but they remain carriers of the disease and can infect others. Some people with chronic hepatitis C develop terminal complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer.
Hepatitis D attacks those individuals who have already had hepatitis B. The virus does not cause the disease by itself but worsens infections of hepatitis B.
Hepatitis E is almost non-existent in developed countries; it is found in Africa and Asia. It is similar to hepatitis A and spreads primarily through contaminated water.
Treatment of all types of hepatitis, except for the hepatitis C, is mostly supportive. Patients should keep a special diet. The combinations of antiviral drugs are used to treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions to the text:
What are the causes of hepatitis?
How is hepatitis detected?
How is hepatitis A spread?
How can hepatitis В be transmitted?
What complications may develop in patients with hepatitis C?
What is the treatment for hepatitis C?
What type of hepatitis is considered to be chronic?
What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?
Exercise 7. Match the terms with their definitions:
1. jaundice a) extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness
2. bilirubin b) swelling of a body or part of a body, usually because it has a lot of gas or liquid in it
3. cirrhosis c) a medical condition with yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, arising from excess of the pigment bilirubin and typically caused by obstruction of the bile duct, by liver disease, or by excessive breakdown of red blood cells
4. vomiting d) an orange-yellow pigment formed in the liver by the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted in bile
5. nausea e) a raw or painful place on the body
6. sore f) a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit
7. bloating g) ejection of matter from the stomach through the mouth
8. fatigue h) a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Exercise 8. Read the definitions and fill in the blanks with the name of disease below:
(Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E,
Liver cancer, Cirrhosis)
____________is a type of liver disease that can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis.
__________ is an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis.
__________is malignant neoplastic disease of the liver.
__________ is a type of liver disease that is not prevalent in most developing countries, but common in any country with a hot climate.
__________ is a type of liver disease that includes inflammation and damage to cells.
__________ is a type of liver disease that attacks persons who already have suffered from hepatitis B.
__________ is a type of liver disease that is spread through body fluids and can be acute or chronic.
Exercise 9. Find the English equivalents to the following word-combinations:
виявляти антитіла гепатиту Д в крові; біль у ділянці печінки; спільні голки для підшкірних ін’єкцій; просочуватися у кров; інкубаційний період; видужувати від гепатиту протягом кількох місяців; переливання крові; заражена їжа та вода; розвивати ускладнення такі як недостатність печінки; інфіковані рідини тіла; майже неіснуючий; рани, що гнояться; залишатися носієм, здатним інфікувати інших.
Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions:
The majority ____ cases____hepatitis are caused ____viruses, some ____which are specific ____hepatitis; others produce hepatitis as a related consequence. Five types ____hepatitis viruses are recognized and diagnosed as specifically causing the liver inflammation known as hepatitis. They are called hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Symptoms are similar ____all ____ these viruses and include dark urine, appetite loss, fatigue, jaundice ____ the skin and whites _____ the eyes, bloating and abdominal cramps, low-grade fever, pale or clay-coloured stools, and fatigue. Diagnosis ____ most cases is guided _____blood tests, which reveal antibodies, specific ____one of the forms_____ hepatitis, or elevated liver enzymes.
Exercise 11. Find synonyms in the text to the following words:
severe to detect weakness continuous flatulence sneezing to show festering to ingest volume to transmit region to get better to affect to catch polluted Exercise 12. Rearrange the words to make up sentences:
people/ Many/ hepatitis В or С/ do not/ with/ symptoms/ are/ when/ have/ I they/ first/ infected.
and/ Hepatitis A/ is/ serious/ of/ diseases/ these/ mildest/ the least.
acute/ hepatitis/ People/ with/ any/ avoid/ alcohol/ should/ and/ substances/
are/ toxic/ that/ to the liver.
Over 85%/ with/ 3 months/ people/ hepatitis A/ of/ recover/ within.
are/ caused/ Hepatitis A and Е/ by/ typically/ or/ of/contaminated/ ingestion/ food/ water.
infection/ limited/ Acute/ occur/ may/ with/ symptoms/ no/ or.
are/ There/ main/ as/ hepatitis/ viruses,/ types/ referred to/ five/ А, В, C, D and E.
usually/ Hepatitis В, C and D/ occur/ fluids/ infected/ as/ of/ a result/ contact/ parenteral/ with/ body.
Exercise 13. Put questions to the underlined words:
Hepatitis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
Hepatitis is caused by a number of different argents, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxic drugs.
All forms of hepatitis share similar symptoms.
The bilirubin test measures the amount of this pigment in the blood.
People with strong immune systems may recover spontaneously from hepatitis C without treatment.
On physical examination the physician can reveal abnormal enlargement of the liver by palpation.
The incubation period for hepatitis A lasts about two or six weeks.
Hepatitis B is spread through infected body fluids like blood, semen.
Exercise 14. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
The physician (to make) diagnosis of hepatitis A after the results of blood and urinalyses.
He (to spend) nearly a year in hospital being treated for hepatitis.
Needle-sharing (to consider) the No. 1 risk factor in contracting hepatitis C and HIV.
Chronic hepatitis C (to develop) complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer.
On physical examination the physician (to reveal) abnormal enlargement of the liver two days ago.
Different parts of the world (to suffer) from a variety of different diseases such as Hepatitis A and B, Typhoid, Yellow Fever and Malaria.
In hepatitis A, there (to be) an incubation period of 8–18 days between initial infection and first symptoms.
The nurse (to make) an injection to a patient with hepatitis B now.
Exercise 15. Translate into English:
Гепатит - загальна назва гострих та хронічних захворювань печінки різної етіології.
При гострій формі гепатиту спостерігаються такі симптоми як підвищення температури тіла, жовтяниця.
Гострий гепатит закінчується повним одужанням хворого, однак у деяких випадках може перейти у хронічну форму хвороби.
Хронічна форма гепатиту може залишатися довгий час безсимптомним.
Хронічна форми гепатиту призведе до розвитку ускладнень якщо не надати своєчасне лікування.
Пацієнт, який страждає гепатитом, повинен дотримуватися сурової дієти та не вживати смаженої їжі.
Хронічні гепатити лікуються противірусними препаратами.
Exercise 16. Use the plan to tell about hepatitis according to the plan:
1. Cause.
2. Types.
3. Ways of transmission.
4. Symptoms.
5. Complications.
6. Treatment.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
виявляти антитіла
біль у ділянці печінки
переливання крові
заражена їжа та вода
рани, що гнояться
інфіковані рідини тіла
спільні голки для підшкірних ін’єкцій
поява жовтяниці
збільшення печінки
пожовтіння скляр ока
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What are the causes of hepatitis?
How is hepatitis A spread?
How can hepatitis В be transmitted?
What complications may develop in patients with hepatitis C?
What are the symptoms of hepatitis А?
III. Розкрийте поняття:
Гепатит
CHILDHOOD INFECTIOUS DISEASES
ДИТЯЧІ ІНФЕКЦІЇ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
airborne, adj [ˈeəbɔːn] повітряний
chickenpox, n [ˈtʃɪkɪnpɒks] вітряна віспа
сontagious, adj [kənˈteɪdʒəs] заразний
exposure, n [ɪkˈspəʊʒə] виставлення, розголошення
inhalation, n [ˌɪnhəˈleɪʃən] вдих
measles, n [ˈmiːzəlz] кір
mumps, n [mʌmps] свинка
rubella, n [ruːˈbelə] краснуха
shingles, n [ˈʃɪŋɡəlz] оперізуючий лишай
swollen, adj [ˈswəʊlən] запухлий
uneventful, adj [ˌʌnɪˈventfəl] без ускладнень
varicella, n [ˌværɪˈselə] вітряна віспа
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
1. Health: poor health, in good health, mental health, public health, health service, a health worker, health insurance, to affect health, harmless to one's health, bad / broken / failing / feeble / fragile / frail / ill / poor health.
2. Treatment: free medical treatment, supportive treatment, antibiotic treatment, emergency treatment, hydropathic treatment, treatment by suggestion, to answer to the medical treatment.
Exercise 3. Put the names of diseases in the appropriate column:
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), chicken pox, diarrhea, diphtheria, dysentery, enteric fever, flu (influenza, grippe), German measles (rubella), hepatitis, meningitis, mumps, measles, polio, roseola, scabies, tetanus, tuberculosis, whooping cough, scarlet fever.
Children’s Diseases Infectious Diseases
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word combinations:
inflamed eyes, tiny white spots on the lining of the cheek, inhalation of infecting droplets, sneeze, to avoid the disease, fetal death, swollen lymph nodes, clinical name, inflammation of the pancreas, testicles and ovaries, in infants, infected airborne droplets, nasal congestion, cause shingles, to produce a specific type of toxin, characteristic symptoms and signs, sore throat, permanently immune, first trimester of pregnancy, itchy.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
CHILDHOOD INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Many of the most known diseases of childhood are highly infectious diseases that can be passed easily from person to person. Some of these diseases are very serious indeed. The diagnosis of these diseases is made on the basis of their characteristic symptoms and signs.
Measles, also known as rubeola, is a common childhood illness, although adults also are susceptible. Its signs and symptoms are: fever, cough, sneezing, inflamed eyes, sore throat, tiny white spots on the lining of the cheek, and rash. The virus that causes the disorder is transmitted by inhalation of infecting droplets such as from a sneeze. Measles is most contagious before the rash appears, making it difficult to avoid the disease. Until the rash disappears, you still can pass it to others. Once you have had measles, you are permanently immune and will not contract the disease again.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are sick. Rubella infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause fetal death. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is not as bright as that of measles and is sometimes itchy. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur.
Mumps or epidemic parotitis is a childhood disease, but it can occur in adults. Its symptoms are the following: swollen, painful salivary glands, fever, weakness and fatigue, inflammation of the pancreas, testicles, ovaries, or brain. Mumps is caused by a virus and spread by inhalation of infected droplets.
In developed countries, children are immunized against measles, rubella and mumps at 12 months by MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella). And a second dose of the vaccine is usually given to children between the ages of four and five. There is no specific treatment for these diseases. Most children with uncomplicated forms of disease recover with rest and supportive treatment.
Whooping cough. Whooping cough primarily occurs in infants younger than 2 years. It is contracted by inhaling infected airborne droplets, often from an adult with mild case of the disease. The disease is most contagious early, but can be transmitted until the infection is completely cleared. The symptoms of this disease are: sneezing and nasal congestion, tearing, loss appetite, and cough.
Fever, weakness, and red, itchy rash are the signs of chickenpox. Chickenpox, also known as varicella, occurs primarily in children, although adults who are not immune can contract it. It is contagious and is spread by breathing in infected respiratory droplets or by unprotected direct contact with the rash when it has ruptured. In persons who have had chickenpox, the virus can cause shingles later in life.
Scarlet fever was once a common, serious childhood illness but now is quite rare. Caused by a specific type of streptococcal bacteria, scarlet fever usually begins suddenly with sore throat, fever, and chill. The bacteria produce a specific type of toxin that causes a rash. It usually disappears after 3 days, and the fever disappears. The tongue may be swollen for somewhat longer, but recovery usually is uneventful. The treatment of the main childhood diseases is supportive and includes rest, pain relievers, antipyretics, vitamins and diet.
Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. It is a disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. The virus spreads by direct person-to-person contact, contact with infected mucus or infected feces. The most effective way to prevent the disease is with polio vaccine. Signs and symptoms, which generally last one to 10 days, include fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, fatigue, back pain, neck pain, pain or stiffness in the arms or legs, muscle weakness or tenderness, meningitis, paralysis. The treatment of polio is supportive consisting of bed rest, pain relievers, and diet, physical exercises.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
What are the most known diseases of childhood?
What are the signs and symptoms of measles?
What are Rubella’s clinical symptoms?
What are the mumps symptoms?
When are children immunized by MMR vaccine and when is the second dose usually given?
What are the symptoms of whooping cough?
What can you tell about chickenpox?
What do you know about exciter of scarlet fever?
What is polio?
What is the treatment of the main childhood diseases?
Exercise 7. Find corresponding equivalents in the text:
Найбільш відомі захворювання; кашлюк та скарлатина; вдих; інфекційний; доки не зникне висип; простуда; уникнути захворювання; бути викликаним вірусом; свинка та краснуха; відчуття загального дискомфорту; заразитися; вражати дихальний тракт; досить рідкісний; розриватися; видихати; оперізуючий лишай; втома, втомлюваність; хрипота; зазвичай починається несподівано; досить рідко; вдихати інфіковані крапельки в повітрі.
Exercise 8. Match the first name of the disease with the second one:
morbilli/rubeola mumps
rubella polio
varicella measles
infectious parotitis croup
pertussis chickenpox
acute laryngotracheitis lockjaw
scarlatina scarlet fever
poliomyelitis whooping cough
tetanus german measles Exercise 9. Read the following statements. Agree or contradict them:
Many of the most known diseases of childhood are highly infectious diseases that can be passed easily from person to person.
Measles, also known as three-day measles that caused by the streptococcal bacteria.
Rubella infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause fetal death.
Mumps is a childhood disease, but it can’t occur in adults.
Children become immunized firstly by MMR vaccine between the ages of four and five.
Whooping cough starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body.
Chickenpox was once a common, serious childhood illness but now is quite rare.
Fever, weakness, and red, itchy rash are the signs of scarlet fever.
Exercise 10. Read the definitions and fill in the blanks with the name of disease below:
( poliomyelitis, varicella, infectious parotitis, rubella, rubeola, pertussis, flu)
A common infectious viral disease of children, with mild fever, swollen lymph nodes and a rash. It can cause stillbirth or malformation of the unborn baby if it is caught by a mother while she is pregnant.
An infection disease of children caused by a herpes virus, and characterised by fever and red spots which turn to itchy blisters.
An infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus.
The infectious disease the symptoms of which include inflammation of the nasal passages, sneezing, coughing and fever.
An infectious disease affecting the bronchial tubes. The patient suffers from a severe cough and makes a loud noise when inhaling after a coughing fit.
An infectious disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis.
An infectious disease of children where the body is covered with a red rash. It can weaken the body’s resistance to other diseases, for example bronchitis or ear infections. If caught by an adult it can be very serious.
Exercise 11. Insert the missing prepositions:
Whooping cough occurs ___ infants younger than 2 years.
It is contracted ___ inhaling infected airborne droplets.
The symptoms ___ this disease are sneezing and nasal congestion, tearing, loss appetite, and cough.
Chickenpox occurs primarily ___ children.
It is spread ___ breathing in infected respiratory droplets or ___ unprotected direct contact with the rash.
Mumps is a childhood disease, but it can occur ___ adults.
Mumps is caused ___ a virus and spread ___ inhalation of infected droplets.
In persons who have had chickenpox, the virus can cause shingles later ___ life.
Exercise 12. Complete the sentences using words from the text:
The most common diseases of childhood are highly infectious ________.
The virus of measles is transmitted by _________ of infecting droplets.
Whooping cough is contracted by inhaling infected _______________.
Chickenpox is spread by unprotected direct contact with ___________.
The clinical name of ________________________ is epidemic parotitis.
_________ during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause fetal death.
Children are immunized against _________________ by MMR vaccine.
Scarlet fever was once a common, serious _________ illness but now is quite rare.
Exercise 13. Complete the conversations between the doctor and patients by writing in the name of childhood disease.
-What’s the problem?
It’s my son. He is got a rash and swelling in his armpits.
Does he have a fever?
Yes.
Hmm. He may have…..
– How are you feeling?
I’ve got this terrible cough.
Hmm.
And after I cough I make a noise when I try to breathe.
Sound like……
-What’s the problem?
It’s my daughter. She’s got a fever and this swelling.
Where is the swelling?
In her throat.
It could be….
- So, what can I do for you?
It’s the twins. They are covered in this dreadful red spots.
Are they experiencing any itching?
Yes, they are.
It may be….
Exercise 14. Put questions to the underlined words:
Whooping cough, scarlet fever and poliomyelitis are highly infectious diseases.
The virus that causes the disorder is transmitted by inhalation of infecting droplets.
Measles is most contagious before the rash appears.
Rubella infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause fetal death.
Mumps is caused by a virus and spread by inhalation of infected droplets.
A second dose of the vaccine is usually given to children between the ages of four and five.
The bacteria produce a specific type of toxin that causes a rash.
Children are immunized against measles, rubella and mumps at 12 months by MMR vaccine.
Exercise 15. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
All children (to vaccinate) against measles next week. 
The illness (to diagnose) as mumps.
He (to develop) a rash after the insect (to bite) him.
Child with chicken pox (to isolate) immediately last night.
Before AIDS, many health care experts (to believe) that large-scale infectious diseases were a thing of the past.  
A boy (to admit) to the hospital with a severe form of scarlet fever yesterday.
MMR vaccine (to develop) adverse events following immunization rare.
Whooping cough (to occur) mainly in young children.  

Exercise 16. Translate into English:
Першими симптомами скарлатини є біль у горлі, температура, головний біль і загальна нездужання. Через день чи два з’являються висипи на шкірі.
Привиті діти зазвичай не хворіють дитячими хворобами.
Кашлюк – це одна із хвороб, для якої не має спеціальних ліків. Спокій – головні ліки від цього захворювання.
Період інфекційної хвороби, під час якої немає характерних клінічних проявів, називається періодом інкубації
Джерелами інфекційних захворювань можуть бути заражене молоко або вода, хвора людина.
Завдяки вакцинації спалахи дитячих захворювань різко впали.
Поліомієліт – це небезпечне захворювання, яке може привезти до паралічу.
Exercise 17. Put the sentences into the correct order to explain the term “childhood infectious disease”:
__ Most children with uncomplicated forms of infectious diseases recover with rest and supportive treatment.
__ All infectious diseases can be passed easily from person to person.
__ Infectious diseases are a group of diseases which are caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
__The best known diseases of childhood are chickenpox, measles, rubella and mumps, whooping cough, scarlet fever and poliomyelitis.
__ A sore throat, a running nose, cough, high temperature, rash are the most characteristic local symptoms of childhood infectious disease.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
найбільш відомі захворювання
уникнути захворювання
бути викликаним вірусом
свинка та краснуха
відчуття загального дискомфорту
визивати оперізуючий лишай
вдихати інфіковані крапельки в повітрі.
кір та вітряна віспа
бути імунізованим проти
кашлюк та скарлатина
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What are the most known diseases of childhood?
What are the signs and symptoms of measles?
What are Rubella’s clinical symptoms?
What are the mumps symptoms?
When are children immunized by MMR vaccine and when is the second dose usually given?
III. Розкрийте поняття:
дитячі інфекційні захворювання
кашлюк
скарлатина
поліомієліт
вітряна віспа
свинка
краснуха
TYPES OF WOUNDS
ТИПИ РАН
OPEN WOUNDS
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
torn, adj [´tɔ:n] рваний
punctured, adj [´pʌŋkt∫әd] колений
blunt, adj [´blʌnt] тупий
contusion, n [kәn´tјu:ʒn] забите місце
object, n [´ɒbʤәkt] предмет, річ
incision, n [ɪn´sɪʒәn] надріз, розріз
incised, adj [ɪn´saizd] різаний
laceration, n [,læsә´reɪ∫n] розрив
linear, adj [´lɪnɪә] лінійний
stellate, adj [´stelɪt] зіркоподібний
abrasion, n [ә´breɪʒn] садно
graze, n [greɪz] подряпина
superficial, adj [,su:pә´fɪ∫әl] поверхневий
slide, v [´slaɪd] ковзати
rough , adj [´rʌf] грубий, шершавий
penetration , n [,penɪ´treɪ∫n] проникнення
gun-shot , n [´gʌn∫ɔt] постріл
bullet, n [´bulɪt] куля
projectile, n [prә´ʤektaɪl] снаряд, куля
Exercise 2.Guess the meaning of the following words without a dictionary:
Hematoma, pathology, linear, epidermis, contusion, penetration, disintegrate, abrasion, trauma, chronic, medicine, puncture, typical, category, classification, object, period, collection, traumatic, process, diabetic, circulation, infection, systemic, abscess, critical, locally, sepsis, scrape, sterile solution, antiseptic, bandage, serious, physically.
Exercise 3. Find corresponding equivalents:
dress a wound відскрібати
stitching перев’язувати рану
topmost рвана рана
scrape off накладання швів
"through -and-through" колота рана
punctured wound найвищий
laceration наскрізний
Exercise 4. Complete the table with the missing forms:
Nouns Verbs
to injure
Tear to infect
Cause Collection to puncture
to incise
Penetration Circulation to disrupt
Appliance Support to relieve
to measure
Spread to damage
Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian:
The dermis of the skin; a blunt force trauma; a sharp-edged object; a glass splinter; irregular tear-like wounds; blunt trauma; scrub the injury of any loose materials and tissue; apply some sort of closing technique; stitching; the application of a pressure dressing; realign the edges of the wound; speed healing; lessen scarring; superficial wounds; the topmost layer of the skin; remain intact; a sliding fall; a rough surface.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
OPEN WOUNDS
In medicine, a wound is a type of injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where a blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
Open wounds can be classified according to the object that caused the wound. The types of open wounds are:
Incisions or incised wounds are caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, a razor or a glass splinter.
Lacerations are irregular tear-like wounds caused by some blunt trauma. Lacerations and incisions may be linear (regular) or stellate (irregular). The first step to treat this kind of wound is to stop bleeding, clean and scrub the injury of any loose materials and tissue, and then apply some sort of closing technique, whether through stitching or the application of a pressure dressing. The edges of the wound should be realigned to speed healing and lessen scarring.
Abrasions (grazes) are superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off, but the tissue underneath remains intact. Abrasions are often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface. Cleansing of the wound and removal of any foreign material is important within the first 24 hours. Treatment is usually non-surgical and consists of the application of a moist dressing to protect the new tissue that forms to heal the abrasion.
Puncture wounds are caused by an object puncturing the skin, such as a nail or needle.
Penetration wounds are caused by an object such as a knife entering and coming out from the skin.
Gunshot wounds are caused by a bullet or similar projectile driving into or through the body. There may be two wounds, one at the site of entry and one at the site of exit, generally referred to as a "through-and-through."
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:
What are the main two types of wounds?
What does a wound mean in medicine?
What does the wound refer to in pathology?
How can open wounds be classified?
What are incisions caused by?
What types of open wounds do you know?
What is the treatment for lacerations?
What is a “through-and-through” wound?
Exercise 8. Translate the following word-combinations into English:
Вогнепальна рана; рана від проникнення; колоті рани; подряпина і садно; розрив (рвана рана); розріз (різана рана); пошкодження; наскрізна рана; загоювати садно; поверхнева рана; залишатися непошкодженим; найвищий шар шкіри; лінійні розрізи;зіркоподібні розрізи; вирівняти краї рани; прискорити загоєння; зменшити рубець.
Exercise 9. Define the type of wound according to its description:
It occurs when the skin rubs or scrapes against a rough or hard surface. Road rash is an example of this type of wound. There is usually not much bleeding, but the wound needs to be scrubbed and cleaned well to avoid infection.
A sharp object, such as a knife, shard of glass, or razor blade, causes it. The wound bleeds a lot and quickly. If it is deep, tendons, ligaments, and muscles might be damaged.
It is an irregular or jagged break or tearing of the skin. These wounds are often caused from accidents with tools and machinery, and bleed rapidly and extensively.
It is a small hole caused by a long, pointy object, such as a nail, needle, or ice pick. Sometimes a bullet can also cause such a wound. It may not bleed much, but it can be deep enough to damage internal organs. If you have such a wound—even a small one—visit your doctor to get a tetanus booster shot and prevent infection.
It is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms used in armed conflicts, civilian sporting and criminal activity. The immediate damaging effect of the wound is typically severe bleeding, thus, it can be fatal or cause long-term consequences.
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words:
Open wounds can be classified according to the object that caused the wound.
Incisions or incised wounds are caused by a clean, sharp-edged object.
The first step to treat this kind of wound is to stop bleeding.
The edges of the wound should be realigned to speed healing and lessen scarring.
The topmost layer of the skin was scraped off.
Abrasions are often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface.
In abrasions the tissue underneath the epidermis remains intact.
Treatment consists of the application of a moist dressing to protect the new tissue.
Exercise 11. Open the brackets and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
This type of wound usually (to refer) to as through-and-through wounds.
Closed wounds (to have) fewer categories than open ones.
In abrasions the topmost layer of the skin (to scrape) off.
Abrasions often (to cause) by a sliding fall onto a rough surface.
A moist dressing (to apply) on his wound to protect the new tissue.
The doctors (to apply) six stitches on his wound.
First the edges of the laceration (to clean) then realigned.
This puncture wound (to cause) by a nail.
Exercise 12. Translate into English:
1. Як правило, відкриті рани дуже швидко заживають.
2. Різані рани виникають внаслідок не дуже акуратного використання тонких, гострих предметів.
3. Колоті рани досить серйозні, так як може статися пошкодження внутрішніх органів або м'язових тканин.
4. Рвані рани супроводжуються рясною кровотечею, викликають сильні болі.
5. Необхідна обробка різних видів відкритих ран.
6. Неглибокі рани обробляють антисептичними препаратами і накладають стерильну пов'язку на місце пошкодження.
7. При колотих ранах необхідно зупинити кровотечу. Якщо кров продовжує йти, потрібно відразу накласти стерильну пов'язку і не знімати, поки кровотеча не зупиниться.
Exercise 13. Define the following terms:
Open wound; incised wound; laceration; abrasion; gunshot wound.
CLOSED WOUNDS
ЗАКРИТІ РАНИ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
Сontusion [kənˈtjuːʒən] забите місце
Bruise [bruːz] синець; ґуля
harsh blow [hɑːʃ bləʊ] грубий (різкий) удар
сrush injury[krʌʃ 'indʒəri] роздавлена рана
disrupt [dɪsˈrʌpt] Розривати
disintegrate [dɪsˈɪntɪˌgreɪt] розкладатися
Exercise 2. Translate the word combinations into Ukrainian:
sustain a harsh blow; monitor for symptoms of hematoma; a steadily growing mass; disrupt the tissue; relatively slow process; lead to tissue damage; insufficiency in the circulation; fail and disintegrate; take hold of the site; spread locally.
Exercise 3. Match the words with their definitions.
wound an injury appearing as an area of discoloured skin on the body, caused by a blow or impact rupturing underlying blood vessels.
trauma a minor wound in which the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane is worn away by rubbing or scrapping.
hematoma the thin layer of tissue forming the natural outer covering of the body of a person or animal.
bruise a solid swelling of clotted blood within the tissues.
abrasion the presence in tissues of harmful bacteria and their toxins, typically through infection of a wound.
contusionan injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.
skin a swollen area within body tissue, containing an accumulation of pus.
contusion a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood capillaries have been ruptured.
sepsis the process of infecting or the state of being infected.
infection a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood capillaries have been ruptured.
abscess a physical wound or injury, such as a fracture or blow.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:
CLOSED WOUNDS
Closed wounds have fewer categories, but are just as dangerous as open wounds. There are several types of closed wounds.
Contusions are more commonly known as bruises, caused by a blunt force trauma that damage tissue under the skin. When a person sustains a harsh blow, it causes tissue damage and bleeding beneath the skin, but does not tear the skin itself. Most contusions do not require medical treatment, but should be monitored for symptoms of hematoma, which is deep tissue damage. A hematoma can cause skin death over the injury and will need medical treatment. The symptoms of a hematoma are a steadily growing mass beneath the contusion and discoloration, as well as severe pain. These symptoms require immediate medical treatment.
Нematoma, also called a blood tumor, is caused by damage of a blood vessel that in its turn causes blood collection under the skin.
Crush injury is caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a long period of time.
Chronic and Acute Wounds Acute or traumatic wounds are the result of injuries that disrupt the tissue. Chronic wounds are those that are caused by a relatively slow process that leads to tissue damage. Chronic wounds include pressure, venous, and diabetic ulcers. Typically, an insufficiency in the circulation or other systemic support of the tissue causes it to fail and disintegrate. Infection then takes hold of the site and hits a critical point, it can spread locally. Once the infection hits a critical point, it can spread locally or become systemic (sepsis).
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:
What are the types of closed wounds?
What are contusions caused by?
What should contusions be monitored for?
What can hematoma cause?
What are the symptoms of hematoma?
What are hematomas caused by?
What is a crush injury?
What do acute wounds result from?
What are chronic wounds caused by?
When can infection spread locally and become systemic?
Exercise 6. Translate the following word combinations into English:
Критична точка; недостатня циркуляція; травматичні поранення; порівняно повільний процес; збиратися під шкірою; розпадатися на складові частини; розривати тканину; забите місце; синець; пошкоджувати кров’яні судини; небезпечні рани; розповсюджуватися локально.
Exercise 7. Match one or more words from list B with the verbs from list A to make word combinations. Translate them into Ukrainian:
List A: To cause; to refer to; to damage; to be caused by; to appear; to be misused; to collect; to be applied; to scrape off; to be referred to ; to lead to; to hit; to spread.
List B: the topmost layer of the skin ; a critical point; as a "through-and-through; tissue damage; over a long period of time; the dermis;  locally; a clean, sharp-edged object; under the skin; in reference to incisions; a contusion; a sharp injury; linear (regular) or stellate.
Exercise 8. Find the appropriate sentence endings:
Incisions or incised wounds are caused by…
Contusions are more commonly known as …
Lacerations are irregular tear-like wounds caused by …
Abrasions (grazes) are superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin …
Hematoma is also called a blood tumor caused by…
Puncture wounds are caused by an object puncturing the skin such as …
Penetration wounds are caused by an object such as knife…
Crush injury is caused by a great or extreme amount of…
Gunshot wounds are caused by a bullet or similar projectile driving …
…is scraped off.
…into or through the body.
…entering and coming out from the skin.
…a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, a razor or a glass splinter.
… a nail or needle.
… force applied over a long period of time.
….damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin.
… bruises, caused by a blunt force trauma that damage tissue under the skin.
… some blunt trauma.
Exercise 9. Approve or contradict the following statements:
Ballistic wounds are quite common for any people.
From time to time we can receive a major wound.
Whether major or minor, any injury that tears flesh is not only painful, but dangerous.
The simplest puncture can lead to tetanus, and a small cut can turn septic.
Knowing the types of wounds hardly helps the surgeon to treat them.
Wounds can be serious, no matter how small they are.
In the case of punctures, a thorough cleansing and updating of your tetanus shot is a must.
Deep cuts, where blood is pumped with each heartbeat, do not require an immediate call to first aid station.
Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Many minor wounds result in damaged skin cells that lose their function.
2. Depending on the cause, site and depth, a wound can range from simple to life threatening.
3. Acute wounds heal uneventfully in the predicted amount of time.
4. Another way to classify wounds is to determine if the wound is clean or contaminated.
5. Contaminated wounds have some foreign materials or debris inside.
6. Internal wounds result from impaired immune and nervous system functions or decreased supply of blood, oxygen or nutrients to that area.
7. The signs and symptoms depend on the wound site, depth and causative agent.
8. Some anti-inflammatory medicine and pain killers might be prescribed to reduce discomfort in deep wounds.
Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with the ptoper modal verb (can, may, might, should):
1. When possible, the wound __________ be washed with soap.
2. Some wounds _____ need flushing with medical syringes, while others _____ need surgical debridement to remove foreign materials or dead tissue.
3. Treatment ________ also include proper wound care and dressing, and the application of local antibiotics where needed.
4. These basic steps in wound treatment ______help prevent wound infection and protect it from the environment.
5. Some anti-inflammatory medicine and pain killers________ also be prescribed to reduce discomfort and improve quality of life.
6. People living in a hazardous environment or having dangerous jobs _____ also be at higher risk for wounds.
Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences into English:
Відомо, що рана – це пошкодження шкіри, слизової оболонки чи глибокої тканини, що супроводжується болем та кровотечею, і має вигляд зяючого отвору.
Рани бувають вогнепальні, різані, колоті, вдарені, рвані, давлені, укуси.
Вогнепальні рани виникають внаслідок кульового поранення. Вони бувають наскрізні, якщо є вхідні і вихідні ранові отвори; сліпі, якщо куля або осколок залишається у тканині тіла.
Різані і колоті рани мають невелику зону пошкоджень, рівні краї, стінки ран зберігають життєздатність, дуже кровоточать, менше піддаються інфікуванню.
Колоті проникаючі рани при невеликій зоні пошкодження шкіри чи слизової оболонки можуть мати значну глибину і бути дуже небезпечними через пошкодження внутрішніх органів і занесення до них інфекції.
Рвані рани бувають різної глибини із значним пошкодженням м’яких тканин тіла.
Вкушені рани завжди інфіковані слиною і вимагають вакцинації.
Рани можуть бути поверхневими або проникаючими в порожнину черепа, грудну клітку, черевну порожнину. Проникаючі рани найнебезпечніші.
Exercise 13. Explain the following terms in English:
Closed wound, contusion, hematoma.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
розривати тканину
забите місце
пошкоджувати кров’яні судини
небезпечні рани
розповсюджуватися локально
наскрізна рана
загоювати садно
вирівняти краї рани
прискорити загоєння
зменшити рубець.
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
How can open wounds be classified?
What are incisions caused by?
What types of open wounds can you name?
What are the types of closed wounds?
What are contusions caused by?
III. Розкрийте поняття:
Відкриті рани; закриті рани
APPENDICITIS
АПЕНДИЦИТ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
alternate adj [ɔ:l'tɜ:nɪt] чергуватися, замінятися
appendectomy [ˌap(ə)nˈdɛktəmi] видалення апендикса
bloating n [bləʊtiŋ] здуття живота, метеоризм
burst v [bɜ:st] Розриватися
complication n [kɔmpli'keiʃ(ə)n] Ускладнення
constipation n [kɔnsti'peiʃ(ə)n] Закреп
fecal debris n ['fi:k(ə)l] ['deɪbriː] калові продукти відходу (залишки)
incision n [in'siʒ(ə)n] розріз, надріз;
laparotomy [ˌlapəˈrɒtəmi] лапаротомія, череворозтин
lump of feces n [lʌmp ɔv 'fi:si:z] калові маси
mortality n [mɔ:'tæliti] смертність
obstruction n [əb'strekʃ(ə)n] закупорка
retention n [rɪ'ten(t)ʃ(ə)n затримка
rule out v [‘ruːl ˈaʊt] виключати (можливість тощо)
rupture n [reptʃə] розрив
tenderness n ['tendənis] болючість, хворобливість
vermiform [ˈvəːmɪfɔːm] червоподібний
Exercise 2. Form the following new words and translate them into your native language:
Model: translate – translation, establish - establishment
-Y: bone, blood, health, sleep, taste, water, noise, dirt.
-MENT: enlarge, impair, develop, achieve, treat, require, involve, measure.
-TION: complicate, obstruct, constipate, inflame, operate, examine, observe, prevent.
-NESS: weak, deaf, ill, red, tired, restless, tender.
Exercise 3. Form the new nouns with the meaning “inflammation”.
Model: appendix – appendicitis
Retina, sinus, esophagus, parodont, meninges, pulp, bronchus, myocardium, gingiva, thyroid, conjunctiva.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following sentences:
Retention – затримка
The retention of urine is one of the clinical manifestations of a kidney disease.
Mortality – смертність
In untreated cases, mortality is high because of the risk of rupture leading to peritonitis.
Tenderness – болючість, хворобливість
The patient complained of a moderate tenderness on palpation.
Remove – видаляти
The surgeon removed the tumor which had involved the stomach.
Rupture – розрив
The laboratory analysis failed to reveal rupture of the appendix.
Obstruction – закупорка
The stone in the bile ducts caused the obstruction of bile flow.
Bloating - здуття живота, метеоризм
The patient was admitted to the reception ward with bloating and nausea.
Constipation – закреп
It was very difficult for the physician to make a correct diagnosis as the constipation was from time to time alternating with diarrhea.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word-combinations:
To be attached to the end of the caecum, high rate of mortality, to spill fecal material, obstruction of the appendix, abdominal cavity's lining, a lump of feces, fecal debris, constipation, nausea and vomiting, retention of gases, bloating, the appearance of complications, to insert a special surgical tool.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
APPENDICITIS
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, the short thin blind-ended tube, 7-10 cm long that is attached to the end of the caecum, the first part of the large intestine on the right side of the abdomen.
Appendicitis may be acute or chronic.
Acute appendicitis is a sudden inflammation of the appendix. If it is not treated promptly, the inflamed appendix may burst, spilling fecal material into the abdominal cavity. The usual result is a life-threatening infection of the abdominal cavity's lining (the peritoneum) that is peritonitis - a serious inflammation with rather high rate of mortality unless it is treated quickly with strong antibiotics.
Appendicitis is caused by the obstruction of the appendix. The appendix may become obstructed by a lump of feces and fecal debris or tumors, leading to inflammation and infection.
Acute appendicitis begins with tenderness near the navel or suddenly with a sharp pain in epigastrium. The pain does not radiate but it is accompanied by constipation, nausea, vomiting, bloating and retention of gases. The pain becomes worse on movement, deep breathing in and coughing. The temperature is subfebrile. A high fever may indicate an abscessed appendix.
Diagnosis of an acute appendicitis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Blood and urine samples should be taken for analysis. An ultrasound or an abdominal X-ray may be necessary.
The treatment of an acute appendicitis is surgical. The surgical procedure for the removal of the appendix is called an appendectomy.
A laparotomy is the traditional type of surgery used for treating appendicitis. This procedure consists of the removal of the appendix through a single incision in the lower right area of the abdomen.
An appendectomy is performed under general anesthesia. This procedure shouldn’t last longer than an hour if complications do not occur.
A laparoscopy consists of making three incisions in the abdomen. A laparoscope is inserted into one incision but the other two are used for the removal of the appendix.
Chronic appendicitis is a rare condition that involves long-term inflammation of the appendix. The symptoms of chronic appendicitis last longer than those of acute appendicitis.
Diagnosing chronic appendicitis can be difficult because the symptoms are similar to those occurring with other conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation or diarrhea. So, often, patients with chronic appendicitis are undiagnosed until an acute appendicitis occurs.
Full recovery after surgery takes about six weeks, but can be prolonged in case of complications, such as the rupture of the appendix.
Exercise 7 Answer the following questions:
1. What is appendix?
2. What is the cause of appendicitis?
3. What types of appendicitis are there?
4. What are the manifestations of acute appendicitis?
5. What is the difference of acute and chronic appendicitis?
6. Why is it difficult to make a diagnosis of chronic appendicitis?
7. What complications can occur in case of untreated acute appendicitis?
8. How can acute appendicitis be treated?
9. How can acute appendicitis be diagnosed?
10. What is the difference in laparotomy and laparoscopy?
Exercise 8. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones:
1. the appearance of complications закупорка апендиксу
2. full recovery вистилка черевної порожнини
3. incision in the abdomen проводити операцію
4. obstruction of the appendix розріз у черевної порожнині
5. to begin with tenderness супроводжуватися закрепом
6. a life-threatening infection високий рівень смертності
7. to perform the operation починатися з хворобливістю
8. abdominal cavity's lining повне одужання
high rate of mortality виникнення ускладнення
10. to be accompanied by constipation загрозлива для життя хвороба
Exercise 9. Say whether the sentences are true or false:
1. Appendicitis can be of acute and chronic form.
2. Laparoscopy consists of the removal of the appendix through one incision in the lower left part of the abdominal cavity.
3. Acute appendicitis begins with pains in substernal area.
4. The pain is accompanied by fever, perspiration and discharge of sputum.
5. An acute appendicitis is treated with antibiotics.
6. The rupture of appendix can lead to the infection of the peritoneum.
7. It is difficult to diagnose chronic appendicitis because symptoms are vague.
8. A high fever in acute appendicitis may indicate inflammation of the abdominal cavity's lining.
Exercise 10. Match the following terms with their definition:
Gastritis a condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, usually associated with hardened faeces
Constipation a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine
Diarrhea a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit
Appendix the serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs
Peritoneum a condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form
Nausea is an inflammation of thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.
Peritonitis an inflammation of the stomach lining (mucosa)
Exercise 11. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:
1. The patient complained of the pain that супроводжувалася нудотою.
2. Закреп was relieved with the administration of laxatives.
3. The operation on acute appendicitis проводилася under загальна aneasthesia.
4. Закупорка of the appendix lumen was the cause of nausea, pains and vomiting.
5. The surgeon видалив the appendix to prevent its розрив.
6. Suppurative appendicitis may cause ускладнення such as peritonitis.
7. Peritonitis is загрозлива для життя інфекція with високим рівнем смертності.
8. Acute appendicitis usually починається з хворобливістю in the abdominal cavity.
Exercise 12. Put the words from the box instead of synonyms in the sentences:
Tenderness, obstruction, rupture, mortality, constipation, vomiting, nausea, recovery
The blockage of the appendix lumen caused unbearable pains and fever.
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading factors of deaths in the world nowadays.
The disease is accompanied by severe soreness in the abdominal cavity.
One of the most frequent complications of an acute appendicitis can be the burst of appendix that can lead to peritonitis.
Retention of feces is one of the symptoms of acute appendicitis.
The patient with indigestion complained of retching and diarrhea.
Sickness can be a side effect of many medications including cancer chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy.
Full convalescence of acute appendicitis can occur after four - six weeks of treatment.
Exercise 13. Read and translate paying attention to modal verbs:
1.The environment must be provided with the proper amount of oxygen for the growth of aerobic microorganisms.
2.The doctor ought not to have told him that the disease is incurable. He should have encouraged him.
3.The doctor had to palpate the patient’s abdomen and make an abdominal X-ray to exclude the possible diagnosis of an acute appendicitis.
4.The students may watch the operation on acute appendicitis in practical classes.
5.Appendicitis in this patient must have resulted from obstruction of the appendix with a tumour.
6.Everyone should remember that most viruses are destroyed at the temperature 500-600 within 30-60 minutes.
7.Acute appendicitis should be treated surgically either by laparotomy or laparascopy.
8.Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored for long periods of time in the body’s fatty tissue and the liver.
Exercise 14. Fill in the blanks with suitable modal verbs in a proper form and translate the text:
At about 2 o’clock in the cold winter morning a man telephoned a doctor and asked him if he ….. come at once. “You …. hurry”, he said. The doctor …. drive 7 miles to this call. When he reached the place, the man who had called him in said: “Doc, I ….. strained myself (втомився). I haven’t got any pain or anything, but I have a terrible feeling that I …. die soon.” The doctor examined the patient, felt his pulse and took the temperature. “Have you made your will? (заповіт) he asked at last. – Why, no, doctor.” The man looked frightened. – You … done it long ago,” said the doctor. “ Have you got a family?” – “Yes” said the patient. – “You …. send for them immediately. And your parents ….. be called too.” – “Do you really think I’m going to die?” – “No, I don’t” replied the doctor. “But I don’t want to be the only one whom you made fool of that night.”
Exercise 15. Translate into English the parts of the sentences given in brackets using modal verbs:
1.The ambulance (змоглa дістатися) to the hospital within 10 minutes despite a traffic jam.
2.I don’t remember that I saw such symptoms and so I (не зможу) help you in making a diagnosis.
3.Full recovery from appendectomies (може відбутися) after 4 to 6 weeks of treatment.
4.I’ll write you the prescription that you (слід дотримуватися) to achieve full recovery.
5.I suppose that this medicine (повинно допомогти).
6.(Нема чого хвилюватися). The operation was performed successfully.
7.He has a scar in the lower right area of the abdomen. He (можливо зробили) laparotomy.
8. You (не слід) get out of bed before the doctor allows you to do it as the stitches (можуть) not hold.
Exercise 16. Put questions to the underlined members of sentences:
1. Acute appendicitis is due to the obstruction of the appendix with fecal debris.
2. The rupture of appendicitis may cause peritonitis.
3. Treatment of acute appendicitis consists of surgical intervention.
4. There may be no acute symptom of chronic appendicitis at all.
5. Anorexia is commonly noted early in the morning.
6. The patient with ruptured appendix will be operated immediately.
7.On admission to the hospital the patient complained of a severe pain in epigastrium.
8. Cases of appendicitis have been noted even in infants.
Exercise 17. Open the brackets and put the verbs in a correct tense:
1. The surgeon (to perform) this operation from 10 till 11 o’clock.
2. Two hours ago, a patient with acute pains (to bring) to the reception ward.
3. Eye drops may (to use) for the prevention of ocular infection.
4. The patients (to examine) by a doctor in charge now.
5. If the patient has TB bacilli in the sputum, he (to stay) in the hospital for six or eight months.
6. The patient cannot be discharged from the hospital because he not (to recover) yet.
7. When we came, the solution (to boil) in the water-heater system.
8. After the injection, given an hour ago, the patient (to feel) much better.
Exercise 18. Translate into English:
1. Гострий апендицит — одне з найпоширеніших гострих хірургічних захворювань органів черевної порожнини.
2. Найчастіше гострий апендицит викликається обструкцією червоподібного відростка каловими камінням.
3. Для правильної діагностики гострого апендициту лікар зобов'язаний провести ретельне обстеження хворого.
4. Початок хвороби характеризується тупим ниючим болем у правій здухвинній ділянці.
5. Основний тип лікування гострого апендициту є хірургічне втручання.
6. Перитоніт (запалення очеревини) виникає при некрозі та перфорації в стінці червоподібного відростка, з наступним витіканням кишкового вмісту в вільну черевну порожнину.
7. Апендикулярний абсцес– виникає коли відбувається локалізація процесу, тобто запалення обмежується лише зоною відростка та прилягаючими тканинами.
8. Після видалення червоподібного відростка його функцію на себе беруть інші органи шлунково-кишкового тракту, що дозволяє організму людини повноцінно функціонувати.
Exercise 19. Speak about Appendicitis according to the plan:
The type of the disease.
The cause of the disease.
The symptoms and manifestations of the disease.
The treatment of the disease.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів
I. Перекладіть словосполучення на англійську мову:
закупорка апендиксу
супроводжуватися закрепом
повне одужання
розрив апендиксу
загрозлива для життя хвороба
вздуття та нудота
вистилка черевної порожнини
високий рівень смертності
ускладнення хвороби
хворобливість у пупковій зоні
II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
What is appendix?
What is the cause of appendicitis?
What are the manifestations of acute appendicitis?
What are the symptoms of chronic appendicitis?
How can acute appendicitis be diagnosed?
What is the treatment of acute appendicitis?
What are the complications of appendicitis?
III. Дайте визначення: апендицит
SHOCK
ШОК
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
agitation, n [ˏæʤi'teiʃn] хвилювання
anxiety, n [əŋ'zaiəti] занепокоєння, турбота
arrest, v [ǝ'rest] зупинятися
cardiogenic, adj. [ˏka:diǝʋ'ʤenik] кардіогенний
clammy, adj ['klæmi] липкий та вологий на дотик
confusion, n [kǝn'fju:ʓn] сплутана свідомість
dehydration, n [ˏdi:hai'dreiʃǝn] зневоднення
frightening, adj ['fraitniɳ] лякаючий, жахливий
hypoxia, n [hai'pɒksiǝ] гіпоксія, нестача кисню
hypersensitivity, n [ˏhaipǝˏsensi'tiviti] надмірна чутливість
hypovolemic, adj. [haipǝuvǝ'li:mik] гіповолемічний
irreversible, adj [ˏiri'vɜ:sǝbǝl] незворотній
insufficient, adj [ˏinsǝ'fiʃint] недостатній
lack, n ['læk] брак чогось
neurogenic, adj. [ˏnjʋrǝ'ʤenik] нейрогенний
saline, n [seilain] сольовий розчин
seizure, n ['si:ʓǝ] судома
shallow, adj ['ʃæləu] неглибокий, поверховий
worsen, v ['wɜ:sn] погіршувати
Exercise 2. Form the words with the help of the prefix hyper-. Translate the pair of words into Ukrainian:
Model: sensitivity – hypersensitivity
чутливість – надмірна чутливість
activity, function, tension, ventilation, vitaminosis, secretion, keratosis, glycaemia, thyroidism, thermia (-thernia).
Exercise 3. Form adjectives with the help of the suffix –ish. Translate the pair of words into Ukrainian:
Model: blue – bluish (i.e. resembles blue, but not pure blue)
синій – синюватий, синявий
gray, yellow, white, green, tall, small, normal, mild, cold, new, boy, girl, child, woman, book.
Exercise 4. Translate the word-combinations into Ukrainian:
Insufficient blood flow, to require immediate treatment, a traumatic or frightening emotional event, shallow breathing, bluish lips and fingernails, intra-abdominal infections, to release toxins, allergic reaction to insect stings, congestive heart failure, spinal cord injury, to determine the cause, a poor prognosis, in minor cases, damage to vital organs, to worsen rapidly.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
SHOCK
Shock is a life-threatening medical condition as a result of insufficient blood flow throughout the body. Shock often accompanies severe injury or illness. Medical shock is a medical emergency, and it can lead to other conditions such as lack of oxygen in the body's tissues (hypoxia), heart attack (cardiac arrest) or organ damage. It requires immediate treatment as symptoms can worsen rapidly.
Medical shock is different from emotional, or psychological, one as it can occur following a traumatic or frightening emotional event.
The main symptom of shock is low blood pressure. Among other symptoms we may observe rapid, shallow breathing and rapid weak pulse; cold, clammy skin; dizziness and confusion; glassy eyes; anxiety or agitation; seizures; low or no urine output; bluish lips and fingernails; sweating; chest pain.
There are five types of shock: septic, anaphylactic, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, neurogenic.
Septic shock results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. It can be caused by intra-abdominal infections (such as a rupture of appendix), pneumonia, or meningitis. Its treatment includes antibiotics and fluids.
Anaphylactic shock occurs as a result of severe hypersensitivity or allergic reaction to insect stings, medicines or foods (nuts, berries, seafood). At the early stage, it can be treated with IV injection of adrenaline (epinephrine).
Cardiogenic shock happens when the heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body any more. It can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure. Cardiogenic shock has a poor prognosis: only 1/3 of patients survive, as it is often difficult to treat and overcome.
Hypovolemic shock is caused by severe blood and fluid loss because of traumatic injury. It is treated with fluids (saline) in minor cases, and blood transfusions in severe cases. Hypovolemic shock responds well to medical treatment if initiated early.
Neurogenic shock is caused by spinal cord injury as a result of a traumatic accident or injury. This type of shock is the most difficult to treat as spinal cord damage is often irreversible. That’s why it has a very poor prognosis. Nevertheless, its treatment includes surgery, absolute immobilization and anti-inflammatory drugs.
As far as we can see, treatment for each type of shock depends on the cause. Tests will help to determine it. However, as a rule, IV fluids and medications that raise blood pressure are administered.
Shock is a medical emergency. If you suspect shock, especially after an injury, even if a person seems stable, get him to an emergency department immediately. Prompt treatment can save his life because the sooner shock is treated, the less is the damage to vital organs.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
1. What kind of medical condition is shock?
2. What conditions can shock lead to?
3. What are the symptoms of shock?
4. How many types of shock are there?
5. What is the cause of septic shock?
6. What is hypovolemic shock treated?
7. What types of shock do not respond to treatment? Why?
8. What is a common treatment for shock?
Exercise 7. Join nouns with corresponding adjectives. Translate the word-combinations:
1. life-threatening a) blood flow
2. clammy b) eyes
3. insufficient c) arrest
4. shallow d) condition
5. glassy e) emergency
6. cardiac f) breathing
7. medical g) damage
8. irreversible h) skin
Exercise 8. Match symptoms with their definitions:
1. hypoxia
2. seizure
3. dizziness
4. confusion
5. sweating
6. glassy eyes
7. anxiety
8. shallow breathing a) lack of clearness of mind
b) excretion of salty liquid through the skin pores
c) condition when a patient cannot control his movements
d) worry and tension caused by apprehension
e) not blinking enough gives the eyes a shiny appearance like glass
f) not deep respiration
g) lack of oxygen in body’s tissues
h) feeling when the head goes round
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 9. Give the English equivalents.
супроводжувати важку травму, брак кисню в тканинах тіла, запаморочення та сплутана свідомість, відбуватися внаслідок, виділяти токсин, скляний зір та судоми, розрив апендикса, надмірна чутливість до ліків, значна втрата рідини, підвищити кров’яний тиск, незначний та тяжкий випадки, підозрювати шоковий стан після травми, невідкладна допомога.
Exercise 10. Translate the verbs given in italics. Choose the correct Tense and Voice form:
1. This symptom супроводжує all severe injuries.
2. Any type of shock потребує immediate treatment.
3. The disease піддається well to the antibiotic therapy.
4. If he gets stung by an insect, he розвинеться severe allergy.
5. If the spinal cord пошкоджено, neurogenic shock трапляется.
6. If the patient’s condition погіршується rapidly, he must be hospitalized.
7. Bluish lips and fingernails виникають внаслідок lack of oxygen in body tissues.
8. The doctors спостерігали how his pulse rate was becoming stronger and stronger.
Exercise 11. How do we call it? Choose the appropriate adjective / adverb:
insufficient, traumatic, anti-inflammatory, life-threatening,
severe, immediately, prompt, irreversible
1. Medicines that prevent inflammation are called … .
2. When something is done without delay, it’s done … .
3. A disease or injury that can cause a person to die is called … .
4. When there isn’t enough of something in the body, we say … .
5. An injury that affects some part of the body or any organ is called … .
6. Medical aid delivered very quickly without any delay is called … .
7. A very serious disease or reaction of the body to something is also known as … .
8. Process that continues to develop and can’t be stopped or changed to how it was before is … .
Exercise 12. Distribute the possible causes between the types of shock. Some causes can be the same for some types of shock:
spinal cord trauma, heart failure, rupture of appendix, hypersensitivity, fluid loss, intra-abdominal infections, bites of insects, meningitis, traumatic event, heart attack, pneumonia, allergy to medicines / food
Cardiogenic shock Neurogenic shock Hypovolemic shock Septic
shock Anaphylactic shock
Exercise 13. What would you do in case of shock? Say whether the following statements true or false.
1. Move a person who is suspected to have neurogenic shock.
2. Wait for the symptoms of shock worsen, and only then call in an ambulance.
3. Immediately call in an ambulance.
4. Leave a person alone with his trouble.
5. Have a person lie down on the back with the feet elevated above the head to increase blood flow to vital organs.
6. Raise a person’s feet above the head to increase blood flow to vital organs even if raising legs causes pain.
7. Check a person’s breathing every two minutes.
8. Don’t give a person anything to drink so as to avoid loss of consciousness.
Exercise 14. Insert preposition where necessary:
1. Any health troubles start with damages … cells.
2. He got spinal cord injury … a result of a car crash.
3. Shock is an emergency condition that threatens … life.
4. Toxins, released … the blood by bacteria, cause septic shock.
5. Only a small number of people survive … cardiogenic shock.
6. In summer a lot of people suffer allergic reactions … insect stings.
7. The injury after the accident was accompanied … the state of shock.
8. Medical shock differs … the emotional one which follows some frightening event.
Exercise 15. Read and translate N.I. Pirogov’s description of a soldier in a state of shock:
The following is the description of shock made by famous surgeon N. Pirogov: “You see a wounded soldier without an arm or leg lying still at the dressing station. He does not cry or moan or complain. He is indifferent to everything. He does not ask for anything. His eyes are immovable and he gazes into the distance. His body is cold. His face is pale as that of a corpse. His pulse is like a thread, barely noticeable. His wound and skin are almost completely insensitive. The patient displays a sign of sensation only by contraction of the facial muscles. Sometimes this state passes off within a few hours. And sometimes it persists unchanged until death.”
Exercise 16. Answer the questions to the given above text:
1. Why doesn’t a soldier without a leg or an arm make any sound?
2. What does he look like? Why?
3. How can you describe his glance?
4. Is it possible to feel his pulse?
5. How does he reveal his sensations?
6. How often does the state of shock subside?
Exercise 17. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. The initial state of shock is manifested by hypoxia.
2. Thready pulse can be due to the decrease of blood flow.
3. The classification system for shock was created in 1972.
4. If not timely treated, shock will proceed to the progressive stage.
5. That critically ill patient developed septic shock after surgical intervention.
6. The severity of shock is graded on a 1-4 scale depending on the physical signs.
7. Low blood perfusion results in cellular damage and inadequate tissue function.
8. Hypovolemic, anaphylactic and neurogenic shock respond well to medical therapy.
Exercise 18. Re-write sentences opening the brackets. Translate them into Ukrainian:
1. Glassy eyes (to be) the sign of stupor and shock.
2. Adrenaline always (to use) to arrest anaphylactic shock.
3. He said that his neurosis (to worsen) after the emotional shock.
4. She (to suffer) from allergy to mosquitoes' bites since childhood.
5. Two months ago he had meningitis which (to lead) to septic shock.
6. His case was minor, so the doctor (to administer) him IV infusion of saline.
7. At the moment the students (to observe) how the surgeon (to operate) on the patient’s heart.
8. Absolute immobilization (to recommend) if an injured person seems to have a spinal cord injury.
Exercise 19. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Шок є загрозливим для життя станом, який потребує негайного лікування.
2. Шок призводить до гіпоксії, зупинки серця та ушкодження органів.
3. Низький кров’яний тиск – головна ознака шоку.
4. Лікування шоку залежить від причини його виникнення.
5. Внаслідок розриву апендикса виникає септичний шок.
6. Минулого року через укус бджоли він переніс анафілактичний шок.
7. Ін’єкція адреналіну допоможе запобігти розвиток анафілактичного шоку.
8. Ушкодження спинного мозку є незворотними, тому їх особливо складно лікувати.
Exercise 20. Fill in the table and describe the notion “shock”:
Medical shock Signs and symptoms Types of shock Treatment Complications *Exercise 21. Find Ukrainian / Russian equivalents to the given English proverbs. What are their main ideas?
1. Good health is above wealth.
2. Prevention is better than cure.
3. A sound mind in a sound body.
4. Wealth is nothing without health.
5. The remedy is worse than the disease.
6. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
7. After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile.
8. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення:
1. недостатній потік крові
2. супроводжувати важкі травми
3. брак кисню в тканинах тіла
4. синюшність губ та кінчиків пальців
5. значна втрата рідини
6. підвищити кров’яний тиск
7. несприятливий прогноз
8. невідкладна допомога
9. виявити причину
10. пошкодження органів
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What kind of medical condition is shock?
2. What are the symptoms of shock?
3. How many types of shock are there?
4. What is the cause of septic shock?
5. What is a common treatment for shock?
III. Розкрийте поняття терміну: шок, септичний шок, анафілактичний шок, гіповолемічний шок, кардіогенний шок, нейрогенний шок
BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMOURS
ДОБРОЯКІСНІ І ЗЛОЯКІСНІ ПУХЛИНИ
BENIGN TUMORS
ДОБРОЯКІСНІ ПУХЛИНИ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
benign, adj [bi 'nain] доброякісний
cancer, n ['kænsə рак
chemotherapy, n [ki:mə 'θerəpɪ] хіміотерапія
malignant, adj [mə 'lignənt] злоякісний
metastasize [mi′ tæstə¸saiz] метастазувати
mole, n ['məʊl] родимка
necrosis[nek′rəusiz] омертвіння
nevus, n ['ni:vəs] невус, родимка
polyp(us), n ['pɒlipəs] поліп
refer (to), v [ri′fə:] відноситися
sclerotherapy, n [sklɪərəʊ'θerəpɪ] cклеротерапія (розширення вен)
shrink, v [∫riŋk] спадатися
wart, n [wב:t] бородавка
Exercise 2. Memorize the meaning of the following term-elements:
Benign tumours are often referred to the terms that contain a prefix related to the cell type in which the tumour originated and a suffix such as – oma (but not -carcinoma, -sarcoma, or -blastoma which are generally cancers). Common prefixes include:
Adeno-(gland)
Chondro-(cartilage)
Erythro- (red blood cell)
Hemangio- (blood vessels)
Hepato- (liver)
Lipo- (fat)
Lympho- (white blood cell)
Melano- (pigment cell)
Myelo-( bone marrow)
Myo- (muscle)
Osteo- (bone)
Uro- (bladder)
Retino- (eye)
Neuro- ( brain)
Exercise 3. Read and translate the following word – combinations:
A benign tumor; a mass of cells; the ability to invade; a slower growth rate; an outer surface; birthmarks; to produce negative health effects; to cause nerve damage; a process known as tumor progression; the most effective approach; to shrink blood vessels; to cut off the blood supply; not life-threatening; do not respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:
BENIGN TUMOURS

tumors we should undergo A benign tumor is a mass of cells that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. Benign tumors are non-cancerous and once it is removed, it doesn’t usually recur.
Also, benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate than malignant tumors and the tumor cells are usually more differentiated (cells have normal features). Benign tumors are typically surrounded by an outer surface or remain with the epithelium. Common examples of benign tumors include moles, nevi, warts, birthmarks.
Although benign tumors will not metastasize or locally invade tissues, some types may still produce negative health effects. A benign tumor near a blood vessel could restrict the flow of blood; in the abdomen it could impair digestion; in the brain it could cause paralysis. The growth of benign tumors may cause nerve damage, tissue death (necrosis) and organ damage.
Benign tumors are often referred to the terms that contain a prefix related to the cell type in which the tumor originated and a suffix such as – oma (but not -carcinoma, -sarcoma, or -blastoma which are generally cancers). For example, a lipoma is a common benign tumor of fat cells (lipocytes), and a chondroma is a benign tumor of cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes). Adenomas are benign tumors of gland-forming cells.
Although most benign tumors are not life-threatening, many types of benign tumors have the potential to become cancerous (malignant) through a process known as tumor progression. For this reason and other possible negative health effects, some benign tumors are removed by surgery.
Some benign tumors need no treatment; others may be removed if they cause problems such as seizures, discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Surgery is usually the most effective approach and is used to treat most benign tumors. In some case other treatments may be of use. Adenomas of the rectum may be treated with sclerotherapy, a treatment in which chemicals are used to shrink blood vessels in order to cut off the blood supply. Most benign tumors do not respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy, although there are exceptions.
To prevent the development of any systematic screening in order to detect small irregularities or tumors as early as possible even if there are no clear symptoms present.
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:
What tumor lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize?
What is the main difference between benign and malignant tumors?
What are the most common examples of benign tumors?
What effect may the growth of benign tumors produce?
What process is known as tumor progression?
What is the most effective approach in treating benign tumors?
What procedure do most benign tumors not respond to?
In what cases may sclerotherapy be used?
What should people do to prevent the development of any tumors?
Exercise 6. Find the continuations to complete the following sentences. Read and translate into Ukrainian:

Melanoma…
Osteoma…
Adenoma…
Chondroma…
Lipoma…
Teratoma…
Myoma …
Fibroma …
…is a benign tumor of cartilage-forming cells.
…is a benign tumor of gland-forming cells.
…contains many cell types such as skin, nerve, brain and thyroid.
… is a tumor of pigmented skin cells.
… is a benign tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue.
… is a benign tumor of muscle.
… is a common benign tumor composed of fatty tissue.
… is a benign tumor composed of bone or bonelike tissue.
Exercise 7. Give adjectives to the following nouns. Translate into Ukrainian. Make up the sentences of your own:
Model: Cancer – cancerous
Chemistry, therapy, surgery, health, hormone, cranium, respiration, connection, fiber, efficacy, malignancy, cell, lymph, gland, immunity, genetics, electricity, presence, absence, testicle, muscle, uterus, diagnosis, nerve, system, vessel.
Exercise 8. Match the following terms with their definitions:
birthmark is a small vascularized growth arising from the surface of a mucous membrane, having a rounded base or a stem projection (prominence).
wart is a nonmalignant collection of pigmented cells in the skin being flat or raised, smooth or hairy
tumor any abnormal swelling in or on a part of the body
moleis any firm abnormal elevation of the skin caused by a virus.
naevus is a benign tumor, composed of fibrous and muscular tissue, occurring in the wall of the uterus and often causing heavy menstruation.
polyp is a blemish or new growth on skin formed before birth, usually brown or dark red.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 9. Match the following procedures used in treatment of tumors with their definitions:
chemotherapy
radiotherapy
surgery
laser therapy
screening the treatment of tumors by penetrating radiation such as X-rays, beta or gamma rays produced by radioactive isotopes.
the branch of medicine concerned with treating disease, injuries by means of manual or operative procedures by incision into the body;
treatment of disease, especially cancer, by means of chemical agents;
4. a test to separate those who probably have a specified disease
5.treatment with a thin beam of any electromagnetic radiation, such as infrared or microwave radiation
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 10. Translate into English and make up the sentences of your own:
Доброякісна пухлина; здібність метастазуватися; характерна риса; волокниста оболонка сполучної тканини; викликати негативну дію на здоров’я; ріст доброякісної пухлини; бути причиною пошкодження органа; некроз тканини; всередині кісток: пухлина, що загрожує життю; видаляти за допомогою оперативного втручання; найбільш ефективні методи лікування; реагувати на хіміотерапію та променеву терапію; підлягати систематичному обстеженню
Exercise 11. Complete the case history with the prepositions from the box below. Translate into Ukrainian:
of; in; in; for; to; to
Following 3 weeks… unexplained morning headaches, M.K., a 42-year old man, went …his local doctor. He had no vomiting or nausea, no seizures, simply headaches. His local doctor found M.K. to have a normal neurological exam, but ordered a plain CT head scan. This showed a 4 cm diameter lesion or mass located … the right hemisphere, … the frontal lobe, and there appeared to be mild swelling or “shift” associated with it. To better define the lesion, M.K.’s doctor ordered a brain MRI, with and without contrast. This study showed the lesion in better detail. The lesion only very faintly took up the contrast agent, was round overall with some irregular margins, and appeared to be a solid mass. The radiologist suspected this was a primary brain tumor, most likely a glioma such as an astrocytoma. M.K. was given a prescription … oral steroid to assist in reducing the brain swelling, and expeditiously referred … a neurosurgeon.
Exercise 12. Put the questions to the underlined words:
Benign tumors are typically surrounded by an outer surface.
Adenomas of the rectum may be treated with sclerotherapy.
Surgery is usually the most effective approach to treat most benign tumors.
Some types of benign tumors may produce negative health effects.
Many types of benign tumors have the potential to become cancerous (malignant).
Benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate than malignant tumors.
Most benign tumors do not respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
A benign tumor near a blood vessel could restrict the flow of blood.
A chondroma is a benign tumor of cartilage-forming cells.
Exercise 13. Put the words from the table into an appropriate gap:
chemical agents, tumor, digestion, incision, lipocytes, birthmark, malignant screening, damage,
1. … is a test to separate those who probably have a specified disease
2. Chemotherapy is a treatment of disease, especially cancer, by means of … .
3. … is a blemish or new growth on skin formed before birth, usually brown or dark red.
4. Surgery is a branch of medicine concerned with treating disease, injuries by means of manual or operative procedures by … into the body.
5. The growth of benign tumors may cause nerve … .
6. … is any abnormal swelling in or on a part of the body.
7. A lipoma is a common benign tumor of.
8. Many types of benign tumors have the potential to become … .
9. A benign tumor in the abdomen it could impair … .
Exercise 14. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:
The growth of benign tumors may cause nerve damage, (омертвіння тканин) and organ damage.
A benign tumor in the abdomen it could impair digestion (перетравлювання).
Fibroma is a benign tumor derived from (фіброзна сполучена тканина).
Sclerotherapy, a treatment in which chemicals are used to shrink blood vessels in order to cut off (кровопостачання).
Adenomas are (доброякісні пухлини) of gland-forming cells.
We should undergo systematic screening in order to detect small irregularities or tumors (якомога раніше).
Benign tumors are non-cancerous and once it is removed, it doesn’t usually (рецидувати).
A benign tumor near a blood vessel could (обмежувати) the flow of blood.
(Родимки, бородавки) are common examples of benign tumors.
Exercise 15. Open the brackets using correct tense and voice:
A benign (to characterize) by a slow growth.
Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery (to be) the most effective approaches in treating many benign tumors.
The growth of benign tumors may (to cause) nerve damage.
Some benign tumors (to consider) as precancerous conditions.
Some benign tumors (to remove) by surgery.
Teratoma (to contain) many cell types such as skin, nerve, brain and thyroid.
We should undergo systematic screening in order to detect small irregularities or tumors as early as possible even if there (to be) no clear symptoms present.
Benign tumors are typically (to surround) by an outer surface.
Many types of benign tumors (to have) the potential to become cancerous (malignant) through a process known as tumor progression.
Exercise 16. Translate into English using active vocabulary:
Доброякісна пухлина - це новоутворення, патологічний процес, зумовлений обмежено-неконтрольованим розмноженням клітин, без ознак інвазії та метастазування.
Великі за розмірами доброякісні пухлини теж можуть порушувати критично функції організму, та навіть приводять до смерті та можуть трансформуватись у злоякісні пухлини(малігнізація).
Деякі доброякісні пухлини (наприклад, аденома простати) розглядаються як передракові стани.
Доброякісні пухлини характеризуються повільним ростом, при цьому без проростання у сусідні тканини.
При пальпації доброякісні пухлини мають гладку поверхню, не болять, легко зміщуються, не метастазують.
Доброякісна пухлина може розвинутися з будь-якої тканини.
Основні види лікування доброякісних пухлин - це оперативний чи консервативний.
Оперативний метод лікування передбачає проведення хірургічного втручання з метою повного видалення пухлини.
Exercise 17. Describe benign tumors answering the following questions:
What is the structure of benign tumors?
What is the difference of benign tumors from malignant ones?
What is the effect of benign tumors?
What benign tumors can you enumerate?
What is the treatment of benign tumors?
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
здібність метастазуватися
волокниста оболонка сполучної тканини
ріст доброякісної пухлини
пухлина, що загрожує життю
видаляти за допомогою оперативного втручання
найбільш ефективні методи лікування
реагувати на хіміотерапію та променеву терапію
підлягати систематичному обстеженню
викликати негативну дію на здоров’я
бути причиною пошкодження органа
II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
What tumor lacks the ability to invade neighbouring tissue or metastasize?
What is the main difference between benign and malignant tumors?
What are the most common examples of benign tumors?
What effect may the growth of benign tumors produce?
What process is known as tumor progression?
What is the most effective approach in treating benign tumors?
What procedure do most benign tumors not respond to?
In what cases may sclerotherapy be used?
What should people do to prevent the development of any tumors?
III. Розкрийте поняття: доброякісні пухлини
ЗЛОЯКІСНІ ПУХЛИНИ
MALIGNANT TUMOURS
Exercise 1.Topic vocabulary:
afflict, v [ə′flikt] вражати (хворобою)
behavior, n [bi′heivjər] поведінка
cure, v [kjuə] вилікувати
neoplasm, n ['niəuplæsm] новоутворення
carcinoma, n [ka:si 'nəumə] ракове новоутворення, карцинома
leukemia, n [lu 'ki:miə] лейкемія
linger, v [lingə] затягуватися
link (to), v [liŋk] зв'язувати
recurrence, n [ri′kΛr(ə)ns] рецидив, повторення
sample, n [sæmpl] проба
sarcoma, n [sa:'kəumə] саркома
spread, v [spred] розповсюдження
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
Hereditary: a hereditary disease;; hereditary collagen dysplasia; hereditary defect; hereditary melanoma;
Irregularity: treatment for menstrual irregularities; irregular heartbeat; irregularities in some areas of the brain.
Malignant:malignant edema; malignant adenoma; malignant bone cyst; malignancy of male reproductive system.
HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy" \o "Chemotherapy"Chemotherapy: chemotherapy drugs; adjuvant chemotherapy; oral chemotherapy; intravenous (IV) chemotherapy; topical chemotherapy.
Exercise 3. Translate the word combinations into your language:
A malignant neoplasm; unregulated cell growth; to grow uncontrollably; to invade nearby parts of the body; spread to more distant parts of the body; through the lymphatic system or blood stream; to afflict the human; screening tests; medical imaging;; a tobacco user; the pituitary gland
Exercise 4. Read and translate:
MALIGNANT TUMORS
Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or blood stream.
There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict human, the most of them may be classified into five broad groups:
Carcinomas are characterized by cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast, and colon cancer.
Sarcomas are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle, and other supportive tissues.
Lymphomas are cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues.
Leukemias are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.
Adenomas are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other glandular tissues.
Pay attention to the following seven symptoms as possible warning signals of cancer: changes in the size, color, or shape of a wart or a mole; a sore that does not heal; persistent cough, hoarseness, or sore throat; a lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere; unusual bleeding or discharge; chronic indigestion or difficulty in swallowing; any change in bowel or bladder habits.
Many other diseases, besides cancer, can produce the same symptoms. However, it is important to have these symptoms checked as soon as possible, especially if they linger. The earlier cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better is the chance of being cured.
Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.
Most people don't realize that cancer is preventable in many cases. Cancers that are closely linked to certain behaviors are the easiest to prevent. For example, choosing not to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol significantly lower the risk of several types of cancer - most notably lung, throat, mouth, and liver cancer.
The aim of cancer treatment is to remove all or as much of the tumor as possible and to prevent the recurrence or spread of the primary tumor.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions:
What disease is medically known as a malignant neoplasm?How may the cancer usually spread to more distant parts of the body?
What groups are the known cancers that afflict a human classified into?
What is known to increase the risk of cancer?
In what ways can cancer be detected?
What is cancer usually treated with?
What is considered to be the first step in cancer prevention?
What are the most common screening methods for various cancers?
Exercise 6. Match the following terms with their definitions:
imaging .... in medicine, is used to identify an unrecognized disease in individuals without signs or symptoms. Screening interventions are designed to identify disease in a community early, thus enabling earlier intervention and management in the hope to reduce mortality and suffering from a disease.
screening, In medicine,... is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters by using a medical monitor over time
monitoring Medical… is the technique and process used to create images of the human body or parts and their function for clinical purposes or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology). Among them are: Ultrasound Imaging, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), Medical X-rays, such as: Radiography (рентгенография), CT (Computed Tomography), Fluoroscopy (рентгеноскопия), Mammography.
Exercise 7. Using suffices make adjectives to the following nouns. Translate into Ukrainian:
Model: Cancer - cancerous
cancer
medicine
malignancy
cell
distance
lymph
blood
difference
presence
absence
lung
bone
cartilage
muscle
gland
environment
genetics
immunity
heredity
obesitymicroscopy
possibility
testicle
currency
mouth
liver
connection
support
Exercise 8. Choose the proper continuation on the right:
1. Carcinomas
2. Sarcomas
3. Lymphomas
4. Leukemias
5. Adenomas
are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other glandular tissues.
are any malignant tumors derived from epithelial tissue.
are tumors, usually benign, occurring in glandular tissue.
are usually malignant tumors arising from connective tissue.
are any acute or chronic diseases characterized by a gross proliferation of leucocytes, which crowd into the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes.
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations into English:
Лімфатична система та кровотік; поведінка; профілактика раку; загальний скринінг; виявити злоякісну пухлину; тісно зв’язаний з поведінкою; ймовірність захворювання на рак; гістологічне дослідження; зразок тканини; небезпечний для життя; нерегульований ріст клітин; вражати (про хворобу); ущільнення у грудях; залозиста тканина.
Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box. Translate into Ukrainian:
hepatoblastoma; neuroma; myoma; neuroblastoma; lipoma; osteoclastoma; retinoblastoma; neuroblastoma; chondroblastoma; melanoma; glioma
… any tumor composed of nerve tissue.
… a malignant tumor of the liver.
… a benign tumor composed of muscle tissue
… a tumor derived from chondroblasts having the appearance of a mass of well-differentiated cartilage.
… a common benign tumor composed of well -differentiated fatty tissue.
… a malignant tumor composed of melanocytes, occurring esp. in the skin, often as a result of excessive exposure to sunlight.
…is a tumor of bone caused by proliferation of osteoclast cells.
… a rare malignant tumor of the retina occurring in infants.
… a malignant tumor that derives from neuroblasts, occurring mainly in the adrenal gland.
… a tumor of the brain and spinal cord, composed of neuroglia cells and fibers.
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:
The chances of surviving the disease depend greatly on the type and location of the cancer.
In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million).
The physician John Hill described tobacco snuff (нюхальний тютюн) as the cause of nose cancer in 1761.
Skin cancer will be able to be prevented by staying in the shade, protecting you with a hat and shirt when in the sun.
Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.
The aim of cancer treatment is to remove all or as much of the tumor as possible and to prevent the recurrence or spread of the primary tumor.
7. Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of the retina occurring in infants.
8. Sarcomas are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle.
9. Cancer can be detected by the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging.
Exercise 12. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:
1. Adenomas are tumors, usually benign, occurring in (залозістій тканинi).
2. Most people don't realize that cancer is (можливо попередити) in many cases.
3. The earlier cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better is the chance of (бути вилікуваним).
4. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or (кровотік).
5. There are over 200 different known cancers that (поражати) human.
6. In cancer, cells divide and grow (невтримно), forming malignant tumors.
7. Cancer is a broad group of various diseases, involving unregulated (ріст клітин).
Exercise 13. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Comment on your answer.
1. The aim of cancer treatment is not to remove all or as much of the tumor as possible.
2. Leukemias are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.
3. Cancers that are closely linked to certain behaviors are difficult to prevent.
4. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict human; the most of them may be classified into several broad groups.
5. Sarcomas are malignant tumors arising from the connective tissue.
6. Many other diseases, besides cancer, can produce the same symptoms.
7. It is important to have the symptoms checked as soon as possible, especially if they linger.
Exercise 14. Express the following sentences in the Passive Voice:
1. Cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast, and colon cancer characterize sarcomas.
2. Over 200 different known cancers can afflict human.
3. We can diagnose and treat cancer.
4. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery usually treat cancer.
5. A number of ways can detect cancer.
6. Neuroglia cells and fibers compose neuroma of the brain and spinal cord.
7. Screening interventions identify a disease.
8. Medicinal treatment controls hemorrhage from the tumor, etc.
Exercise 15. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense and voice. Translate the sentences:
Radiation treatment (to give –negative) favorable results in cancer of the stomach and intestines.
Patients with maligant tumors especially (to predispose) to different complications and secondary diseases.
The most reliable method of tumor treatment (to be) its surgical removal.
Such operation may (to prevent) penetration of cancerous cells into the wound.
In modern oncology A tumour (to define) as a pathological growth withou systematic integration in the body.
6. The causes and genesis of tumors (to be) the subject of many theoretical discussion for a long time.
7. The chromosomal theory of cancer (to oppose) by the supporters of the cytoplasmic hypothesis.
8. Pathogenic microorganisms, especially parasites and virusus (to constitute) a second group of causes of cancer.
Exercise 16. Translate into English:
1. Рак - злоякісне новоутворення через нерегульований ріст клітин.
2. При раку, клітини діляться і ростуть безконтрольно, утворюючи злоякісні пухлини, і проникають в довколишні частини тіла.
3. Карциноми характеризуються клітинами, які покривають внутрішні і зовнішні частини тіла, такі як рак легенів, молочної залози і раку товстої кишки.
4. Аденоми ракових захворювань, які виникають в щитовидній залозі, гіпофізі, надниркових і інших залізистих тканин.
5. Наступні сім симптомів є можливими сигналами попередження раку: зміни розміру, кольору чи форми бородавка або родимка; біль, яка не загоюється; постійний кашель, захриплість або біль в горлі; потовщення в грудях або в іншому місці; незвичайна кровотеча; хронічний розлад шлунка або труднощі в ковтанні; будь-яка зміна у звичках кишечника або сечового міхура.
6. Більшість людей не розуміють, що рак можна запобігти в багатьох випадках.
7. Раки, які тісно пов'язані з певними формами поведінки, найлегше запобігти.
8. Діагноз ставлять за допомогою мікроскопічного дослідження зразка тканини.
9. Рак зазвичай лікується за допомогою хіміотерапії, променевої терапії і хірургії.
Exercise 17. Describe malignant tumors answering the following questions:
1.What is the structure of malignant tumors?
What is the difference of malignant tumors from benign ones?
What is the effect of malignant tumors?
What five from of malignant tumors can you enumerate?
What is the treatment of malignant tumors?
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
Лімфатична система та кровотік;
поведінка;
профілактика раку;
загальний скринінг;
виявити злоякісну пухлину;
тісно зв’язаний з поведінкою;
ймовірність захворювання на рак;
гістологічне дослідження;
зразок тканини;
небезпечний для життя;
нерегульований ріст клітин;
вражати (про хворобу);
ущільнення у грудях;
залозиста тканина.
II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
What disease is medically known as a malignant neoplasm?How may the cancer usually spread to more distant parts of the body?
What groups are the known cancers that afflict a human classified into?
What is known to increase the risk of cancer?
In what ways can cancer be detected?
What is cancer usually treated with?
What is considered to be the first step in cancer prevention?
What are the most common screening methods for various cancers?
III. Розкрийте поняття: злоякісні пухлини
NEUROSES
НЕВРОЗИ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
apprehension, n [ˌæprɪˈhenʃn] побоювання, недобре передчуття
arsonist, n [ˈɑːsənɪst]  Підпалювач
consuming fear [kənˈsjuːmɪŋ fɪə] всепоглинаючий страх
distress, n [dɪˈstres] дистрес, страждання, нездужання
handle, v [ˈhændl] контролювати, справлятися
hypochondria, n [haɪpəˈkɔndrɪə] пригнічений стан
pyromania, n [ˌpaɪrəʊˈmeɪniə] Піроманія
incapacitate, v [ˌɪnkəˈpæsɪteɪt] вивести з ладу, зробити непрацездатним
interfere, v [ˌɪntəˈfɪə] заважати, втручатися
intrusive, adj [ɪnˈtruːsɪv] нав’язливий
in virtually, adv [ˈvɜːtʃuəli] Практично
obsessive-compulsive disorder [əbˈsesɪv kəmˈpʌlsɪv dɪsˈɔːdə] невроз нав’язливих станів
over-excitation, n [ˈəʊvə ˌɛksɪˈteɪʃ(ə)n] надмірне збудження
over-inhibition, n [ˈəʊvə ˌɪnhɪˈbɪʃn] надмірне гальмування
revenge, n [rɪˈvendʒ] Помста
get rid of smth, v [rɪd] Позбутися
trigger, v [ˈtrɪɡə] провокувати, сприяти
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and translate them into Ukrainian:
A relatively mild mental illness; an umbrella term used for mental illnesses; work capacity of the nerve cells; to disrupt the brain activity; to be out of proportion to the circumstances of a person’s life; to experience feelings of apprehension, worry, and fear; strong unreasonable fears of specific objects; to suffer from intrusive, repetitive, and disturbing thoughts; to be focused on an imagined illness; to lose all self-control as a result of the consuming fear.
Exercise 3. Write the given words in Singular (remember the words of the Latin and Greek origin) and use them in sentences:
Neuroses, activities, bacteria, crises, children, atria, alveoli, lives, analyses, ganglia, fungi, diagnoses, laboratories, cocci, curricula, bacilli, mice, phenomena, vertebrae, criteria, metastases.
Exercise 4. Read the and translate the text:
NEUROSES
Neuroses are relatively mild mental illnesses that are not caused by organic diseases, involving symptoms of stress but not radical loss of touch with reality. Though the term neuroses is no longer used formally within the medical community, it is still a common umbrella term used for mental illnesses such as anxiety, pyromania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hysteria, and phobias.
The work capacity of the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex is limited, so over-excitation, over-inhibition, or simultaneous overstimulation of both processes and their mobility may disrupt brain activity resulting in neurosis.
Neuroses are characterized by anxiety, depression, or other feelings of unhappiness or distress that are out of proportion to the circumstances of a person’s life. They may impair a person’s functioning in any area of his life, relationships, or external affairs, but they are not severe enough to incapacitate the person. Neurotic patients generally do not suffer from the loss of the sense of reality compared to people with psychoses.
One of the common types of neuroses is anxiety. A person suffering from anxiety may experience feelings of apprehension, worry, and fear. Physical symptoms are also common with this form of neurosis, including nausea, palpitations, chest pains, and shortness of breath. The person may also experience elevated blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, pale skin, dilated pupils, and trembling.
Phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, characterized by strong unreasonable fears of specific objects, people, situations, or activities. Some common objects of phobias are open or closed spaces, fire, high places, dirt, and bacteria.
Pyromania is another type of neuroses. A person suffering from pyromania is fixated on fire. A pyromaniac is not the same as an arsonist, as a person suffering from pyromania gains a sense of happiness from fires, whereas an arsonist may set fire for revenge or for personal gain. In general, there are no other symptoms associated with this type of neurosis.
Another neurosis is obsessive-compulsive disorder. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder generally suffer from intrusive, repetitive, and disturbing thoughts. In an attempt to get rid themselves of these thoughts, they engage in certain rituals or tasks. Compulsive behaviour includes rituals such as repetitive hand washing or door locking. This leads to a cycle of thoughts and behaviors over which the person feels he or she has little or no control.
Somatoform disorders which include the so-called hysterical, or conversion neuroses, manifest themselves in physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or deafness that are not caused by organic disease. Hysteria is one of the common forms of neuroses. A person suffering from hysteria experiences substantial feelings of fear or other emotions that he or she cannot seem to handle. Often the fear is focused on an imagined illness or other problem of a specific body part. The person may lose self-control as a result of the consuming fear.
Psychoneurotic disorders are formed in children more easily than in adults.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text:
1. When may the brain activity be disrupted?
2. What are the most common symptoms of neuroses?
3. What is the principal difference between the neurotic patients and those with psychoses?
4. What physical symptoms are common in anxiety?
5. What do phobias mean?
6. What phobias do you know?
7. What do individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder generally suffer from?
8. What group of neuroses does hysteria belong to?
Exercise 6. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:
Повна втрата зв’язку з реальністю; надмірна стимуляція діяльності головного мозку; невроз нав’язливих станів; розширені зіниці; бліда шкіра і тремтіння; відкритий чи замкнений простір; часте миття рук; нав’язлива поведінка; позбутися тривожних думок; проявлятися у фізичних симптомах; сліпота і глухота; зосередитися на уявних хворобах; втратити самоконтроль; всепоглинаючий страх.
Exercise 7. Find the wrong usage of words and change them by the proper ones:
1. Sweating, enlarged blood pressure, and trembling may not be caused by organic diseases.
2. The changes in the bones resulted from calcium insufficiency.
3. The normal palpitation of the adult is 72-80 beats per min.
4. Psychoneurotic disorders are relatively easy mental illnesses that are not caused by organic diseases.
5. He had to visit his dentist to extract an ill tooth.
6. Blindness, paralysis, and deafness are the often symptoms in hysteria.
7. Elevated heart rate, sweating, pale skin, increased pupils may be the manifestations of neuroses.
8. The neurotic persons can’t hand their emotions and feelings.
Exercise 8. Find a grammar mistake in each sentence and correct it:
1. Children may to form serious neurotic disorders.
2. Neurosis is characterized by feelings of unhappiness or distress.
3. What kind of fears may experience persons with phobias?
4. A person’s functioning in virtually any area of his life may be impair by psychoneurotic disorders.
5. Does elevated blood pressure may be symptom of anxiety?
6. Persons with psychoses suffers from the loss of the sense of reality.
7. The patients who suffer from conversion neuroses, may be focused on an imagined illness.
8. What do a pyromaniac gains a sense of happiness from?
Exercise 9. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. A person suffering from pyromania is fixated on fire.
2. The term neurosis was coined by the Scottish doctor William Cullen.
3. A person with an inborn strong type of nervous activity may become unbalanced or in active due to faulty upbringing.
4. William Cullen coined the term neurosis in 1769.
5. Neuroses impair a person’s functioning not enough to incapacitate the person.
6. The patient has been suffering from elevated blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, and trembling for three month.
7. Revealing the causes of neuroses will facilitate their rapid cure.
8. Over-excitation and over-inhibition of the cortex cells may influence the brain activity unfortunately.
9. Neurosis in children is most frequently observed at the age of 2 to 4, 7 to 8, and the period of puberty development.
10. When the causes of somatoform disorders are determined the neurotic symptoms will be controlled.
Exercise 10. Open the bracket, put the verbs in the proper tense form:
1. The non-biological basis of neurosis (to maintain) with Sigmund Freud at the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement.
2. Carl Jung (to see) collective neuroses in politics: "Our world is, so to speak, dissociated like a neurotic".
3. Neurotic tendencies (to manifest) themselves as depression, acute or chronic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, specific phobias.
4. The origin of the term hysteria commonly (to attribute (приписывать) to Hippocrates.
5. Hippocrates (to think) that the cause of hysteria was irregular movement of blood from the internal genitalia to the brain.
6. During the mid-19th century the term neurosis (to use) as a key to characterize disorders that (to be) neurological in origin. 
7. Neurotic people (to tend) to have more negative feelings such as depression, anxiety, insecurity.
8. The prescribed anti-depressants (to take) by the end of the next month.
Exercise 11. a) Read about fears and phobias in famous people and tell about other similar facts you’ve heard:
George Washington, the first president of the United States of America, had a very serious fear of premature burial. This was clearly expressed on his deathbed, in 1799, where he made his attendants promise that his body would be left out for two days, in case he was still alive.
Woody Allen has taken fear to an extreme. The 74-year-old actor and screenwriter is afraid of practically everything. Although he has normal phobias that cause him to fear heights, enclosed spaces and insects, he also has more abnormal fears. Among his weirder terrors are fears of bright colours, animals, elevators and peanut butter sticking to the roof of his mouth!
Alfred Hitchcock, a famous Hollywood director and producer, had an extreme fear of eggs. He said that they are revolting (вызывают отвращение) to him! He stated that he never tasted an egg in his whole life, and he refused to even be around them.
Madonna’s always been a fearless femme fatale in our eyes. But even kickboxing, leather corset-wearing megastars are afraid of thunderstorms: Madonna is apparently a sufferer of brontophobia, the fear of thunder.
b) Make up sentences using the words in the right order:
1) Jennifer Aniston, all, a fear, Michael Jackson, and, Whoopi Goldberg, have, of flying.
2) The, excessive, 34th, of, had, an, president, fear of hospitals, the United States, Richard Nixon.
3) the, Orlando Bloom, a, phobia, strange, actor, has, British, pigs, fear, of, the.
4) feared, Sigmund Freud, who, the, neurologist, founded, the, school, psychoanalyst, ferns (папоротники),of, psychiatry.
Exercise 12. Define the type of phobia (social phobia, simple phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorders):
1. The fear of something with an unexplained reason comes under this category of phobias. Phobias for bees, odor, illness, and storms are some of the example of this phobia. Such phobias are more common in children but they can occur in all ages. Statistics says that between 5-12 percent of the population have phobic disorders in any 6 months. These phobias often do not interfere with the daily life of a phobic person. When these phobias get intense, they require proper treatment.
2. This is a bit serious kind of phobia. The person who has this phobia is afraid of being judged by others around him. Such person avoids gatherings and social get-togethers because of these kinds of apprehensions. In these phobias, a person becomes over conscious about his/her image in the society. Не will feel very much embarrassed if he is not able to control the fear in front of anyone. He feels degraded and humiliated. These phobias begin between the ages of 15-20 years and if they are not treated they continue all through the lives.
3. People falling in this category have devastating episodes of fear attacks. The symptoms of the attacks are breathlessness, nausea, increased heart rate, dizziness, change in body temperature and blood pressure. A person who has such a disorder, fears of death, being insane, and of losing control.
4. This can be called an extension to panic disorders. People who suffer panic attacks can develop it. People suffering from this phobia will rarely leave their place if they do not have a company.
Exercise 13. Translate into English:
1. Однією з причин неврозів є внутрішні та зовнішні конфлікти людини.
2. Павлов характеризував невроз як хронічне захворювання з порушенням нервової діяльності.
3. Пацієнт скаржиться на дратівливість, слабкість та швидку втомлюваність з минулого тижня.
4. Невротична депресія проявляється пригніченим настроєм і песимістичними поглядами на майбутнє.
5. Відомо, що уникнення стресових ситуацій є одним із способів лікування неврозу.
6. Антидепресанти повинен підбирати лікар в залежності від його ефективності для даних симптомів неврозу.
7. Транквілізатори призначають в мінімальних дозах, щоб уникнути залежності.
8.Доведено, що когнітивно-поведінкова терапія є найефективнішим лікуванням неврозів.
TREATMENT FOR NEUROSES
ЛІКУВАННЯ НЕВРОЗІВ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
anxiety-provoking [æŋˈzaɪətɪ prəˈvəʊkɪŋ] такі, що викликають тривогу, страх
behavior patterns [bɪˈheɪvjəʳ pætənz] моделі поведінки
beta-blockers [ˈbiːtə blɒkəz] адреноблокатори
cognitive-behavioral therapy [ˈkɒgnɪtɪv bɪˈheɪvjərəl] когнітивно-поведінкова терапія
establish trust [ɪsˈtæblɪʃ trʌst] установити довіру
faulty thinking patterns [ˈfɔːltɪ ˈθɪŋkɪŋ ˈpætənz] неправильні (помилкові) шаблони мислення
multifaceted approach [ˌmʌltɪˈfæsɪtɪd əˈprəʊtʃ] комплексний підхід
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and translate them into Ukrainian:
To be treatable to various degrees of success; to include a multifaceted approach; to identify, understand, and change faulty thinking and behaviour patterns; to learn how to control smb’s worry; to react to anxiety-provoking situations; to learn relaxation techniques; keep the symptoms of neuroses under control; to establish trust and help the neurotic persons.
Exercise 3. Explain the difference in the meanings of the following words. Use them in the sentences:
Treat - treating – treated – untreated – treatable – untreatable
Change - changing – changed – unchanged – changeable – unchangeable
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:
TREATMENT FOR NEUROSES
Disorders that are considered a neurosis or neurotic disorder are treatable to various degrees of success. In general, the sooner that the symptoms of neuroses are recognized and treated, the more effective treatment will be. The most effective treatment plans generally include a multifaceted approach and may include medications and psychotherapy.
Disorders that are considered a neurosis are treated with an individualized combination that may include medications, cognitive therapy and anxiety management. Psychotherapy, sometimes known as "talk therapy", may also be prescribed. In psychotherapy, a psychotherapist builds a relationship with a client, establishing trust and helping the client to address the neurosis through such techniques as communication and behaviour therapy.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, is the standard psychotherapy for treating neurotic disorders. It helps sufferers to identify, understand, and change faulty thinking and behaviour patterns, thus allowing neurotic people to learn how to control their worry. The cognitive part of CBT helps by changing the thinking patterns that create and support fears; the behavioral part helps with changing the way sufferers react to anxiety-provoking situations.
A part of cognitive-behavioral therapy can include learning relaxation techniques. In addition to medication and psychotherapy, your doctor or therapist might suggest activities such as meditation, yoga or other types of physical exercise.
Medication can keep the symptoms of neuroses under control while the patient receives psychotherapy. Medications used for treating neurotic disorders include antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, and beta-blockers.
Warnings. Never try any medication without prescription from a doctor. Seek the advice of a neurological specialist before starting a new medication since most clinical doctors are not experts in the field of neurology.
Only you can recognize if a medication is right for you after it has been prescribed. Many doctors are quick to prescribe anti-depressants to the neurotic patients. Keep in mind, however, that many of anti-depressant companies have a lot of money for promotion. As a result, never feel guilty for telling a doctor to take you off of a medication that you don't think is working (especially if it is for a child).
Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text:
1. When will the treatment for neuroses be more effective?
2. What includes treatment for neuroses?
3. What is psychotherapy?
4. What does the abbreviation CBT mean?
5. How are neuroses treated with the help of CBT?
6. What types of drugs can treat neuroses?
7. What should you know before starting drug therapy?
8. What should one do if the administered drugs do not help?
Exercise 6. Read, open the brackets, and discuss the case history:
Mr. T. K (Patient Reference Number-4285) (to bring) to the clinic with anxiety disorder. He (to suffer) from severe anxiety for last 4-6 months. He (to be) a software engineer with increased work related stress.
He (not can) express his anger. When he (to be) alone he (to get) thoughts of quitting from the job but (not to have) the courage to do so. He (to have) a nervous temperament with lack of confidence. Frequently he (to experience) sensation of itching on his palms and feet, along with repetitive movement of his legs. Due to all of these complaints his sex life (to affect), along with it his relations with other family members also (to affect). His appetite (to increase) when he (to depress). His sleep (to disturb). He often (to suffer) from neck and lower back pains. All of these (to identify) as stress related concerns. Dr. Shah (to study) his case in detail and (to prescribe) him research based medicine for anxiety neurosis.
In 8 weeks Mr. T.K. (to report) to the clinic, he (to feel) better. His body pains (to reduce) and his sleep (to improve). His medication (to continue) . In next 8 weeks he (to report) the anxiety to have reduced by 50 %. He said he (not to experience) such relief since quite long time. He (to feel) calmer and relaxed. The itching on his palms and soles (to reduce) considerably. 
Exercise 7. Open the brackets put the verbs into the appropriate tense:
1. The term neurosis (to coin) by the Scottish doctor William Cullen.
2. Cullen (to use) the term to describe various nervous disorders and symptoms.
3. Neurosis (may, to define) as a "poor ability to adapt to one's environment".
4. This patient (to treat) with antidepressants.
5. Neuroses (must, to distinguish) from psychoses.
6. Conflicts (to create) anxiety which leads to symptom formation.
7. If these antidepressants (not to help) you, you (should, to change) them to other ones.
8. Relaxation (to treat) this case of neurosis in several weeks.
Exercise 8. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Phobias are initiated by classical conditioning of fear to a stimulus.
2. Psychoanalitic treatment requires a detailed interpretation of specific events and their meaning for a person.
3. Neuroses can disrupt the life of both patient and family.
4. Specific anxiety also occurs in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
5. During the last century serious attempts were made to find out the aetiology of neuroses.
6. Neuritic cases resemble one another to a certain extent.
7. Approximately 90% of population are I'll with neuroses.
8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder often runs throughout the individual's life.
Exercise 9. Translate into English using:
Complex Subject (Nominative Infinitive Construction)
1. Відомо, що люди із слабким типом нервової діяльності більш схильні до нервових розладів.
2. Вважають,що когнітивно-поведінкова терапія є одним із основних методів лікування неврозів.
3. Ліки при неврозах, без сумніву, призначаються лише спеціалістом у неврології.
4. Повідомили, що болі у спині та шиї у цього хворого мають невротичне походження.
5. Відомо, що люди, які страждають на істерію, відчувають постійний страх і втрачають самоконтроль.
Complex Object (Objective Infinitive Construction)
1. Пацієнт помітив, що свербіж з’являється в ситуації стресу, розумової чи фізичної напруги.
2. Лікар побачив, що зіниці хворого розширені.
3. Численні фобії змушують Вуді Аллена боятися висоти, замкненого простору та комах.
4. Лікар дозволив хворому припинити прийом антидепресантів .
5. Гіппократ вважав, що істерія спричинена порушенням кровообігу.
Exercise 10. Describe the term “neuroses” according to the table:
General characteristics Symptoms Analyses Treatment Complications Exercise 11.Read the given information about phobias treatment. Get ready for the discussion.
There are various treatment options available to treat phobias. After analyzing the patient, the intensity of the phobia, the doctor might choose a treatment for the patient. Please do not interfere in his decision unless necessary.
Neuro linguistic program: This therapy analyzes the subconscious of the patient through the words he chooses to describe his surroundings and fears. Based on the words, the intensity of the phobia is judged and accordingly the treatment is given.
Cognitive behavioral therapy: This therapy deals with the behavior of the patient. Mostly people have a general tendency to get anxious or feel nervous. This therapy trains the patient to get in control of his own thoughts.
Relaxation techniques: People suffering from phobias are taught relaxation techniques by controlling their breathing. This helps in the crisis where there is a chance of getting a full blown panic attack.
Medication: Treating phobia through medication is not a good idea. Mostly in treating phobias, anti depressant and anti anxiety drugs are given. These might make a person feel drowsy all the time and in such a condition, it is never an intelligent decision to drive.
Support groups: These groups help in venting out of fears by talking and sharing it with others. Sometimes, one gets different successful ideas about controlling fear and fearful thoughts, which needs to be shared to help others overcome their fears.
Phobias are not unusual and they can be treated fully. The need is to intervene at the right moment.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
1. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
відносно легке психічне захворювання
бути сфокусованим на уявній хворобі
переживати сильний безпричинний страх
втрачати самоконтроль через всепоглинаючий страх.
надмірна стимуляція головного мозку
повна втрата зв’язку з реальністю
позбутися тривожних думок
тримати симптоми неврозів під контролем
включати комплексний підхід
встановлювати довіру і допомагати пацієнтам з неврозами
2. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What are the types of neuroses?
What are the most common symptoms of neuroses?
What do phobias mean?
What includes treatment for neuroses?
What types of drugs can treat neuroses?
3. Розкрийте поняття: неврози
STROKE
ІНСУЛЬТ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
altered, adj [ˈɒltərd] змінений
aphasia, n [æˈfeɪzɪə] афазія, порушення мовлення
anti-platelet drugs, n [drʌɡz] антитромбоцитарні препарати
atrial fibrillation, n [fɪbrɪˈleɪʃən] миготлива аритмія
cerebrovascular accident, n [ˈæksɪdənt] порушення мозкового кровообігу
cholesterol, n [kəˈlɛstərɔl] холестерин
consciousness, n [ˈkɒnʃəsnɪs] свiдомiсть
disturbance, n [dɪˈstɜːbəns] порушення
interruption, n [ˌɪntəˈrʌpʃn] порушення, переривання
modifiable, adj [‘məʊdɪfaɪəbl] такий, що можна змінити
neurosurgery, n [ˌnjʊərəʊˈs3ːdʒərɪ] нейрохiрургiя
pressure, n [ˈpreʃə(r)] тиск
stroke, n [strəʊk] iнсульт
suffer a disease, v [ˈsʌfə(r)] перенести захворювання
transient ischemic attack, n [ˈtrænziənt ɪˈskiːmɪk əˈtæk] швидкоминуче порушення мозкового кровообігу, «міні-інсульт»
visual field, n [ˈvɪʒuəl fiːld] поле зору
Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and sentences with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:
Accident: cerebrovascular accident; car accident. She died in an accident. Try to avoid having an accident. We never planned to have a third child – it was a happy accident.
Damage: neurological damage; cartilage damage from a sports injury. The storm did considerable damage to the crops. Taking regular doses of antimalarial drugs can have long-term side effects such as hearing loss and liver and kidney damage.
Factor: risk factors; lifestyle factors; environmental factors; factor of time; factor of safety.
Hemorrhage: subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic stroke; hemorrhagic shock; internal hemorrhage.
Consciousness: loss of consciousness; nature of human consciousness. The word is a thing in our consciousness.
Exercise 3. Complete the table with the missing words (you may need a dictionary):
VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
loss to disturb intended
to formulate affected
speech Exercise 4.Translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian:
Rapid loss of brain function, disturbance in the blood supply to the brain, inability to move one or more limbs, altered taste, inability to understand or formulate speech, an inability to see one side of the visual field, the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke, interruption of the blood supply, to result from rupture of a blood vessel, the increased intracranial pressure, the leaking blood compressing the brain, an embolic stroke.
Exercise 5. Do you know that
1. Statins are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels.
2. Anti-platelet drugs are intended to prevent and/or reverse platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, most prominently in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke.
3. Clot busting medications break up blood clots. During a heart attack or stroke, clot busters, also called thrombolytics, dissolve the blood clot that is blocking the artery and help to restore blood flow. These medications are injected into the arm through an intravenous (IV) line.
4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to prevent stroke, by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery. Endarterectomy is the removal of material on the inside (end-) of an artery?
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
STROKE
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage. As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body (paralysis), inability to understand or formulate speech (aphasia), an inability to see one side of the visual field, or altered taste, smell, hearing.
Stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage and death. Risk factors for stroke include old age, high blood pressure, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), diabetes, high cholesterol, tobacco smoking and atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke. It is the second leading cause of death worldwide.
An ischemic stroke is occasionally treated in a hospital with thrombolysis (also known as a "clot buster"), and some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from neurosurgery. Prevention of recurrence may involve the administration of anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin and dipyridamole, control and reduction of high blood pressure, and the use of statins. Selected patients may benefit from carotid endarterectomy and the use of anticoagulants.
Strokes can be classified into two major categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are those that are caused by interruption of the blood supply, while hemorrhagic strokes are the ones which result from rupture of a blood vessel or an abnormal vascular structure. About 87% of strokes are caused by ischemia, and the remainder by hemorrhage. Some hemorrhages develop inside areas of ischemia ("hemorrhagic transformation"). It is unknown how many hemorrhages actually start as ischemic stroke.
Stroke symptoms typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes, and in most cases do not progress further. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. The more extensive the area of brain affected, the more functions that are likely to be lost.
Loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting usually occurs more often in hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from the leaking blood compressing the brain.
If symptoms are maximal at onset, the cause is more likely to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage or an embolic stroke.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:
1. What is the cause of stroke?
2. What does the abbreviation CVA mean?
3. What is ischemia?
4. What are the manifestations of CVA?
5. How can the the blood supply to the brain be damaged?
6. What are the risk factors for stroke?
7. What medication can be administered in stroke?
8. What kind of surgery may some CVA patients undergo?
9. What is “hemorrhagic transformation”?
10. How do stroke symptoms start?
11. How does the onset of hemorrhagic stroke differ from that of the ischemic one?
Exercise 8. Match the following English word combinations with Russian ones:
1. affected area of the brain
2. disturbance in the blood supply3. inability to move4. atrial fibrillation5. prevention of recurrence
6. previous stroke
7. loss of consciousness8. rupture of a blood vessel9. increased intracranial pressure
10. subarachnoid hemorrhage a) неспроможнiсть рухатись
b) уражена зона мозку
c) розрив кровоносних судин
d) субарахноiдальний крововилив
e) порушення кровопостачання
f) пiдвищений внутрiшньочерепний тиск
g) втрата свiдомостi
h) миготлива аритмiя
i) попереднiй iнсульт
j) профiлактика рецидиву
Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:
1. ischemic stroke
2. thrombosis3. hemorrhagic
stroke
4. statins5. subarachnoid
hemorrhage
6. TIA (transient ischemic attack)
7. aspirin
8. paralysis a) an abnormal and very dangerous condition in which blood collects beneath the arachnoid mater, a membrane that covers the brain. The accumulation of blood in the subarachnoid space can lead to stroke, seizures, and other complications;
b) it is caused by interruption of the blood supply;
c) a stroke, producing similar symptoms, but usually lasting only a few minutes and causing no permanent damage;
d) it results from rupture of a blood vessel or an abnormal vascular structure;
e) a serious condition caused when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood in a blood vessel;
f) any of a group of drugs (as lovastatin and simvastatin) that inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol and promote the production of LDL-binding receptors in the liver resulting in a usually marked decrease in the level of LDL and a modest increase in the level of HDL circulating in blood plasma;
g) a loss or impairment of voluntary movement in a body part, caused by injury or disease of the nerves, brain, or spinal cord;
h) a white, crystalline substance derivative of salicylic acid, used as an anti-inflammatory agent and to relieve the pain of headache, rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, etc.; acetylsalicylic acid.
Exercise 10. Put symptoms into appropriate column:
Pain in chest, inability to smile, nausea and vomiting, a sensation of tightness, weakness or numbness on one side of your body, general epigastric discomfort, arm drift, sweating, cough, aphasia and aphonia, numbness of the face, confusion, headache, episodes of angina, shortness of breath, jaw pain and toothache, heartburn, face drooping.
Myocardial infarction Stroke

Exercise 11. Read and remember several different types of diagnostic tests that doctors can use in order to determine which type of stroke has occurred:
1. Physical examination: a doctor will ask about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may check blood pressure, listen to the carotid arteries in the neck and examine the blood vessels at the back of the eyes, all to check for indications of clotting.
2. Blood tests: a doctor may perform blood tests in order to find out how quickly the patient's blood clots, the levels of particular substances (including clotting factors) in the blood, and whether or not the patient has an infection.
3. CT scan: a series of X-rays that can show hemorrhages, strokes, tumors and other conditions within the brain.
4. MRI scan: radio waves and magnets create an image of the brain to detect damaged brain tissue.
5. Carotid ultrasound: an ultrasound scan to check the blood flow of the carotid arteries and to see if there is any plaque present.
6. Cerebral angiogram: dyes are injected into the brain's blood vessels to make them visible under X-ray, in order to give a detailed view of the brain and neck arteries.
7. Echocardiogram: a detailed image of the heart is created to check for any sources of clots that could have traveled to the brain to cause a stroke.
Exercise 12. Match the synonyms:
1. parasysis
2. exertion
3. rapidly
4. aphasia
5. reduction
6. stroke
7. interruption
8. hemorrhage a) attack
b) quickly
c) stop
d) voiceless
e) shortening
f) bleeding
g) physical efforts
h) numbness
Exercise 13. Translate into English:
1. Інсу́льт — гостре порушення мозкового кровообігу, що спричинює ушкодження тканин мозку і розлади його функцій.
2. До інсультів відносять: ішемічний інсульт та геморагічний інсульт.
3. Ішемічний інсульт розвивається при закупорці судин тромбом чи при недостатньому припливі крові через звужену кровоносну судину.
4. Ішемічний інсульт найчастіше виникає у хворих старше 60 років.
5. Геморагічний інсульт трапляється як наслідок крововиливу в мозок.
6. Найпоширеніші симптоми інсульту: параліч половини тіла або обличчя, руки, ноги, головний біль, порушення мовлення, нудота, блювання, іноді втрата свідомості.
7. При перших проявах симптомів розпізнати інсульт можна на місці за допомогою УЗП (усміхнутися, заговорити, підняти обидві руки).
8. Лікування інсультів спрямоване на нормалізацію дихання, серцево-судинної діяльності, покращення кровопостачання мозку, хірургічне втручання, масаж тощо.
Exercise 14. Fill in the table “Stroke”:
1 Definition 2 Causes 3 Symptoms 4 Examinations 5 Treatment Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Symptoms of a small stroke may be confused with those of other conditions that cause similar symptoms.
2. The anterior circulation of the brain that controls most motor activity, sensation, thought, speech, and emotion is supplied by the carotid arteries.
3. The patient’s condition improved gradually within 2 weeks of treatment.
4. When blood flow stops, brain cells do not receive the oxygen and glucose they require to function.
5. Two weeks after antibiotic treatment was discontinued, the patient experienced a frontal headache.
6. He had developed hypertension over the last 10 years.
7. Because there was occasional low-grade fever, intravenous penicillin was given for 2 weeks.
8. During the attack of stroke you may have facial weakness and won't be able to smile.
Exercise 16. Open the brackets:
1. She (to lose) consciousness and (to transfer) to our hospital on the same day.
2. Quick action by a doctor sometimes (to reduce) the damage or (to prevent) more damages.
3. In both patients, brain abscess (to develop) at the stroke lesion site after they (to have) an infectious complication.
4. Most strokes (to happen) suddenly and (to damage) the brain within minutes.
5. If the stroke already (to happen) blood clotting drugs are not effective.
6. After the patient (to develop) the left hemiparesis, he (to admit) to our hospital.
7. Because of the progressive multifocal cerebral manifestations in the patient, we (to decide) to perform a brain biopsy of the right parietal lobe ten days after admission.
8. As soon as a doctor (to gather) all information he (to make) a diagnosis of a suspected ischemic stroke.
Exercise 17. Translate into Russian paying attention to the translation of the Infinitives:
1. To identify the virus causing human influenza serologic tests are made.
2. The tumor to be removed is benign.
3. It is difficult to do it in such a short period of time.
4. Please close the window so as not to catch cold.
5. I had nothing to give him for his headache.
6. To treat advances cases of malignant tumours is very difficult.
7. His aim was to master English.
8. I stopped there in order to rest a little.
Exercise 18. Translate the sentences using Infinitive:
1. Щоб виписати цього хворого, ми повиннi мати всi аналiзи.
2. Лiкар приписав судинорозширювальнi препарати, щоб знизити тиск.
3. Медсестра зробила пацieнту iн’екцiю знеболюваного, щоб вiн змiг заснути.
4. Молодому лiкарю було важко поставити дiагноз.
5. Вiдомо, що у нього вражена значна частина мозкy в результатi iнсульту.
6. Вiн не мiг рухати кiнцiвками правоi сторони два мiсяцi тому.
7. Антитромбоцитарнi лiки назначають, щоб запобiгти повторного iнсульту.
8. Хворий не мiг говорити i формулювати мову у зв’язку з дисфункцieю мозку.
Exercise 19. Read the case and its study based upon the patient’s symptoms. answer the questions below:
A 77-year-old woman was cooking in the kitchen when she collapsed onto the floor. Her daughter called an ambulance and the woman was taken to the emergency room. She had suffered a stroke, and slowly regained consciousness over the next two days. However, when she woke up, she had the following signs and symptoms paralysis of the right face and arm- loss of sensation to touch on the skin of the right face and arm; inability to answer questions but ability to understand what was said to her; ability to write down her thoughts more easily than to speak them.
Solving the clinical problem
Based upon the patient's symptoms, which cerebral artery was blocked?
The loss of all sensation on the right face and arm, coupled with the paralysis of muscles in these regions suggests that this woman suffered damage to the lateral portions of her left frontal and parietal lobes. Specifically, damage to the face and arm regions of the left somatosensory and primary motor cortices would cause these deficits. Damage on the left side of her brain causes right-sided symptoms since the motor and sensory tracts cross the mid-line as they travel between the cerebrum and the spinal cord. The language disorder that this patient has is called Broca's (expressive) aphasia, and it may result from damage to the dominant Broca's motor speech area, a control center that sits just anterior to the face portion of the primary motor cortex in the left frontal lobe. The artery that supplies blood to these regions is the superior division of the left middle cerebral artery. Blockage of this artery by a thrombus or embolism could cause all of this patient's signs and symptoms.
1. Which lobe of the brain, the right or the left one, was damaged? What symptoms indicate that?
2. Damage to what portion of the left lobe caused the language disorder? How is the area responsible for the language function called?
3. What artery was blocked?
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
неспроможнiсть рухатись
уражена зона мозку
розрив кровоносних судин
субарахноiдальний крововилив
порушення кровопостачання
пiдвищений внутрiшньочерепний тиск
втрата свiдомостi
миготлива аритмiя
попереднiй iнсульт
профiлактика рецидиву
Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What is the cause of a stroke?
What are the manifestations of CVA?
What are the risk factors for stroke?
What is hemorrhagic transformation?
How does the onset of hemorrhagic stroke differ from that of the ischemic one?
III. Розкрийте поняття: iнсульт, афазiя
SKIN DISEASES
ЗАЗВОРЮВАННЯ ШКІРИ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
acne, n ['æknɪ] прищ; запалення сальної залози
blister, n ['blistə] пухир
comedones, n ['kɔmidəu] чорний вугор
crack, n ['kræk] тріщина
crust, n ['krʌst] кірка
dormant, adj [ˈdɔːmənt] недіючий
eczema, n ['eksim] екзема
herpes, n ['h :piz] лишай
hives [haɪvz] кропив'янка
infestation, n [] зараження
itch, n ['itʃ ] свербіж
nodule, n ['nɔdju:l] вузлик
psoriasis, n [sə' raiəsis] псоріаз, лускатий лишай
pustule, n ['pʌstju:l] прищ, пустула
scabies, n ['skeibI:z] короста (чесотка)
rosacea, n [reʊ' zeiʃə] рожеві вугри
scale, n ['skeil] луска
scar, n ['skɑ:] шрам
scratch, n ['skrætʃ] подряпина
spot, n ['spɒt] прищик
vesicle, n ['vesikl] пухирець
Exercise 2. Read the following words, paying attention to the rules of reading:
[ə]: blister, silver, ulcer, cancer
[æ]: acne, scratch, crack, transparent
[aɪ]: hives, psoriasis, virus, environtment
[ei]: scale, scabies, rosacea, irritation, formation, elevated
[ʌ]: pus , scar, pustule, result, above, ulcer, flush
Exercise 3. Build adjectives from the following words using suffixes:
-ory, -ic, -y, -ous, -ive, -al:
Inflammation, irritation, allergy, cure, itch, blister, poison, environment, scar, pathogen, fat, water, bacteria, silver.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian:
Vesicles filled with transparent fluid or pus; nodules elevated above the skin; skin neoplasms; inflammation of the skin; to result from; to result in; metabolic disorders; to be caused by allergies and irritants; to vary in severity; skin diseases and their manifestations; the upper layer of the skin; pus-filled spots; to cause scarring; to start in puberty; birthmarks, warts, and tumors; herpes simplex virus; to be covered with silvery scales
Exercise 5. Match the following terms with their definitions:
1. scabies a) a benign tumour derived from epithelial tissue and forming a rounded or lobulated mass
2. eczema b) a chronic skin disease common in adolescence, involving inflammation of the sebaceous glands and characterized by pustules on the face, neck, and upper trunk
3. herpes c) a black-tipped plug of fatty matter clogging a pore of the skin, especially the duct of a sebaceous gland
4. acne d) a skin inflammation with lesions that scale, crust, or ooze a serous fluid, often accompanied by intense itching or burning
5. comedones (blackheads) e) any of several inflammatory diseases of the skin, especially herpes simplex, characterized by the formation of small watery blisters
6. papilloma f) a contagious skin infection caused by the mite Sarcoptesscabiei, characterized by intense itching, inflammation, and the formation of vesicles and pustules
7. psoriasis g) a skin disease characterized by the formation of reddish spots and patches covered with silvery scales: tends to run in families
8. rosaceah) a chronic inflammatory disease causing the skin of the face to become abnormally flushed and sometimes pustular(adj.)
Exercise 6. Read the text and be ready to discuss it:
SKIN DISEASES
Skin disease is a human disease of varying etiologies characterized by pathological changes in the skin, nails and hair and in the visible mucous membranes. They may be manifested by spots, vesicles filled with transparent fluid or pus (pustules), nodules elevated above the skin, scratches, ulcers, and cracks. Many skin diseases are accompanied by itching, burning, redness, swelling and pain. Such skin problems, such as acnes, can affect your appearance. Our skin may also develop several kinds of cancers.
Dermatology is the branch of medicine that studies skin diseases. They may include skin infections and skin neoplasms such as birthmarks, warts, and tumors. Skin diseases may be caused by allergies, irritants, metabolic disorders and immune system problems.
The term “dermatitis” is used to describe changes in the upper layer of the skin that include redness, itching, blistering, crusting, scaling and sometimes pigmentation. The cause of dermatitis is unclear. One possibility is a dysfunctional interplay between the immune system and skin. Most cases of dermatitis develop in people with sensitive skin and can be prevented simply by avoiding the irritant.
One of the most common skin diseases is acne. It is characterized by comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and pus-filled spots (pustules). It usually starts at puberty and varies in severity from a few spots on the face, back and chest to a more serious problem that may cause scarring. At present there is no cure for acne, although the available treatments can be very effective in prevention.
Herpes, or cold sores, is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. After the first infection, the virus goes to sleep (becomes dormant). Sometimes, it later reactivates, causing cold sores on or around the mouth, which typically heal within 2–3 weeks. Outbreaks may be influenced by stress, menstruation, sunburn, dehydration, or local skin trauma. More than 50 percent of the adult population in the United States has oral herpes.
Psoriasis is a long-term skin condition, characterized by dry, itchy, red patches of abnormal skin, covered with silvery scales. The patches usually appear on the knees, elbow and scalp, but they can appear anywhere on the body. Although the cause of psoriasis is unknown, it is considered to be a genetic disease which is triggered by environmental factors. There is no cure for psoriasis. However, various treatments, like steroid creams, ultraviolet light, and immune system suppressing medications can help control the symptoms. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, and depression.
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a skin disease?
2. How may skin diseases manifested?
3. What are many skin diseases accompanied by?
4. What diseases may affect our appearance?
5. What science studies skin diseases?
7. What are the main manifestations of dermatitis?
8. What is acne characterized by?
9. How quickly is herpes usually healed?
10. What is a cause of psoriasis?
Exercise 8. Read, translate and insert the necessary prepositions:
Acne consists … spots and painful bumps on the skin. It’s most noticeable … the face, but can also appear … the back, shoulders and buttocks. Severe acne can cause scarring. Acne usually starts … puberty, but it affects adults too. Most teenagers get some form of acne.
Hives (also known as urticaria), is a skin rash that can be triggered … a variety of things including allergic reactions, medicines and heat. The rash is caused when the body produces a substance called histamine, which is a protein used to fight … viruses and bacteria. The common symptoms include a raised, rough red areas … skin are known as wheals, which often fade after a few hours but can sometimes reappear elsewhere … the body.
Scabies is a contagious skin infestation, characterized … severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash. Scabies is most often spread during a relatively long period … direct skin contact … an infected person The itch is often worse … night. Scratching may cause an additional bacterial infection … the skin. Scabies is one … the three most common skin disorders … children.
Nappy rash is a very common skin condition that happens to around one third … nappy wearing babies. It’s caused when the skin comes into contact …. urine and faeces (poo) in the nappy. Mild cases are usually painless but severe nappy rash can cause discomfort and distress to babies.
Exercise 9.Translate into English using active vocabulary:
Хвороба шкіри; етіологія хвороби; патологічні зміни на шкірі; прозора рідина; супровoджуватися сверблячкою; зовнішній вигляд; новоутворення шкіри; запалення шкіри; порушення обміну речовин; прояви хвороби; чутливість до подразників; верхні шари шкіри; взаємодія між імунною системою та шкірою; уникати дії подразників; статева зрілість; підлітки; пустули, заповнені гноєм; запалення сальної залози; запобігати утворення шрамів (рубців); чорний вугор на лиці(комедон); герпес(лишай); родимка та бородавка
Exercise 10. Read, translate and fill in the correct degree of adjectives and adverbs in brackets:
(Malignant) melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin. It is not contagious. The word ‘melanoma’ comes from the Greek word ‘melas’, meaning black. Melanin is the dark pigment that gives the skin its (natural) color. Melanin is made in the skin by (pigment) cells called melanocytes. After our skin is exposed to sunlight, the melanocytes make (much) melanin, and so the skin becomes (dark).
Melanocytes sometimes grow together in harmless groups or clusters, which are known as moles. Melanomas can come up in or near to a mole, but can also appear on skin that looks quite (normal). They develop when the skin pigment cells become (cancerous) and multiply in an uncontrolled way.
The (important) preventable cause is exposure to too much ultraviolet light in sunlight.
The (thin) the melanoma is when it is removed; the (good) is the survival rate.
Exercise 11. Insert missing words from the table:
exposure, moisture, acid, scratching, oral, irritants, itching, relief
Self-care at home
Immediately after … to a known allergen or irritant wash with soap and cool water to remove most of the substance.
Weak … solutions (lemon juice, vinegar) can be used to counterpart the effects of dermatitis contracted by exposure to basic ….
If blistering develops, cold moist compresses applied for 30 minutes 3 times a day an offer ….
Calamine lotion and cool colloidal oatmeal baths may relieve ….
… antihistamines can also relieve itching.
Avoid …, as this can cause secondary infections.
A barrier cream such as those containing zinc oxide may help to protect the skin and retain….
Exercise 12. Translate the words in italic:
Symptoms typically appear two to six weeks after зараження.
Acne is characterized by чорними вугрями та пустулами, заповненими гноєм.
Пухирі may form on your gums, lips or mouth.
Skin patches are typically red, itchy, and вкриті лускою.
Acne шрами are the result of inflammation within the dermal layer of skin.
The most common symptom is severe свербіж.
Короста is one of the three most common skin disorders in children.
Acne may affect people after статевої зрілості as well.
Exercise 13. Read about dermatitis and fill in the gaps with the words from the table below:
Eczema, skin, allergic, rash, irritant, discoloration, symptoms, itchy
1.Every type of dermatitis has different ….
2.Atopic dermatitis is an … disease believed to have a hereditary component.
3.In some languages, dermatitis and … are synonyms.
4.Dermatitis is characterized by … crusting patches.
5.Contact dermatitis is of two types: allergic and ….
6.Areas of temporary skin … may appear.
7.Contact dermatitis typically causes the skin to develop a pink or red ….
8.Different types of dermatitis are based on the factor that triggers the … reaction.
Exercise 14. Read and translate the text. Put questions to the underlined words:
Rosacea is a common disorder that mainly affects skin on the face. It causes redness on the nose, chin, cheeks, and forehead. Over time, the redness can become more intense, taking on a ruddy appearance. Blood vessels may become visible.
In some cases, rosacea appears on the chest, back, or neck. It can affect the eyes, causing them to feel irritated and to appear bloodshot (inflamed) or watery. People with rosacea can also develop red solid bumps and pus-filled pimples (warts). The disorder can cause the nose to take on a bulbous (onion), swollen appearance called rhinophyma.
The cause of rosacea is not known; however, different theories exist. One theory is that rosacea may be a component of a more generalized disorder of the blood vessels. Other theories suggest that the condition is caused by microscopic skin mites, fungus, psychological factors, or a malfunction of the connective tissue under the skin. Although no one knows for sure what causes rosacea, some circumstances and conditions can trigger it.
Rosacea affects an estimated 14 million Americans -- most of them don't know they have it.
People who have fair skin and who tend to blush (to become red in face) easily may be at a higher risk for the disorder. Rosacea appears more often among women, but men tend to have the more severe symptoms. A possible reason for this could be that men generally delay medical treatment until rosacea becomes advanced. .
While there is no cure for rosacea, medical therapy is available to control or reverse the signs and symptoms. If you suspect that you have rosacea, consult your doctor.
Rosacea's appearance can vary greatly from one individual to another. Most of the time, not all of the potential signs and symptoms appear. Rosacea always includes at least one of the primary signs listed below. Various secondary signs and symptoms may also develop.
Primary signs of rosacea include flushing, persistent redness, bumps and pimples, visible blood vessels.
Exercise 15. Open the brackets and translate sentences into Ukrainian:
1. Skin (to play) a key role in protecting the body against invasion of pathogens.
2. The epidermis (to contain) no blood vessels.
3. Acne easily (to recognize) by the appearance of the spots and by their distribution on the face, neck, chest or back.
4. There (to be) no cure for rosacea.
5. Such skin changes (to know) as an irritant contact dermatitis.
6. The severity of psoriasis (to vary) with time and from person to person.
7. Proteins in fruit and vegetables (can, cause) an immediate allergic reaction leading to itchy skin swellings known as hives.
8. Acne (to remain) largely a curse of adolescence.
Exercise 16. Guess the words:
GRYTELADOMO
CENA
MNEODOCE
PRESHE
CIASESB
ASREACO
VESICLE
PISEMEIRD
SIPASISRO
TRIBSEL
Exercise 17. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:
Malignant melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin.
Treatment of scabies depends on the cause of the infection and severity.
Bacterial infections are often treated with antibiotics.
The exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancer.
Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition.
The disease may begin at any age.
Treatment involves some combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
Genetics is thought to be the cause.
Exercise 18.Translate the sentences into English:
1. Дерматологія-це розділ медицини, який вивчає будову шкіри, волосся та нігтів, їх розвиток, функції, а також захворювання.
2. Зміни шкіри часто мають важливе значення для діагностики внутрішніх та інфекційних захворювань.
3. Дерматит- це гостре запалення щкіри, яке виникає під впливом різних факторів (хімічних, фізичних, термічних, медикаментозних, тощо).
4. Дерматит часто визивають кислоти, фарби, органічні розчинники, олії. Нерідко причиною дерматиту є антибіотики, новокаін.
5. Процес супроводжується почервонінням, набряком, свербіжем, печією, іноді болем.
6. Найпоширеніший симптом корости- це свербіж, який посилюється увечері та вночі.
7. Зовнішніми факторами, що провокують початок захворювання, є : харчові продукти, зовнішні подразники i стресові фактори.
8. У тяжких випадках можлива поява пухирців, іноді великих.
Exercise 19. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term «хвороби шкіри»:
1. Many skin diseases are accompanied by itching, burning, redness, swelling and pain.
2. Treatment of skin diseases depends on the cause and severity.
3. Skin diseases may be caused by allergies, irritants, metabolic disorders and immune system problems.
4. Skin disease is a human disease of varying etiologies characterized by pathological changes in the skin, nails and hair and in the visible mucous membranes.
5. Dermatology is the branch of medicine that studies skin diseases.
Exercise 20. Describe the term “dermatitis”, using the following scheme:
Definition
Causes
Manifestations
Types
Treatment
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення
1. патологічні зміни на шкірі;
2. супровoджуватися сверблячкою та почервонінням;
3. гостре запалення шкіри;
4. чутливість до подразників;
5. взаємодія між імунною системою та шкірою;
6. уникати дії подразників;
7. пустули, заповнені гноєм;
8. запалення сальної залози;
9. запобігати утворення шрамів (рубців);
10. родимка та бородавка
II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
What science studies skin diseases?
What are many skin diseases accompanied by?
What diseases may affect our appearance?
What may skin diseases be caused by?
What are the main manifestations of dermatitis?
III. Розкрийте поняття: хвороби шкіри, дерматит
EYE DISEASES
ЗАХВОРЮВАННЯ ОЧЕЙ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
accommodation, n
[ə'kɒmə'deiʃən] регулювання зображення
adjustment, n [ə'dƷʌstmənt] наведення зображення
biconcave, adj [bai'kɒnkeiv] двовгнутий
biconvex, adj [bai'kɒnveks] двоопуклий
blurry, adj [blə:rɪ] нечіткий, розмитий
cone, n ['kəʊn] колбочка сітківки
converge, v [kən'vɛ:dƷ] сходитися, зводити в одну точку
cornea, n ['kɔ:nɪə] рогівка
double vision ['dʌbəl 'viƷən] диплопія, роздвоєння
curvature, n ['kɜ: vətʃə] викривлення
elongation, n [i:lɒŋ'ɡeiʃən] розтягнення
halo, n ['heiləu] ореол, сяйво
hyperopia, n ['haipə 'rəʊpiə] далекозорість
image, n ['imidƷ] зображення,картинка
myopia, n [mai'əʊpiə] міопія, короткозорість
refraction, n [ri'frækʃən] заломлення
sebaceous, adj [si 'beiʃəs] сальний
strabismus, n [strə'bizməs] страбізм, косоокість
Exercise 2. Speak correctly:
Astigmatism - [ǽ'stigmətizm]; cataract - ['kætərəkt]; cylinder-shaped –['silində'ʃeipt]; glaucoma - [glɔ:'kəmə]; spectrum - ['spektrəm]; exposure - [iks'pəʊƷə]; sty- ['stai]; retina- ['retinə]; lens- ['lenz]; iris- ['airis]; lump - ['lʌmp]; blurry - ['blɛ:ri]; clouding - ['klaudiŋ]; sebum [si:bəm]; daltonism – ['dɔ:ltə nɪ zə m]; hordeolum - [hɔ:dɪ 'əʊləm]; farsightedness [fɑ: 'saɪtɪdnəs]
Exercise 3. Find explanation on the right to the words on the left:
astigmatism abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
hyperopia the condition of nearsightedness
myopia abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better 
than for near objects
glaucoma red-green colorblindness
sebum a defect of the eye in which the curvature of the cornea or lens is 
uneven. 
daltonism partial or total opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye
cataract a condition of elevated fluid pressure within the eyeball
strabismus the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following words and word combinations:
curvature - different curvatures of lenses, the eyeball's degree of curvature, curvature of the spine
blur – blurs, to blur, a blurry image, a gradual blurring of vision, a blurred vision, to blur vision
to converge – to converge completely, to converge to a point, to converge together
exposure- exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, long-term exposure, to be exposed
advanced- advanced age, advanced case, advanced research, the signs of advanced disease
Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word combinations from the active vocabulary:
Clear vision, the eyeballs and their accessories, myopia and hyperopia, ability and inability, in front of the retina, behind the retina, to lose elasticity, to focus the image, biconvex lenses, to use cylinder-shaped lenses, visual defect, faulty vision, regular and irregular curvature, sensitive to red and green, genetic trait, a clouding of the lens, a gradual blurring of vision, double vision, to converge together, paralysis of an eye muscle, a total loss of vision, the intraocular pressure, exposure to ultraviolet light, advanced age, the incidence of glaucoma, a sebaceous gland of the eyelid.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
EYE DISEASES
The eyes are complex organs with many parts that must work together to produce clear vision. But, when the eyeballs or their accessories (the eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal organs), or the orbits are damaged, eye diseases occur. Eye diseases may be classified as congenital and acquired, infectious and non-infectious, acute and chronic, and unilateral and bilateral.
Two common disorders of the eye are the myopia and hyperopia. Myopia is inability to see distant objects clearly because the images are focused in front of the retina. This condition is due to elongation of the eyeball or it may be caused by insufficient adjustment of a lens during accommodation. Glasses with biconcave lenses are used to focus the image on the retina. Hyperopia is inability to see near objects clearly because the images received by the eye are focused behind the retina and blurred because the eyeball is too short or because the lens is too flat to permit nearby vision. This defect often happens as the lens loses elasticity with age. Glasses with biconvex lenses are used to focus the image on the retina.
Astigmatism is a type of faulty vision caused by irregular curvature of a lens or cornea. It results in a light refraction so that the rays fall on different areas of the retina, thereby producing a blurry image. Astigmatism is the inability to separate two closely placed points. The condition is corrected by using cylinder-shaped lenses.
Another visual defect is colour blindness resulting from the inability of cones to react to certain colours of the spectrum. For example, a person may be colour blind to red and green colours. In this case red and green can not be distinguished because of the lack of cones sensitive to red and green. Colour blindness is usually a sex-linked genetic trait carried by females and expressed in males.
Cataract is a clouding of the lens. For most people cataracts are a natural result of ageing. Often cataracts develop in both eyes at the same time. The symptoms vary but include a gradual blurring of vision, halos around lights, and double vision. The very worst cataracts – where the iris appears almost entirely clouded – can cause a total loss of vision. Cataracts develop for a variety of reasons including long-term exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, secondary effects of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and advanced age, eye injury or trauma.
Glaucoma is an abnormal increase in the intraocular pressure of the eyeball. Loss of vision develops gradually and people may not realize they have it. On reaching an advanced age glaucoma is extremely difficult and expensive to treat. The key to reducing the incidence of glaucoma is early diagnosis.
A stye is a localized inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid. This common infection results from blocked glands within the eyelid. When the gland is blocked, the sebum produced by the gland occasionally backs up and extrudes through the wall of the gland, forming a lump which can be red, painful, and nodular. Frequently bacteria can infect the blocked gland causing increased inflammation, pain, and redness of the eye, and even redness of the surrounding eyelid and cheek tissue. The lump frequently goes away when the blockage of the gland opening is relieved. Furthermore, the infection goes away the pus is drained from the sty.
Strabismus is a condition that causes crossed eyes, a condition in which eyes do not converge together and a person sees two images instead of one. It is usually caused by paralysis of an eye muscle. Its treatment may include glasses, patches (any protective dressing), eye drops, vision therapy or surgery.
 The branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyes is called ophthalmology. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are both surgical and medical specialists. 
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions according to the text:
What diseases may all eye disorders be classified?
What are the common disorders of the eyes?
What is astigmatism usually caused by?
What is the main cause of daltonism?
What are the common symptoms of cataract?
What diseases may cataract develop due to?
What glasses may myopia and hyperopia be corrected?
What the symptoms of a sty?
What is the treatment of strabismus?
What does ophthalmology usually study? 
Exercise 8. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones:
очі та повіки eyeball
очна западина lens
сітківка ока cone
очне яблуко cornea
кришталик ока orbit
рогівка ока iris
колбочка сітківки retina
райдужна оболонка ока eye and eyelids
Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:
eye The cavity in the skull that contains the eye. It is formed from parts of the frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, lacrimal, ethmoid, palatine and maxillary bones.
iris The light-sensitive membrane forming the inner lining of the posterior wall of the eyeball composed largely of a specialized terminal expansion of the optic nerve.
orbit The organ of sight, containing light-sensitive cells associated with nerve fibres, so that light entering the eye is converted to nervous impulses that reach the brain.
cone The body of the eye, which is roughly spherical, is bounded by the sclera, and lies in the orbit.
cornea The transparent crystalline structure situated behind the pupil of the eye and enclosed in a thin transparent capsule. It helps to refract incoming light and focus it onto the retina.
lens The convex transparent membrane that forms the anterior covering of the eyeball and is continuous with the sclera
eyeball One of the two types of light-sensitive cells in the retina of the eye. The human retina contains more than 6 million cones.
retina The coloured muscular diaphragm that surrounds and controls the size of the pupil. It is the part of the eye that regulates the amount of light entering the eye.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 10. Find synonyms of the following words or words combinations:
A B
double vision cataract
colour blindness senility
myopia long-sightedness
stye short-sightedness
strabismus hordeolum
hyperopia daltonism
advanced age crossed eyes
clouding of the lens diplopia
Exercise 11. Build Nouns from the following Verbs and translate:
Model: to diagnose – a diagnosis
To work, to produce, to see, to damage, to occur, to classify, to focus, to cause, to accommodate, to adjust, to image, to blur, to permit, to lose, to curve, to refract, to correct, to react, to express, to develop, to vary, to appear, to expose, to inflame, to treat, to block, to infect, to drain, to paralyze, to drop, to include, to protect, to call
Exercise 12. Choose one or more nouns from list B to modify the verbs from list A so as to make sense. Translate the word combinations into the native language.
Model: to relieve the pain
List A: to perform, to deal with, to converge, to extrude through, to result from, to increase, to be exposed to, to produce, to see, to focus on, to lose, to result in, to produce, to separate, to be corrected by, to react to, to be colour blind to, to distinguish , to be expressed in, to be sensitive to, to include, to cause
List B: elasticity,a total loss of vision, eye diseases, a blurry image, a gradual blurring of vision, operations, together, the pus, the wall of the gland, blocked glands, intraocular pressure of the eyeball, clear vision, in males, distant objects, the retina, a light refraction, using cylinder-shaped lenses, certain colours of the spectrum, red and greencolours, colours, to red and green, two closely placed points
Exercise 13. Translate the following word combinations into English:
Очна западина, допоміжні органи, слизова оболонка ока, однобічний та двобічний, похилий вік, ясне бачення, слізні органи, короткозорість та далекоззоркість, нездатність бачити, фокусувати зображення, окуляри з двовгнутими та двоопуклими лінзами, викривлення кришталика або рогівки ока, за та перед сітківкою ока, розмите зображення, лінзи циліндричної форми, колбочка сітківки, помутніння кришталика, внутрішньоочний тиск, захворюваність на глаукому, ячмінь, сальна залоза, косоокість, параліч очних м'язів
Exercise 14. Choose the proper continuation on the right and translate it:
Eye diseases may be classified as …
the inability of cones to react to certain colours of the spectrum.
Myopia is inability to see …
crossed eyes, a condition in which eyes do not converge together and a person sees two images instead of one.
Hyperopia is inability to see …
to focus the image on the retina.
Glasses with biconcave lenses are used ….
near objects clearly because the images received by the eye are focused behind the retina.
Astigmatism is a type of faulty vision caused by ….
the intraocular pressure of the eyeball.
Cataract is a …
congenital and acquired, infectious and non-infectious, acute and chronic, and unilateral and bilateral.
Colour blindness results from …
clouding of the lens.
Glaucoma is an abnormal increase in …
irregular curvature of a lens or cornea.
A stye is a
localized inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid.
Strabismus is a condition that causes … distant objects clearly because the images are focused in front of the retina.
Exercise 15. Define if the following statements are true or false:
Astigmatism results from inability of cones to react to certain colours.
There is only one cause of cataract.
In myopia glasses with biconcave lenses are used.
Cataracts can develop in both eyes.
A sty is a localized inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid.
Colour blindness is usually a sex-linked genetic trait carried by males and expressed in females.
It is very difficult and expensive to treat glaucoma.
Persons with strabismus see two images instead of one.
The symptoms of cataract include a gradual blurring of vision, halos around lights, and double vision.
Glasses with biconcave lenses are used to focus the image on the retina.
Exercise 16. Choose the proper preposition and complete the text. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
The primary mode (of\ with\ from) treatment for a stye is application (by\ at\ of) warm compresses. Incision and drainage is performed if resolution does not begin (in\ on\ to) the next 48 hours after warm compresses are started.
As a part of self-care at home patients may cleanse the affected eyelid (from\ in\ with) water. Cleansing must be done gently and while eyes are closed to prevent eye injuries.
Patients are highly advised not to lance the stye as it may result (in\ by\ at) a serious infection.
Medical treatment can also be provided (by\ with\ in) a doctor and it is aimed (at\ by\ to) relieving symptoms. Antibiotic are normally given (to\ on\ in) patients with multiple sties. Antibiotic ointments can also be administered (on\ from\ in) sty treatment.
Eye stye sufferers should avoid eye make-up (e/g/ eyeliner), lotions and wearing contact lenses, since these can aggravate and spread the infection (sometimes (to/with/for) the cornea).
Exercise 17. Put questions to the underlined words:
Many people with diabetes notice that their vision becomes blurry.
Eyes receive light from the image on the nervous cells of the retina.
Lens is tightly attached to its place by a ligament.
Additional structures of the eye include eyebrows, eye lashes, conjunctiva and the lacrimal apparatus.
Eyebrows and eyelashes protect eyes from foreign matters.
Human eye differs 10 million colours but it does not perceive ultraviolet.
The physiology of vision relies upon two different types of cells in the retina: the rod-shaped (rods) and cone-shaped cells (cones).
The cones enable one to see details and are responsible for colour vision.
In people with diabetes mellitus, changes in the walls of the small blood vessels in the retina are caused by blood sugar abnormalities.
The lump frequently goes away when the blockage of the gland opening is relieved.
Exercise 18. Open the brackets and use verbs in the correct tense and form:
Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, (to be) the inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under normal lighting conditions.
Color blindness (affect) a significant percentage of the population.
Color blindness also (can to produce) by physical or chemical damage to the eye, the optic nerve, or parts of the brain.
Color blindness usually (to classify) as a mild disability.
Color vision deficiencies (can to classify) as acquired or inherited.
About 8 percent of males, but only 0.5 percent of females, (to be) color blind.
Causes of color blindness (to include) brain or retinal damage.
The different kinds of inherited color blindness (to result from) partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the different cone systems.
Exercise 19*. Choose an adjective and a noun to complete the sentences below:
adjectives nouns
visual, scientific, retinal, progressive, smaller-than-normal, viral papers, disease, impairment, head, infection, vasculature
Text: Studies Show Zika Virus May Cause More Serious Eye Damage in Babies than Thought
Written by: Shirley DangMay. 31, 2016
New research on infants presumed to be affected by Zika virus in the womb shows that the infection can take a serious toll on a baby’s eyes, causing harm that could lead to severe _____ ______________.
Two ______ ________ about eye abnormalities possibly linked to the virus were recently published by Stanford University and Brazilian researchers.
The first study found several previously unreported signs of retinal problems in the back of the eye, including hemorrhaging, blood vessel abnormalities and a kind of eye lesion called torpedo maculopathy not noted before in relation to Zika virus. Some of the _______ _________ appeared to be missing in one infant, a type of problem that could result in blind spots or decreased peripheral vision. Retinal hemorrhaging, or bleeding in the eye, can result in vision loss if untreated.
“These are serious eye problems,” said Darius Moshfeghi, M.D., author and professor of ophthalmology at Stanford University School of Medicine. “Retinopathy and loss of the retinal vasculature can result in _____ ________resulting in blindness.”
The study was published online Wednesday in Ophthalmology, journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
The three Brazilian babies in this case study also had microcephaly, a condition known to be caused by the virus that results in a _____ ______ and brain. They were all born to women who displayed signs of the infection during the first trimester. The authors say it remains unclear whether the ______ _________caused the eye abnormalities or if they are related to microcephaly brought on by the virus.
Exercise 20. Translate sentences into English:
Порушення зору може спостерігатися в будь-якому віці. Велику роль в погіршенні зору відіграють спадковий чинник, перенесені інфекційні захворювання, неправильний режим читання.
Ячмінь – це гостре гнійне запалення сальної залози біля кореня вій. Він виникає внаслідок потрапляння інфекції в залозу. На краю повіки з часом зявляються біль, почервоніння і набряк повіки.
Катарактою називається помутніння кришталика ока. Причинами можуть бути пошкодження ока, хвороби (діабет), піддавання впливу ультрафіолетових променів.
Глаукома – це підвищений тиск всередині ока. Глаукома призводить до повної або часткової сліпоти.
Колірна сліпота або Дальтоні́зм —  це спадкова, рідше набута особливість зору людини, що виражається в нездатності розрізняти один або декілька кольорів.
Косоокість — це періодичне або постійне відхилення зорової осі одного або обох очей від загальної точки фіксації, яке супроводжується порушенням бінокулярного зору і значним зниженням гостроти зору на оці, що косить.
Короткозорість – це найбільш часте порушення рефракції. Зазвичай вона виникає, коли очне яблуко занадто довге або рогівка занадто вигнута. 
Астигматизм – це дефект зору, пов’язаний з порушенням форми кришталика, рогівки або ока, в результаті чого людина втрачає здатність до чіткого бачення на будь-якій відстані: і близько, і далеко. Якщо астигматизм не лікувати, він може призвести до косоокості і різкого падіння зору. Без корекції астигматизм може викликати головні болі і різь в очах.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What diseases may all eye disorders be classified?
What are the common disorders of the eyes?
What is astigmatism usually caused by?
What is the main cause of daltonism?
What are the common symptoms of cataract?
What diseases may cataract develop due to?
What glasses may myopia and hyperopia be corrected?
What the symptoms of a sty?
What is the treatment of strabismus?
What does ophthalmology usually study? 
II. Розкрийте поняття: хвороби очей, катаракта, ячмінь, глаукома, дальтоні́зм, косоокість, астигматизм, короткозорість, далекозоркість
EAR DISEASES
ХВОРОБИ ВУХ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
auricle, n [ˈɔːrɪkəl] вушна раковина
cochlea, n [ˈkɒklɪə] передня частина вушного лабиринту
deafness, n [ˈdefnəs] глухота
eardrum, n [ˈɪədrʌm] барабанна перетинка
equilibrium, n [ˌiːkwɪˈlɪbrɪəm] рівновага
eustachian tube, n [ju:ʹsteıʃ(ə)n] [tjuːb] євстахієва труба
hearing loss, n [ˈhɪərɪŋ] втрата слуху
myringotomy, n [məˈriŋgətəmi] мірінготомія (розсічення двох задніх квадрантів барабанної перетинки на всьому їх протязі )
ossicle, n [ʹɒsık(ə)l ] слухова кістка
perforation, n [ˌpɜːfəˈreɪʃən] прорив
pus, n [pʌs] гній
tympanic membrane, n [ˌtɪmˈpænɪk] барабанна перетинка
Exercise 2. Choose the word or phrase that doesn’t go with the topic “ear diseases”. Describe the meaning of the words:
meningitis Otorhinolaryngologist Flash spots hairs
accumulation of fluid heartburn dizziness ENT doctor
stapes foreign bodies weakness of the muscle enlarged adenoids
hypertension cochlear prosthesis balance pain
Exercise 3. Read and remember interesting facts about ears:
1. The smallest bones are the ossicles in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus, and the stapes (also called the anvil, hammer, and stirrup).
2. Your ear drum is less than 17.5 mm in diameter
3. Your ear never stops working, even when you're asleep. The ear continues to hear sounds, but your brain just ignores incoming sounds.
4. Your ear does more than just let you hear—it also gives you a sense of balance. Maybe you've noticed feeling dizzy if you've had an ear infection.
5. The three bones in your ear are the smallest bones in your body, and all three could fit together on a penny.
6. The inner ear is about the size of a pencil eraser, but it contains more than 20,000 hairs.
7. Your sense of hearing is dependent upon tiny hairs deep inside your ear. If you lose these hairs, you lose your hearing.
8. Not all living creatures hear with ears. Snakes use jawbones, fish respond to pressure changes, and male mosquitoes use antennae.
9. Your hearing can be damaged permanently even after a single incident of exposure to extremely loud noise (shotgun blast, explosion, etc.).
10. You do not need to clean wax out of your ears unless you have an abnormal condition. Ears push excess wax out as needed.
Exercise 4. Translate the word combinations:
Hearing loss, inflammation of the ear, a spiral-shaped organ, to drain fluid, hearing and equilibrium, nervous pathways, exposure to loud noises, continued infection, otitis media, a fungus or bacterium, perforation of the eardrum, otitis externa, pronounced tinnitus, "swimmer's ear", accumulation of pus, to ventilate the middle ear cavity, malfunction or obstruction of the eustachian tube, to hear medium to loud sounds, swelling of the ear canal, the aging process.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions:
1. Why do we need ears?
2. What area of medicine deals with conditions of the ear?
3. What are the main parts of the ear?
4. What are the most delicate bones in your body called?
5. Why we get strange feelings in ear or even go slightly deaf when we go high up on mountains?
6. Does loud noise benefit hearing?
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
EAR DISEASES
The human ear has three main parts: outer, middle and inner. The ear has the receptors for both hearing and equilibrium. Sound waves come in through the outer ear. They reach your middle ear, where they make the eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in the middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a spiral-shaped organ called cochlea. The inner ear makes the nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. The brain recognizes them as sounds. The eustachian (auditory) tube drains fluid from the middle ear into the throat (pharynx) behind the nose.
A variety of disorders may affect your hearing or balance. The most common are:
Hearing loss
Hearing impairment may result from disease, injury, or developmental problems that affect the ear itself or any nervous pathways concerned with the sense of hearing. Heredity, toxins, exposure to loud noises, and the aging process are possible causes for hearing loss. It may range from inability to hear certain frequencies of sound to a complete loss of hearing (deafness). People with extreme hearing loss that originates in the inner ear may benefit from a cochlear implant. This prosthesis stimulates the cochlear nerve and may allow the recipient to hear medium to loud sounds.
Otitis is any inflammation of the ear.
Otitis media refers to an infection that leads to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear cavity. One cause is malfunction or obstruction of the eustachian tube, such as by allergy, enlarged adenoids, injury, or congenital abnormalities. Another cause is infection that spreads to the middle ear, most commonly from the upper respiratory tract. Continued infection may lead to accumulation of pus and perforation of the eardrum. Otitis media usually affects children under 5 years of age and may result in hearing loss. If untreated, the infection may spread to other regions of the ear and head. Oral and topical pain-killers are effective to treat the pain caused by otitis media. Oral agents include ibuprofen, paracetamol, and opiates. Topical agents shown to be effective include antipyrine and benzocaine ear drops. A tube also may be placed in the tympanic membrane to ventilate the middle ear cavity, a procedure called a myringotomy.
Otitis externa is inflammation of the external auditory canal. Infections in this region may be caused by a fungus or bacterium and are most common among those living in hot climates and among swimmers, so it is called "swimmer's ear." It often presents with ear pain, swelling of the ear canal, and occasionally decreased hearing Effective solutions for the ear canal include acidifying and drying agents, used either singly or in combination. Acetic acid ear drops may be used as a preventative measure. Treatment of acute cases is typically with antibiotic drops such as ofloxacin or acetic acid. Steroid drops may be used in addition to antibiotics. Pain medications such as ibuprofen may be used for the pain.
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:
1. What is ear responsible for?
2. What processes occur in the middle ear?
3. What are the main disorders of the ear?
4. What are the causes of hearing loss?
5. What kind of disease is otitis?
6. What does the treatment of otitis media include?
7. What procedure is used during treatment of otitis media?
8. What is otitis externa caused by?
Exercise 8. Match the terms with their definitions:
1. equilibrium
2. hearing
3. cochlea
4. otitis
5. acetic acid
6. eustachian tube
7. ossicles
8. deafness a) the two-carbon carboxylic acid, the characteristic component of vinegar; used as a solvent;
b) the capacity to hear;
c) the tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and serves to equalize pressure between the outer and middle ear;
d) the smallest bones of the middle ear;
e) the sense of balance;
f) the coiled portion of the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing;
g) lack or loss of all or a major part of the sense of hearing;
h) any inflammation of the ear.
Exercise 9. Translate the word combinations:
Запалення зовнішнього слухового каналу, глухота, провітрювати порожнини середнього вуха, процес старіння, вплив гучних звуків, запалення вуха, помітна чутливість до звуків, вушна раковина, перетворювати звук в нервові імпульси, барабанна перетинка, збільшені аденоїди, нервові шляхи, слух та рівновага, вушний біль, спиралевидний равлик, пероральні речовини, передня частина вушного лабиринту, слухова кістка, втрата слуху.
Exercise 10. Choose the terms from the text to match the following definitions:
1. ______________ inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of watery (serous) or mucoid fluid.
2. ______________ surgical incision of the tympanic membrane; performed to drain the middle ear cavity or to insert a tube into the tympanic membrane for drainage.
3. ______________ an antipyretic and analgesic, with potency similar to that of aspirin. .
4. ______________ inflammation of the external auditory canal; swimmer's ear.
5. ______________ a hole or break in the containing walls or membranes of an organ or structure of the body.
6. ______________ any of a class of compounds that bind with a number of closely related specific receptors in the central nervous system to block the perception of pain or affect the emotional response to pain.
Exercise 11. Complete this description using the words and phrases below:
auricle inner ear
ear canal oval window
eardrum cochlea
sound waves hair cells
middle ear auditory nerve
How the Ear Works
Sounds from the outside world are picked up by the outer ear, which is made up of the … (1) and the ear canal. As the sound waves enter the ear, the … (2) serves to increase the loudness of those pitches that make it easier to understand speech. At the same time the ear canal protects another important part of the ear: the … (3) - a flexible, circular membrane which vibrates when touched by … (4).
The sound vibrations continue their journey into the … (5), which contains three tiny bones called the ossicles, which are also known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup. These bones form the bridge from the eardrum into the … (6). They increase and amplify the sound vibrations even more, before safely transmitting them on to the inner ear via the … (7).
The inner ear, or … (8), resembles the circular shell of a snail, and houses a system of tubes which are filled with a watery fluid. As the sound waves pass through the oval window the fluid begins to move, setting tiny … (9) in motion. In turn, these hairs transform the vibrations into electrical impulses that travel along the … (10) to the brain itself.
Exactly how the brain actually translates these nerve impulses remains a mystery.
Exercise 12. Read the text and insert the missing prepositions:
By, to(2), with, of, for(2), on
How Are Ear Infections Diagnosed?
If you or your child has an earache that is accompanied ___ a stuffy or runny nose and a sore throat and fever, it is likely that the ear pain is due ___ an ear infection.
Your doctor will examine the eardrum ___ an instrument called an otoscope for signs of infection. The doctor may also check for blockage or filling ___ the middle ear using a pneumatic otoscope, which blows a little air at the eardrum. This air should cause the eardrum to move a little back and forth. If fluid is present, the eardrum will not move as readily.
Another test ___ ear infections is tympanometry, which uses sound and air pressure to check for fluid in the middle ear. If needed, an audiologist will perform a hearing test ___ determine if there is hearing loss.
___ rare occasions, when the person is quite ill, a doctor may make an opening in the eardrum, draw out a sample of fluid from the middle ear to culture the sample in a lab. This more extreme measure is usually used only ___ serious infections.
Exercise 13. Put the special questions to the underlined words and words combinations:
1. An otoscope is a device to look into the ear canal to see the drum.
2. An audiologist examines a person's hearing in each ear, using sounds of varying volume and frequency.
3. Audiogram has just been made and compared with that of an individual with normal hearing.
4. ACT scanner uses X-rays and a computer to create images of the ears and surrounding structures.
5. Using radio waves in a magnetic field, a scanner creates high-resolution images of the ears and surrounding structures.
6. The ear changes sound into electrical signals, so the brain can interpret it.
7. Otosclerosis mainly affects the tiny stapes bone.
8. People with extreme hearing loss may benefit from a cochlear implant.
Exercise 14. Complete the text using one word in each gap:
Do you ever wish that your neighbours (turned / will turn / had turned) down their music? Perhaps you are trying to sleep and you wish that the people next-door (do / were / will be) not holding an all-night barbecue party in their garden. Or do you feel it is high (time / place / site) you moved to an uninhabited island? Don't worry - you are just another victim of noise pollution. Of course most people would prefer if cars (make / made / will make) no noise at all, neighbours (was / were / are) as quite as mice, and nobody (drive / drove will have drive) about the streets in cars with open windows and high-powered sound systems. You may even wish you (stop / stopped / have stopped) children from playing in the street, or planes from passing overhead. But in the end, if I (was / am / will be) you I (would / will / will have) just get used to it. Close the windows, buy some earplugs, laugh and turn up your own stereo. Just act (as / though / that) if the noise (is / was / will be) simply not there! Who knows, perhaps it will go away.
Exercise 15. Fill in the table to describe the following term “Otitis externa”:
Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment Exercise 16. Translate into English:
1. Середній отит – це інфекція, що призводить до накопичення рідини в порожнині середнього вуха.
2. Тривала інфекція може призвести до накопичення гною і перфорації барабанної перетинки.
3. Середній отит зазвичай вражає дітей у віці до 5 років і може привести до втрати слуху.
4. При лікуванні використовуються знеболюючі (ібупрофен , парацетамол та інші) та вушні каплі.
5. Мірінготомія використовується для створення отвору в барабанній перетенці, щоб злити рідину, накопичену в середньому вусі (гній, кров або вода).
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
1. барабанна перетинка
2. запалення зовнішнього слухового каналу
3. вплив гучних звуків
4. перетворювати звук в нервові імпульси
5. слух та рівновага
6. вушний біль
7. тривала інфекція
8. глухота
9. порожнини середнього вуха
10. спиралевидний равлик
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
1. What are the main disorders of the ear?
2. What are the causes of hearing loss?
3. What kind of disease is otitis?
4. What does the treatment of otitis media include?
5. What is otitis externa caused by?
III. Розкрийте поняття:
1. Втрата слуха
2. Отит
3. Середній отит
4. Зовнішній отит
PACKAGE INSERTS
АНОТАЦІЇ ДО ЛІКАРСЬКИХ ЗАСОБІВ
Exercise 1. Active vocabulary:
adverse reaction [ˈædvɜːs riˈækʃən] несприятливі реакції
brand name [brænd neɪm] зареєстрована патентована назва лікарського засобу
contraindication, n [ˌkɒntrəˌɪndɪˈkeɪʃən] протипоказання
drug abuse [drʌɡ əˈbjuːz] зловживання ліками
generic name [dʒəˈnerɪk neɪm] непатентована назва лікарського засобу
indication, n [ˌɪndɪˈkeɪʃən] показання
leaflet, n [ˈliː.flət] листок
manufacturing pharmaceutical company [ˌmænjʊˈfæktʃərɪŋ fɑːməˈsjuːtɪkəl ˈkʌmpəni] фармацевтична компанія виробник
neoplastic, adj [ˌniːəʊˈplæstɪk] відноситься до новоутворення
package insert [ˈpækɪdʒ ɪnˈsɜːt] анотація до лікарського засобу
pharmacology, n [ˌfɑːməˈkɒlədʒi] фармакологія
precaution, n [prɪˈkɔːʃən] застереження
property, n [ˈprɒpəti] властивості
target, n [ˈtɑːɡɪt] мета, об'єкт
Exercise 2. Read and translate the following words:
Reoperate; regroup; remake; rebuild; recover; remove; recurring; return; reinvasion; reaction.Exercise 3. Complete the table with the words from the text derived from the following words:
properties clinical chemical impairments
abuse package pharmacological interaction
condition neoplastic Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following word-combinations:
Licensed medicines; follow a standard format; clinical pharmacology; absorb and eliminate; results of various clinical trials; medication's effect on various populations; physical impairments and drug interactions; cause physical dependence; results of an overdose; storage information, to be grouped into, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular drugs, drug leaflet.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
PACKAGE INSERTS
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drugs: their preparation and properties, uses and effects. Drug is a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease. Drug or medicines are grouped into several classes depending on their pharmacological effects on the body, target organs or systems, etc. For example, there are a wide variety of cardiovascular drugs, gastrointestinal drugs, neuropharmacologic drugs, antibiotics, neoplastic drugs, hormones, and others. Before taking any medicine, patient should learn all information about it that giving into package insert.
Package Inserts or Patient information leaflets (drug leaflet) are leaflets containing specific information about medical conditions, doses, side effects that packed with medicines to give the user information about the product. Patient information leaflets are written by the manufacturing pharmaceutical company. All licensed medicines need to carry such a leaflet.
Package inserts follow a standard format for every medication and include the same types of information. The first thing listed is usually the brand name and generic name of the product. The other sections are as follows:
Clinical pharmacology - tells how the medicine works in the body, how it is absorbed and eliminated, and what its effects are likely to be at various concentrations. It may also contain results of various clinical trials (studies) and/or explanations of the medication's effect on various populations (e.g. children, women, etc.).
Indications and usage - uses (indications) for which the drug has been approved (e.g. migraines, seizures, high blood pressure).
Contraindications - lists situations in which the medication should not be used, for example in patients with other medical conditions such as kidney problems or allergies.
Warnings - covers possible serious side effects that may occur.
Precautions - explains how to use the medication safely including physical impairments and drug interactions.
Adverse reactions - lists all side effects observed in all studies of the drug (as opposed to just the dangerous side effects which are separately listed in "Warnings" section).
Drug abuse and dependence - provides information regarding whether prolonged use of the medication can cause physical dependence (only included if applicable).
Overdosage - gives the results of an overdose and provides recommended action in such cases.
Dosage and administration - gives recommended dosage(s); may list more than one for different conditions or different patients (e.g., lower dosages for children).
Physical properties - explains in detail the physical characteristics of the medication including color, shape, markings, etc., and storage information (e.g., "Do not store above 95°").
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions to the text:
What is pharmacology?
What is a package insert?
What are the main sections of an information leaflet?
What does the section Indications and Usage contain?
What does the section Contraindications list?
What does the section Precautions explain?
What does the section Overdosage give?
Which section explains in detail the physical characteristics of the medication including color, shape, markings, etc., and storage information?
Exercise 7. Match the terms with their definitions:
1. antibiotics a) a medicine intended to reduce inflammation
2. vitamin b) any medicine that lowers body temperature to prevent or alleviate fever
3. antipyretic c) a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections
4. antiviral d) heart drug
5. anti-inflammatory e) drug prescribed to prevent blood from clotting
6. vasodilator
f) any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism
7. antidepressant g) any drug that destroys viruses
8. anticoagulant h) mood-lifting drug
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Exercise 8. Read the definitions and fill in the blanks with the name of disease below:
(overdosage, precaution, drug abuse, clinical pharmacology, adverse reaction, indication,
physical property, contraindication)
____________is the use of a drug for a nontherapeutic effect.
____________ is the condition resulting from an excessive dose.
____________ is the reason to prescribe a drug or perform a procedure.
____________ is unexpected, serious symptoms coinciding with the administration of a drug.
____________is any property used to characterize matter.
____________ is the factor that renders the administration of a drug or the carrying out of a medical procedure inadvisable.
____________ is explanation of the medication's effect on various populations.
____________is an action taken in advance to protect against possible danger, failure, or injury.
Exercise 9. Find the English equivalents to the following word-combinations: Анотації до лікарських засобів; медичні умови; побічні дії; фармацевтична компанія виробник; непатентована назва лікарського засобу; зареєстрована патентована назва лікарського засобу; поглинати та видаляти; результати різних клінічних дослідів; схвалені ліки; взаємодія ліків; визивати фізичну залежність; інформація щодо зберігання.
Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions: Pharmacology is the branch ___ medicine and biology concerned ____ the study of drugs. Drug or medicines are grouped ____ several classes depending ____ their pharmacological effects ____ the body. Patient information leaflets are written ____ the manufacturing pharmaceutical company. Package inserts follow a standard format ____ every medication and include the same types ____ information.
Exercise 11. Read, translate and decide which sections:
(indications, contraindications, physical properties, side effects, etc.)
Zaditen is an antiasthmatic drug with marked antianaphylactic properties and a specific antihistaminic effect.
Following oral administration, Fosiopril is absorbed slowly.
Daflon treats venous insufficiently and oedema of venous origin by reinforcing the walls of veins.
Atrovent is indicated as a bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of bronchospasm.
Eye drops may be used for the prevention of ocular infection after removal of a corneal or conjuctival foreign body.
Phenergan is indicated in many allergic disorders and anaphylactic reactions including hay fever, urticaria and sensitization reactions of various drugs.
Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response.
If immediate action is required, the capsule could be chewed and held in mouth.
Take half of the tablet twice daily or 1 capsule in the evening only for children under 3.
The use of Unasyn is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the penicillins.
Exercise 12. Put questions to the underlined words:
Tablets Noroxin should be stored in a tightly closed container.
The expiration date is nfentioned on the package.
Renal function should be closely monitored, as it may be further impaired by the use of antihypertensive drugs.
Prolonged use of antibiotics may give rise to overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms and fungi.
Pantrisin ophthalmic solution and ointment are incompatible with other preparations.
Kesalamine produces an acute intolerance syndrome characterized by acute abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.
Tachycardia and blood pressure generally subside after a few days.
Zocar may cause fatal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Exercise 13. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
Isocard (to contraindicate) in patients sensitive to the drug.
Hypersensitivity to atropine or its derivatives (to report).
Mesalanine is 5-amino-2-hydroxybensoic acid, and it (to classify) as an anti-inflammatory drug.
Benazepril hydrochloride (to be) soluble in water, in methanol.
Zocor is a cholesterol lowering agent that (to derive) synthetically from a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus.
Cetax (to indicate) for the treatment of patient with genitourinary infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms.
Suppositories (to indicate) for the treatment of active ulcerative proctitis.
Weight gain occasionally (to report).
Exercise 14. Make a summary of the package insert below, comment on the properties, composition, mechanism of action, indication, dosage and use, contraindications, side effects, storage and term of validity of the drug:
MAGASIL (MIXTURE)
COMPOSITION:
Each 10 mLof mixture contains:
Magnesium carbonate, 500 mg
Magnesium trisilicate 500 mg
Sodium bicarbonate 500 mg
PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:
Antacids (acid neutralizers)
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION:
Acid neutralising, diminish activity of pepsin in gastric secretion.
INDICATIONS:
For the relief of acid ingestion, heartburn, hyperacidity, dyspepsia, gastritis and reflux oesophagitis
CONTRA-INDICATIONS:
Sensitivity to any of the active ingredients
WARNINGS:
Do not use this product if you are on a sodium-restricted diet, or suffer from hypertension, of heart failure, except under the advice and supervision of a doctor.
DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE:
Adults: two to four medicine measurefuls every four hours.
Do not use the maximum dosage of this product for more than 2 (two) weeks, except under the advice and supervision of a medical practitioner, or use as directed by a doctor.
SIDE EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS:
May cause diarrhea. Release of carbon dioxide may cause discomfort. MAGASIL may interfere with the absorption of other medicines if taken concomitantly.
Sodium bicarbonate can cause stomach cramps and flatulence. Excessive administration of sodium bicarbonate may lead to metabolic alkalosis, especially in patients with impaired renal function. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, muscle weakness and mental disturbances such as restlessness, convulsions and coma. Sodium bicarbonate should be administered extremely cautiously to patients with congestive heart failure, renal impairment, and cirrhosis of the liver or hypertension and to patients receiving corticosteroids.IDENTIFICATION:
A white homogenous mixture with a slight peppermint flavourPRESENTATION:
Brown plastic containers of 100 mL, 200 mL, 500 mL, and 2.5 litres
STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS:
Store in a cool, dark place below 25ºC.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN
Exercise 15. Put the sentences into the correct order to explain the term “package insert”:
__ All licensed medicines need to carry such a leaflet.
__ The first thing listed is usually the brand name and generic name of the product.
__ Patient information leaflets are written by the manufacturing pharmaceutical company.
__ The main sections of package insert are clinical pharmacology, indications and usage, contraindications, warnings, precautions, adverse reactions, drug abuse, overdosage, dosage and administration, physical properties.
__ Package Inserts or Patient information leaflets (drug leaflet) are leaflets containing specific information about medicines.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
І. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
Анотації до лікарських засобів
побічні дії
фармацевтична компанія виробник
непатентована назва лікарського засобу
зареєстрована патентована назва лікарського засобу
поглинати та видаляти
результати різних клінічних дослідів
взаємодія ліків
визивати фізичну залежність
інформація щодо зберігання.
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:
What is a package insert?
What are the main sections of an information leaflet?
What does the section Clinical Pharmacology contain?
What does the section Indications and Contraindications contain?
What does the section Overdosage give?
III. Розкрийте поняття:
Анотація до лікарських засобів
CЕNTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS
ЦНС та CЕРЦЕВО-СУДИННІ ПРЕПАРАТИ
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
additive adj. [əˈdɪktɪv] що викликає залежніть
analgesic n. [æn(ə)l'dʒɪ:zɪk] анальгетик, знеболюючий засіб
anticoagulant n. ['æntɪkəu'ægjulənt] речовина, що затримує згортання крові
appreciation n. [əpriːʃɪˈeɪʃ(ə)n] правильне сприйняття
blood clotting n. [ˈblʌdˌklɒtɪŋ згортання крові
constrict v. [kənˈstrɪkt] стискати, скорочувати;
digitalis glycosides n. [ˌdɪdʒɪˈteɪlɪs ˈglaɪkəʊˌsaɪd] глікозиди наперстянки
euphoria n. [juːˈfɔː.ri.ə] ейфорія; піднесено-радісний настрій
excretion n. [ɪkˈskriːʃ(ə)n] Виділення
habit-forming adj. [ˈhæb.ɪtˌfɔː.mɪŋ] що викликає звикання
heart failure n. [‘hɑːt 'feɪljə] серцева недостатність
hypnotic n. [hɪpˈnɒtɪk] снотворний засіб
insomnia n. [ɪnˈsɒmniə] Безсоння
involuntary adj. [ɪnˈvɒlənt(ə)ri] що мимовільно скорочуються
opening n. [ˈəʊp(ə)nɪŋ] просвіт (судин)
restlessness n. [ˈrestləsnəs] стурбованість, занепокоєння
seizure n. [ˈsiːʒə] напад; приступ
suppress v. [səˈprɛs] Пригнічувати
unconsciousness n. [en 'kɔn(t)ʃəsnəs] несвідомий стан
Exercise 2. Study the following combining forms ad their meanings. Do you know any other words formed with their use?
Combining form Definitions Term
pharmac- drug Pharmacology
chem- drug Chemotherapy
tox- poison toxic
toxicology
contra- against contraindication
cras- disease Dyscrasia
derm- skin Hypodermic
lingu tongue Sublingual
Exercise 3. Form words with the help of negative prefixes. Translate them into Ukrainian:
Model: consciousness (свідомість) – unconsciousness (несвідомий стан)
un-: treated, experienced, human, hurt, bearable, believable;
in-: visible, different, curable, variable, voluntary, soluble;
mis-: understand, translate, pronounce, diagnose, read, count;
mal-: nutrition, formation, position, treatment, occlusion, absorption.
Exercise 4. Translate the following word-combinations into your native language:
Drugs of plant and animal origin, to depress the nerves in the brain and spinal cord, to quiet and relax the patient, to relieve seizures, the state of unconsciousness, loss of pain sensation, and muscle relaxation, a temporary feeling of euphoria, excessive doses, additive and habit-forming, loss of pain sensation, loss of the appreciation of pain, to contract with sufficient force, to change the rate and forcefulness of the heartbeat, to prevent blood clotting, to prevent the formation of clots in veins and arteries, to stop local bleeding, involuntary muscles in the body, to promote excretion of fluid, to constrict muscle fibers.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
Central Nervous System drugs. Cardiovascular drugs.
People in every civilization have used drugs of plant and animal origin to prevent and treat diseases. Many of these drugs are still in use today, but most drugs used are produced synthetically.
A drug is a synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
There are different types of drugs used to treat and prevent different diseases.
Central Nervous System Drugs are of two main types: those which stimulate the nerves in the brain and spinal cord, stimulants, and those which depress the nerves in the brain and spinal cord, depressants. Stimulants produce a temporary feeling of euphoria. Amphetamines can produce restlessness, insomnia and nervousness. Used in excessive doses, such side effects as convulsions can appear.
There are several types of central nervous system depressants. These include analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and barbiturates, tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, alcohol and anesthetics.
Analgesics are used to relieve pain. They are divided into narcotic and nonnarcotic. Narcotic analgesics can suppress the central nervous system and relieve pain, but in excessive doses produce unconsciousness, stupor and possibly death. Most of narcotic analgesics are additive and habit-forming.
Sedatives are used to quiet and relax the patient without producing sleep. Some drugs act as sedatives in small doses and in large doses as hypnotics.
Anticonvulsants are used to treat epilepsy and relieve seizures. Anesthetics produce temporary state of unconsciousness, loss of sensation and loss of the appreciation of pain.
Cardiovascular drugs may be divided into three groups: drugs that affect the heart; drugs that affect blood pressure and drugs that prevent blood clotting.
Drugs, that affect the heart, change the rate and force of the heartbeat are called cardiac glycosides. They are used to treat heart failure (when the heart is not contracting with sufficient force).
Drugs that correct an irregular heartbeat and slow a heart that is beating too fast are called anti-arrhythmics.
Vasodilators and nitrites are drugs which relax the muscles of vessels walls, dilate all involuntary muscles in the body thus increasing the size of blood vessels.
Diuretics promote excretion of fluid that reduces the volume of blood and also decreases blood pressure.
Vasoconstrictors constrict muscle fibers around blood vessels and narrow the size of the vessel opening. They raise blood pressure, increase the force of heart action, and stop local bleeding.
Drugs that prevent blood clotting are called anticoagulants. They prevent the formation of clots in the veins and arteries.
Exercise 6. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones:
1. to constrict muscle fibers a) знеболююче, що викликає звикання
2. habit-forming analgesics b) сприяти виділенню рідини
3. to produce loss of pain sensation c) лікувати серцеву недостатність
4. to promote excretion of fluid d) викликати втрату відчуття болю
5. to produce unconsciousness e) запобігати формуванню тромбів
6. to produce restlessness and insomnia f) продукувати несвідомий стан
7. to treat heart failure g) скорочувати м’язові волокна
8. to prevent the formation of clots h) спричиняти занепокоєння та безсоння
Exercise 7. Answer the questions to the text:
What is a drug?
What types are CNS drugs subdivided into?
What drugs are used before surgery to stop appreciation of pain?
What is the action of anticonvulsants?
What are the main groups of cardiovascular drugs?
What drugs are used to increase heart rate and the force of contraction?
What drugs are used to low blood pressure?
What is the action of anticoagulants on the human body?
Exercise 8. Say whether the sentences are true or false to the text:
The drugs that stimulate the nerves in the brain and spinal cord are called anti-convulsants.
Vasoconstrictors relax the muscles of vessels walls, thus increasing the size of blood vessels.
Central nervous system stimulants are used to slow down vital processes in case of shock and collapse.
Anticoagulants are used to prevent the formation of clots in veins and arteries.
Vasodilators lower blood pressure by excreting fluid out of the body.
We need diuretics to raise blood pressure, increase the force of heart action, and stop local bleeding.
Vasoconstrictors lower blood pressure by increasing the kidney’s excretion of sodium and water.
Anesthetics produce temporary state of unconsciousness and muscle relaxation.
Exercise 9. Find English equivalents in the text:
Приніяувати нерви у спинному та головному мозоку; тимчасове відчуття гарного самопочуття; приймати у надмірних дозах; заспокійливе та снодійне; побічні дії; втрата відчуття болю; лікувати серцеву недостатність; ліки, що викликають звикання та залежність; м’язи, що скорочуються мимовільно; зменшити об’єм крові; запобігати згортанню крові; виведення рідини; скорочувати м’язові волокна; зупинити місцеву кровотечу.
Exercise 10. Translate the words given in italics:
1. Opium is знеболююче, що викликає звикання.
2. Stimulants are administered to produce тимчасове відчуття гарного самопочуття.
3. This drug лікує серцеву недостатність.
4. If you take this drug у надмірних дозах it may cause restlessness.
5. Anesthetics продукують несвідомий стан and enable the performance of other medical interventions.
6. Судинорозширювальні препарати relax muscle walls and low blood pressure.
7. The patient was administered anticoagulants щоб запобігти формуванню тромбів.
8. Anesthesia is a unique medical intervention which продукує втрату відчуття болю.
Exercise 11. Match the words and word-combinations with their definitions:
1. anesthetics a. mild purgative (promoting defecation)
2. antacids b. drugs producing the loss of sensation like lidocaine
3. antibiotic c. drugs relieving nausea and vomiting
4. vasodilators d. drugs used to prevent or abolish seizures
5. anticonvulsant agents e. drugs inhibiting the growth of bacteria
6. antiemetics f. drugs relieving constipation
7. purgatives g. drugs neutralizing acids in the stomach
8. laxatives h. relax the muscles of vessel walls
Exercise 12.Find synonyms to the text to the phrases given below:
Loss of the appreciation of pain, sleeplessness, to relieve convulsions, anxiety, to soothe and calm down, loss of consciousness, adverse effects, illness, addictive, to increase blood pressure, to decrease the volume of blood, cardiac insufficiency, coagulation of blood, a thrombus, high doses.
Exercise 13. Insert the missing prepositions:
If this drug is used ... excessive doses, it can produce convulsions.
Alcohol is central nervous system depressant which affects ….. the cerebral cortex of the brain.
Most of these drugs are extracted … plant leaves.
These drugs restore the heart rhythm … depressing myocardial impulses.
These drugs are used … treating blood vessel diseases.
This drug is easily absorbed … the blood stream and is also easily excreted … the body.
Sedatives are used to quiet and relax the patient ... necessarily producing sleep.
Central nervous system stimulants are used to speed up vital processes ... cases of shock and collapse.
Exercise 14. Guess what type of drugs is it said about:
___________ inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
___________ are used to prevent the formation of clots in veins and arteries.
___________ are used to raise blood pressure, increase the force of heart action, and stop local bleeding.
_________ strengthen the myocardium and slow the rate of contraction of the heart.
____________ produce substances, which are called antibodies that fight a particular disease.
_____________ facilitate or increase bowel movements and are mostly used to treat constipation.
_____________ despite antibiotics are produced synthetically.
Penicillin was the first _________________ to be produced and it still assumes a position of major importance in this field.
Exercise 15. What drugs would be administered to the patient with:
Epilepsy- Heart failure-Hypertension - Hypotension
Insomnia- Acute pain- Thrombosis- Arrhythmia

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to Active and Passive Voice:
1. Diuretics excrete fluid and shrink the volume of blood within the vessels.
2. New kinds of microorganisms were discovered by scientists in the XX century.
3. The course of drug treatment of leukemia will be accompanied by X-ray treatment which should be applied externally.
4. The mixture contained less than 16% of oxygen.
5. This drug will act on the nervous system of the patient.
After this injection had been introduced the felt much more quiet and relaxed.
In the cases of shock and collapse vital processes have been speeded up by central nervous system stimulants.
The usual dose of the drug which was given in the treatment of leukemia constituted 6-10 mg per day at weekly intervals.
Exercise 17. Translate the verbs into English and put them in a correct form:
Depressants (включають) analgesics, alcohol, sedatives ….
The doctor (прописав) the patient sedatives to calm him down.
A nurse (поставить) an injection of anesthetics before the operation.
Caffeine (призводить) a temporary feeling of euphoria.
Stelazine (не зміг контролювати) severe disturbances in this patient so he (було прописано) Thorazine.
I (мені дали) the prescription for Elavine by the doctor.
Anticonvulsants (використовується) to treat epilepsy.
Kaptopres already (знизив) high blood pressure to a normal level.
Exercise 18. Put questions to the underlined words:
The excessive use of this drug may occasionally cause a rise in blood pressure.
2.The patient suffering from nausea and vomiting will be administered antiemetics.
3.Antiserum gave only temporary protection against the disease.
4.This antibiotic was obtained from naturally occurring microorganisms.
5.Most antibiotics nowadays are prepared synthetically.
6.The lobular pneumonia has successfully been treated with antibiotics.
7.Unlike vaccines, antiserums contain antibodies rather than substances that cause the body to produce antibodies.
8.Before the patient went to Africa he had been vaccinated against malaria.
Exercise 19. Open the brackets and translate the sentences into your native language:
1.Antiserums usually (to give) only temporary protection.
2.Antihistamines (not to cure) the allergic reaction, but they (to relieve) its symptoms. (refers to the future)
3.The patient never (to suffer) so much from an acute pain before so he (to prescribe) potent drugs.
4. The doctor stated that insomnia (to cause) by stress at work.
5.If you take this drug regularly the formation of clots in veins and arteries (to prevent).
6.Heart rhythm (to control) by antiarrhythmics after a long treatment. (refers to the past)
7.Amphetamines already (to produce) restlessness and insomnia.
8.The loss of the appreciation of pain in this patient (to produce) by hypnotic drugs. (refers to the past)
Exercise 20. Translate into English:
1.Ліки звичайно приймаються перорально, але можуть призначатися внутрішньовенно або внутрішньом'язово.
2. Це лікувальний засіб для регулювання і запобігання серцевим нападам.
3. Лікування серцевої недостатності – одна з найактуальніших проблем кардіології.
4. Сечогінні засоби сприяють збільшенню виділення сечі і зменшенню вмісту рідини в організмі.
5.Аспірин знизить його температуру, та заспокоює біль.
6. Препарати, що звужують судини, необхідні, щоб підняти кров’яний тиск.
7.У великих дозах серцеві глікозиди зменшують збудливість міокарда.
8. Ці ліки будуть пригнічувати центральну нервову систему.
Exercise 21. Describe the terms according to the plan: ліки центральної нервової системи, серцево-судинні ліки:
1. Tell about the function of the drugs
2. Tell about the diseases that these drugs treat
3. Tell about side effects that the excessive doses of these drugs may cause
ЗАВДАННЯ для самостійної роботи студентів
I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:
знеболююче, що викликає звикання
продукувати втрату відчуття болю
продукувати несвідомий стан
спричиняти занепокоєння та безсоння
надмірна доза ліків
судинорозширювальний та судино звужуючий препарат
лікувати серцеву недостатність
скорочувати м’язові волокна
сприяти виділенню рідини
II. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
What is a drug?
What types of CNS drugs do you know?
What drugs are used before surgery to stop appreciation of pain?
What are the main groups of cardiovascular drugs?
What is the action of anticoagulants on the human body?
III. Розкрийте поняття: ліки центральної нервової системи, серцево-судинні ліки

Приложенные файлы

  • docx 694542
    Размер файла: 580 kB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий