Insight_into_the_structure


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МИНИСɌЕɊСɌȼО
ОȻɊАЗОȼАНИЯ
НАУКИ
ɊОССИЙСКОЙ
ɎЕȾЕɊАЦИИ
НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ
ИССЛЕȾОȼАɌЕЛЬСКИЙ
ЯȾЕɊНЫЙ
УНИȼЕɊСИɌЕɌ
МИɎИ
КлȜчкȜва
КȜȚȜчкиțа
INSIGHT INTO THE STRUCTURE
ПȞактичеȟкȜе
аțглийȟкȜȚу
языку
ȚагиȟтȞаțтȜв
физикȜв
Ɋɟкомɟнɞовано
изɞанию
УМО
Яɞɟɪныɟ
ɮизика
ɬɟɯнолоɝии
МȜȟква
2016
811.111(075.8)
81.2
Анɝл
Клочкова
Комочкина
Insight into the Structure
Пɪакɬичɟɫкоɟ
ɫоɛиɟ
анɝлийɫкомɭ
языкɭ
ɞля
маɝиɫɬɪанɬов
ɮизиков
.:
МИɎИ
2016.
76
Поɫоɛиɟ
пɪɟɞназначɟно
ɞля
ɫɬɭɞɟнɬов
маɝиɫɬɪаɬɭɪы
оɛɭчающиɯɫя
ɮизи
ɬɟɯничɟɫким
ɫпɟциальноɫɬям
ɫɬавиɬ
цɟлью
ɪазвиɬиɟ
компɟɬɟнций
пɪоɮɟɫ
ɫиональноɝо
оɛщɟния
анɝлийɫком
языкɟ
Пɪи
эɬом
оɫоɛый
акцɟнɬ
ɞɟлаɟɬɫя
ɪазвиɬиɟ
ɬɟɯ
навыков
коɬоɪыɟ
ɞальнɟйшɟм
поɬɪɟɛɭюɬɫя
ɫпɟциалиɫɬам
ɞля
кой
ɭɫпɟшной
наɭчной
пɪакɬичɟɫкой
ɞɟяɬɟльноɫɬи
как
ɫоɫɬавлɟниɟ
анноɬаций
ɪɟɮɟɪаɬов
напиɫаниɟ
наɭчныɯ
ɫɬаɬɟй
поɞɝоɬовка
пɪɟзɟнɬаций
анализ
наɭчной
лиɬɟɪаɬɭɪы
Поɫоɛиɟ
можɟɬ
ɛыɬь
иɫпользовано
ɞля
оɛɭчɟния
маɝиɫɬɪанɬов
вɫɟɯ
каɮɟɞɪ
ɮакɭльɬɟɬов
,
,
,
,
.
Маɬɟɪиал
поɫоɛия
оɫнован
аɭɬɟнɬичныɯ
наɭчныɯ
ɬɟкɫɬаɯ
оɪиɝинальныɯ
пɟɪиоɞичɟɫкиɯ
изɞаний
Поɞɝоɬовлɟно
ɪамкаɯ
Пɪоɝɪаммы
ɫозɞания
ɪазвиɬия
МИɎИ
Ɋɟцɟнзɟнɬ
пɟɞ
наɭк
пɪоɮ
Ƚальɫкова
ISBN 978-5-7262-2237-0
Национальный
иɫɫлɟɞоваɬɟльɫкий
яɞɟɪный
ɭнивɟɪɫиɬɟɬ
МИɎИ
, 2016
Коɪɪɟкɬоɪ
Макаɪова
Поɞпиɫано
пɟчаɬь
20.11. 2015.
Ɏоɪмаɬ
60
84 1/16
изɞ
. 4,75.
Пɟч
. 4,75.
Ɍиɪаж
200
Изɞ
1/45.
Заказ
Национальный
иɫɫлɟɞоваɬɟльɫкий
яɞɟɪный
ɭнивɟɪɫиɬɟɬ
МИɎИ
.
115409,
Моɫква
Кашиɪɫкоɟ
шоɫɫɟ
, 31.
Ȼаɪкаɫ
.
115230,
Моɫква
Кашиɪɫкоɟ
., 4.
ОȽЛАȼЛЕНИЕ
LESSON 1.
Scientific discoveries. Tenses ..................................
LESSON 2.
Measurement. Passive ...........................................
LESSON 3.
Man and Universe. Perfect ....................................
LESSON 4.
The Standard Model. Comparison .........................
LESSON 5.
Predictions. Certainty or uncertainty ......................
LESSON 6.
Quantum computers. Unreal ..................................
LESSON 7.
Renewables. Conditionals .....................................
LESSON 1. Scientific discoveries. Tenses
Part I
Reading and Speaking
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
Is the scientific community always ready to accept revolution-
ary ideas?
What major discoveries were not predicted at the beginning of
the 20
century?
Do you remember any examples from history where most scien-
tists originally rejected a revolutionary idea?
Useful information
To read a text effectively you should decide what to read and how to
read. There exist different types of reading:
Surveying
the text you decide whether it is useful. To survey the
material you do the following:
-look at the title, headings, pictures, or graphs.
Skimming
the text you get some general idea of it. To skim it you:
-survey the text.
-read the first sentences of a few paragraphs.
Scanning
the text you search for some specific pieces of infor-
mation. To scan it you:
-survey and skim the text to locate the information you need.
-move quickly thr
ough the text. You dont n
eed to read every word.
-stop when you come to the needed information
Intensively reading
the text you want to understand all the details in it.
2. Survey text
Science at the turn of centuries
and answer the
questions.
Is it a passage from a scientific paper or a fiction text?
Is it about culture or science?
3. Skim the text and answer the questions.
How many passages are there in the text?
Was the situation in science at the end of the 20
century simi-
lar to that in the 19
th
century?
4. Scan the text and answer the questions.
What famous scientists are mentioned in the text?
When did researchers
in quantum technology begin to show re-
sults?
5. Read the text intensively and answer the questions.
Why did scientists feel satisfied at the end of the 19
century?
What revolutionary discoveries were unexpectedly made at that
time?
What features make the situation in modern physics similar to
the one in the late nineteenth century?
Science at the turn of centuries
A hundred years ago, as the nineteenth century drew to a close, scien-
tists around the world were satisfied that they
had arrived
at an accurate
picture of the physical world. But late in the final decade, a few curiosities
came to light. Roentgen
discovered
rays that passed through flesh; be-
cause they were unexplained, he called them X rays. Two months later, Henri
Becquerel accidentally found that a piece of uranium ore emitted something
that fogged photographic plates. And the electron, the carrier of electricity,
was discovered in 1897.
Yet on the whole, physicists remained calm, expecting that these
oddities would eventually be explained by existing theory. No one
would have predicted that within five years their complacent view of the
world would be shockingly upended, producing an entirely new concep-
tion of the universe and entirely new technologies that would transform
daily life in the twentieth century in unimaginable ways. So it is fair to
say that even the most informed scientists, standing on the threshold of
the twentieth century, had no idea what was to come.
Now the situation is oddly similar. Once again, physicists
believe
the
physical world
has been
explained, and that no further revolutions lie
ahead. Because of prior history, they no longer express this view public-
ly, but they think it just the same. Some observers have even gone so far
as to argue that science as a discipline
has finished
its work; that there
is nothing important left for science to discover.
But just as the late nineteenth century gave hints of what
was to
come
, so the late twentieth century also
provides
some clues to the future.
One of the most important is the interest in so-called quantum technolo-
gy. This is an effort on many fronts to create a new technology that uti-
lizes the fundamental nature of subatomic reality, and it promises to revo-
lutionize our ideas of what is possible.
Quantum technology flatly contradicts our common sense ideas of
how the world works. It posits a world where computers operate without
being turned on and objects are found without looking for them. An un-
imaginably powerful computer can be built from a single molecule. In-
formation moves instantly between two points, without wires or networks.
Distant objects
are examined
without any contact. Computers do their
calculations in other universes. And teleportation Beam me up,
Scotty is ordinary and used in many different ways.
In the 1990s, research in quantum technology began to show results.
In 1995, quantum ultrasecure messages were sent over a distance of eight
miles, suggesting that a quantum Internet
would be built
in the coming
century. In Los Alamos, physicists measured the thickness of a human
hair using laser light that
was
never actually
shone
on the hair, but only
might
have been
. This bizarre, counterfactual result initiated a new
field of interaction-free detection: what
has
been called
finding some-
thing without looking.
These quantum curiosities, defying logic and common sense, have re-
ceived little attention from the public, but they will. According to some
estimates, in the coming decades of the 21
century, the majority of
physicists around the world
will work
in some aspect of quantum tech-
nology.
Part II
Time and Tenses
1. Skim the text again paying special attention to the parts in bold
and answer the question.
Do the sentences with parts in bold refer to the
present
past
, or
2. Ask questions to the sentences with parts in bold.
yes/no questions;
wh- questions (beginning with
when
where
why
);
questions to the
subject
of the sentences.
3. Find the sentences in the Present Simple and the Past Simple.
What feature distinguishes questions in the Simple from those in
other tenses?
4. Complete the beginning of the sentence with each of the suggested
endings.
When the science supervisor came to the lab
Steve was checking the results.
David checked the results.
Mathew had checked the results.
5. Answer the questions.
Who of the students is the most hardworking?
Who is the laziest?
Who will have a chance to listen to the comment of his chief?
6. Write three similar sentences of your own.
7. Read and translate the following sentences.
When we
checked
the result another time we
saw
a mistake in
our calculations.
The technique
was proposed
in 1963 by Pietre van Heerden
who
was working
at that time on holographic technologies.
While experimenting with the passage of electric current in a
tube from which most of the air
had been removed,
Roentgen
made
two observations.
8. Answer the questions.
Do the actions in the above sentences happen simultaneously?
What grammar shows that:
they are/were simultaneous?
they follow each other in chronological order?
one of them happened earlier than the other?
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Answer the questions.
What is Albert Einstein most known for?
What was he given the Nobel Prize for?
2. Read the paragraph.
The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually
by Al-
bert Einstein to explain experimental observations that did not fit the
classical wave model of light. In particular, the photon model
account-
ed for
the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explained the
ability of matter and radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. It also
ac-
counted for
anomalous observations, including the properties of black
body radiation, that other physicists, most notably Max Planck, had
sought
to explain using semi- classical models, in which light is still
described by Maxwell's equations, but the material objects that emit and
absorb light are quantized. Although these semi- classical models
con-
tributed to
the development of quantum mechanics, further experiments
proved Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized; the quanta of
light are photons.
3. Translate the underlined words.
4. Find Russian equivalents for the word combinations in bold.
5. Translate the following sentences.
Useful advice
Note that if a verb has a prepositi
on, you should look it up in a dic-
tionary with that preposition
1. Electric utilities
account for
40 percent of the nation's emis-
sions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas.
2. Since particle models cannot easily
account for
the refraction,
diffraction and birefringence of light, wave theories of light were
proposed by Rene Descartes (1637) and Robert Hooke (1665).
3. The Maxwell wave theory does not
account for
all properties of
light.
4. Theorists have determined that the earliest moments of the fiery
Big Bang could have produced these particles in precisely the
abundance
to account for
dark matter.
5. The report does not
take into account
issues such as current ag-
ricultural lands swamped by rising sea levels.
1. Particle models remained dominant, chiefly
due to
the influence
of Isaac Newton.
2. It is probably
due to
this principle that the drops of rain are so
much larger in thunderstorms than in ordinary showers.
3. The variations in the resistance of metals in a finely divided state
were shown
to be due to
the action of the electrical, or
Hertzian, waves.
1. All these activities generate greenhouse gases that
contribute to
climate change.
2. We face ethical as well as scientific problems and our work
should
contribute to
welfare of future generations.
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. Write three sentences dealing with some scientific facts, where the
actions:
follow each other,
happen at the same time,
one action was before the other.
2. Write some sentences of your own using the following word com-
binations:
account for,
contribute to,
due to.
3. Write a short paragraph (150 words). Describe some scientific
facts or events. Use sentences in different tenses and the vocabulary
of Part III.
LESSON 2. Measurement. Passive
Part I
Reading and Speaking
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
Do you often have to measure something? What do you meas-
ure?
Why is measurement important in science?
2. Survey the text and answer the questions.
What does it deal with?
How many paragraphs does it have?
3. Scan the text and give answers to the questions.
When did the measurement theory originate?
How many units were adopted within the SI system?
4. Read the text.
Measurement Theory
Measurement theory dates back to the 4th century BC, when a theory
of magnitudes developed by the Greek mathematicians Eudoxus of Cni-
dus and Thaeatetus
was included
in Euclid's Elements. The first sys-
tematic work on observational error
was produced
by the English
mathematician Thomas Simpson in 1757, but the fundamental work on
error theory
was done
by two 18th-century French astronomers, Joseph-
Louis, Count de Lagrange, and Pierre-Simon, Marquess de Laplace.
Now the standard system in most nations, the metric system,
has
been modernized
to take into account 20th-century technological ad-
vances. In Paris in 1960 an international convention agreed on a new
metric-based system of units. This was the Systeme Internationale (SI).
Six base units
were adopted
: the meter (length), the kilogram (mass),
the second (time), the ampere (electric current), the degree Kelvin (tem-
perature), and the candela (luminosity). Each was keyed to a standard
value. The kilogram was represented by a cylinder of platinum-iridium
alloy kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in
Sevres, France, with a duplicate at the U.S. National Bureau of Stand-
ards. The kilogram is the only one of the six units represented by a
physical object as a standard. In contrast, the metre was set to be
1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the orange-red line of the spec-
trum of krypton-86, and the other units were related to similarly derived
natural standards.
The problem of error is one of the central concerns of measurement
theory. At one time it
was believed
that errors of measurement
could
eventually
be eliminated
through the refinement of scientific principles
and equipment. This belief
is
no longer
held
by most scientists, and al-
most all physical measurements reported today
are accompanied
by
some indication of the limitation of accuracy or the probable degree of
error. Among the various types of error that
must be taken
into account
are errors of observation (which include instrumental errors, personal
errors, systematic errors, and random errors), errors of sampling, and
direct and indirect errors (in which one erroneous measurement
is used
in computing other measurements).
Useful information
A well-written paragraph usually has:
a topic sentence
which gives the subject of the paragraph. The top-
ic sentence is often the first sentence of the paragraph,
several
body se
ntences
which develop the subject,
a final sentence
which concludes, summarizes or leads to the next
paragraph.
5. Find the topic sentence in each paragraph of text
Measurement
Theory
.
6. Write topic and final sentences for the following paragraphs.

However, the solar panels
developed
in the 1970s were so bulky and large; that is why very few people could
afford them, much less use them. Using technology
developed
for the
computer industry, cells
used
in Photovoltaic solar collection systems
are now thinner and more diversified.

Such microbots are not solely ma-
chines. Several institutes have been involved in incorporating organic
living tissue with inorganic components to create hybrid devices that are
part machine, part organism. The first such devices were self-
assembling microbots
powered
by living heart muscle. Each tiny robot
is composed of an arch of gold
connected
to a sheath of cardiac muscle
grown
from rat cells, and if
released
in the body, it feeds off glucose in
the blood to get energy to move.
7. Compare your topic and final sentences with those of another
student. Work out the best variants together and read them to the
group.
8. Develop this topic sentence into a paragraph.
Some scientists suggest using drugs to improve performance in nor-
mal schoolchildren and students.
Part II
Passive
1. Skim text
Measurement Theory
and answer the questions.
Do the subjects in bold perform the action expressed by the
predicates?
What features make the discussed predicates different from each
other?
In what tenses can the Passive Voice be used?
Is it important who or what does the action?
2. Find in the text the examples of:
The Present Simple Passive,
The Past Simple Passive,
The Present Perfect Passive,
The Past Perfect Passive.
3. Ask questions to the sentences with predicates in bold.
4. The Passive Voice is often used to describe different processes.
Read and translate the following paragraph.
The wafer is coated with a substance, called photo-resist, and then
exposed to a black-and-white pattern as if the pattern were being photo-
graphed and the coated wafer were the film in the camera. The white
areas of the pattern correspond to the upper surfaces of the end regions of
all N
transistors. Light hits the wafer in these white areas of the pattern
and chemically alters the photo-resist there. The wafer is dipped in a
solvent that dissolves away the chemically altered photo-resist, where
the pattern had been white, but not the unaltered parts, where the pattern
had been black.
5. Choose the correct variant of the predicate.
X-rays can
use/be used
to build up a picture of the inside of the hu-
man body. When x-rays
pass / are passed
through the body, they
ab-
sorb / are absorbed
by some tissues more than by others. For instance,
bone
absorbs
is absorbed
more X-rays than muscle. The information
records / is recorded
on film or screen so that it can be interpreted. If
photographic film
exposes / is exposed
to the X-rays, it becomes darker
in areas where more X-rays have passed through the body.
6. Compare the beginning (Russian and English) of the sentences.
Mind the difference.
ɫɬаɬьɟ
опиɫываɟɬɫя
(passive)
The paper describes (active)
ɪиɫɭнкɟ
показано
The figure shows
ɞанном
ɪазɞɟлɟ
ɪаɫɫмаɬɪиваюɬɫя
This section discusses
7. Translate the sentences.
The 17th century saw an unprecedented explosion of mathemat-
ical and scientific ideas across Europe.
These arguments suggest that during inflation the cosmological
constant and other parameters could have taken
a virtually limit-
less range of different values.
Figure 1 shows the type signature of the instruction.
The paper describes different methods of producing the new
material.
One practical method of separation uses a sequence of freezing,
thawing and compression.
New evidence suggests there may be a fine balance between
mechanisms preventing and incorporating ribonucleotides into
genomic DNA.
The Solid State K-capture Generator is a computer controlled
system that utilizes the K-Capture principle to create electri-
cal energy.
8. Read the English sentence and compare it with the Russian
equivalent.
1.
was invited
to the meeting.
Мɟня
пɪиɝлаɫили
ɫоɛɪаниɟ
9. Translate the sentences. Mind the difference between the struc-
ture of the English and the Russian sentences.
1. The students were suggested to take part in the experiment.
2. Bill Gates
was shown a new project that involved robotics.
10. Translate the sentences into English.
пɪошлом
мɟɫяцɟ
мɟня
пɪиɝлаɫили
наɭчнɭю
конɮɟɪɟн
Мɟня
попɪоɫили
ɪаɫɫказаɬь
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬаɯ
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬа
выɫɬавкɟ
мнɟ
показали
новый
пɪиɛоɪ
Мнɟ
оɛъяɫнили
как
ɪаɛоɬаɟɬ
ȼчɟɪа
мнɟ
ɫказали
ɞолжɟн
напиɫаɬь
оɬчɟɬ
иɫɫлɟ
ɞованияɯ
Мнɟ
ɞали
вɫю
нɟоɛɯоɞимɭю
инɮоɪмацию
пɪоɫили
закончиɬь
ɪаɛоɬɭ
концɭ
нɟɞɟли
Мнɟ
пɪɟɞложили
ɪаɛоɬɭ
наɭчно
иɫɫлɟɞоваɬɟльɫком
ɫɬиɬɭɬɟ
Мɟня
попɪоɫили
возɝлавиɬь
ɝɪɭппɭ
ɭчɟныɯ
Participles with active and passive meaning
Participle I (V-ing
vs
Participle II (V-ed
1. Study the use of the participles in the following sentences.
The rings,
wrapping
Saturn, are majestic.
Wrapped
by hundreds of rings, Saturn is the most beautiful
planet in our solar system.
2. Choose the correct variant to make true statements about the sen-
tences in exercise 1.
In sentence 1. the participle has
active/passive
meaning.
In sentence 2. the participle has
active/passive
meaning.
3. Translate the sentences.
The spacecrafts were only able to spend a few weeks
collecting
detailed data on Saturn and its 34 known moons.
The data,
collected
by the spacecraft, were not enough to fully
understand the forces at work in those
intriguing
rings.
Scientists were
intrigued
by the results achieved.
Some answers and, no doubt, new questions will arise when the
first spacecraft specifically
designed
to explore Saturn and its
vicinity will reach its destination after a seven-year journey.
The team,
designing
the new system, has made a real break-
through in this field.
Led
by NASA and the European Space Agency, the Cassini-
Huygens mission to Saturn is an international enterprise that
will conduct a four-year study of this fascinating planet.
Leading
specialists of the country took part in the project.
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Answer the questions.
Can you decipher the acronym
laser
What contribution did the MEPHI scientists make to the laser
discovery?
2. Read the text.
Death Rays
At one time, the idea of building an x-ray laser
seemed outlandish,
given that making any laser is
challenging. Standard lasers work be-
cause atoms are like miniature batteries: they can absorb, store and re-
lease small amounts of energy in the form of photons, or particles of
light. Typically they release their energy spontaneously, but early in the
20th century Albert Einstein discovered a
way to trigger
the release, a
process
known as
stimulated emission. If you
cause an atom to absorb
a certain amount of energy and hit it with a photon having the same
amount of energy, the atom can release the originally absorbed ener-
gy producing a clone of the photon. The two photons (the original one
and its clone) go forth to trigger the release of energy from a pair of oth-
er atoms, and so on,
building up a clone army in an exponential chain
reaction. Laser beams are the result. Even when conditions are right,
though, atoms do not always clone photons. The probability that a given
atom will emit a photon when hit by another is rather small, and the at-
om has a greater chance of releasing its energy spontaneously before
that happens.
Conventional lasers overcome this limitation by pumping in energy
to prime the atoms and by using mirrors to send the cloned light surging
back and forth, picking up new recruits.
For an x-ray laser, every step of this process becomes much more
difficult. An x-ray photon may contain
1,000 times more energy than
an optical photon, so each atom
must
absorb 1,000 times more energy.
The atoms do not hold on to their energy for long. Moreover, x-ray mir-
rors are hard to come by. Although these impediments are not funda-
mental, it takes an enormous input of energy to create the lasing condi-
tions. In fact, the first x-ray laser got its energy from an underground
nuclear bomb test. It
was built
for a secret project, code-named Excali-
bur,
carried out
by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory east of
San Francisco.
The project
is
classified
, although quite a bit of information
about i
t has been
made public.
The device was a component of former
US president Ronald Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative, nicknamed
Stars Wars, in the 1980s and
was meant
to act as a death ray to shoot
down missiles and satellites. During the same decade, Lawrence Liver-
more also built the first nonnuclear laboratory- scale version of an x-ray
laser, with energy supplied by powerful optical lasers that
had
been
designed
to test properties of nuclear weapons. These were not practical
research instruments, though, and the possibility that x-ray lasers
would
ever
be used
routinely for science applications seemed remote.
3. Describe the mechanism of stimulated emission.
4. Summarize each paragraph of the text in one or two short sen-
tences.
5. Translate the sentences.
Assuring adequate security in cyberspace is one of the most
challenging
problems we face as we try to increase productivity
6. Read and enjoy.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) attempted to create its own
cyborg in 1961 in Operation Acoustic Kitty, in which a cat
was cut
open and
fitted
with an array of wires and a listening device that uti-
lized its tail as an antenna. The project
was disbanded
as a failure in
1967 when the cat on its first mission (to eavesdrop on the Soviet com-
pound in Washington, D.C.)
was
killed
by a moving taxi sending more
than five years of intensive training and $15 million down the drain.
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. Note that the most important information is at the beginning of a
sentence, so mind the following:
If you are writing an article about
Columbus
you begin your
sentence like this:
Columbus
discovered
America. (active form).
If you are writing an article about
America
you should begin
you sentence like this:
America
was discovered
by Columbus. (passive form).
2. Write the sentences:
1. You are writing an article about:
Shakespeare;
Hamlet.
2. You are writing an article about:
Newton
the law of gravity
3. about:
Einstein
the theory of relativity
3. Develop one of your sentences in the Passive Voice in exercise 2
(or any other passive sentence) into a paragraph.
4. Write a paragraph (4
5 sentences) describing some process.
Useful advice
Avoid plagiarism
Plagiarism
is the wrongful appropriation and stealing and publi-
cation of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions
and the representation of them as one's own original work. (Wikipedia)
Do not copy a text directly. Change the vocabulary, the sentence
structure and grammar. Credit the source when you use someones ide-
as, even if you rephrase their words.
LESSON 3. Man and Universe. Perfect
Part I
Reading and discussing
1. Discuss the following statements with a partner.
The human civilization is unique in the Universe.
One day we will meet some intellectual aliens.
2. Read the text.
Our Place in the
Universe
To entertain the notion that we may, in fact, have a special location
in the universe is, for many, unthinkable. Nevertheless, that is exactly
what some small groups of physicists around the world
have
recently
been considering
Ironically, assuming ourselves to be insignificant
has granted
cos-
mologists great explanatory power. It
has allowed
us to extrapolate
from what we see in our own cosmic neighborhood to the universe at
large. Huge efforts
have been made
in constructing state-of-the-art
models of the universe based on the cosmological principle
a gener-
alization of the Copernican principle that states that at any moment in
time all points and directions in space look the same. Combined with
our modern understanding of space, time and matter, the cosmological
principle implies that space is expanding, that the universe is getting
cooler and that it is populated by relics from its hot beginning predic-
tions that are all borne out by observations.
So why rock the boat? If the cosmological principle is so successful,
why should we question it? The trouble is that recent astronomical ob-
servations
have been producing
some very strange results. Over the
past decade astronomers
have found
that for a given redshift, distant
supernova explosions look dimmer than expected. Redshift measures
the amount that space
has expanded.
By measuring how much the light
from distant supernovae
has redshifted
, cosmologists can then infer
how much smaller the universe was at the time of the explosion as com-
pared with its size today. The larger the redshift, the smaller the uni-
verse was when the supernova occurred and hence the more the universe
has expanded between then and now.
3. Find the topic sentences in paragraphs 2 and 3.
4. Answer the questions.
What principle are modern models of the universe based on?
Why do some scientists question the cosmological principle?
What have astronomers found
over the past decade?
Part II
Perfect tenses
Present Perfect
1. Skim the text again paying special attention to the sentences with
parts in bold and answer the questions.
Is the exact time of the action specified in the Present Perfect
Tense?
Do the events refer to the recent /unfinished or to the finished
time?
Can we ask a question beginning with the word
when
in the Pre-
sent Perfect?
2. Choose the correct time definition.
Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with
gravity (
for decades/in the twentieth century).
It is significant to note that all of the improvements were im-
plemented (
in 1960/lately
).
This has not been considered good (for many years/ at that
time), because of the implications for program debugging.
Some things have been used (
for a while| in the 90s)
such as
solar powered calculators.
Recently
At the end of the 20
century)
astronomers
have
found
that for a given redshift, distant supernova explosions
look dimmer than expected.
3. Read the sentences. Decide if the facts\activities are still true for
both the past and the present or only for the past.
Physicists
have struggled
to marry quantum mechanics with
gravity
for decades
What is interesting, and important,
is that this issue
continued
to dominate design decisions
many years
The imposing rings brought fame to Saturn, and
puzzled
ob-
servers
for centuries
The trouble is that recent astronomical observations
have been
producing
some very strange results.
Over the past decade astronomers
have found
that for a given
redshift, distant supernova explosions look dimmer than ex-
pected.
Redshift measures the amount that space
has expanded
4. Translate the sentences. Which tense, the past or the present,
should be better used in Russian?
Increasingly powerful atom smashers
have as yet found no
ev-
idence of any additional fundamental forces beyond these four.
But they
have revealed
four more species of quarks (whimsi-
cally called charm, strange, top, and bottom).
The photon concept
has led
to momentous advances in experi-
mental and theoretical physics, such as lasers, Bose-Einstein
condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic inter-
pretation of quantum mechanics.
It
has been applied to
photochemistry, high-resolution micros-
copy, and measurements of molecular distances.
Recently, photons
have been studied
as elements of quantum
computers and for sophisticated applications in optical commu-
nication such as quantum cryptography.
The NASA defines fact as an observation that
has been
repeat-
edly
confirmed
and for all practical purposes is accepted
as 'true.
Perfect Simple
vs
Perfect Continuous
1. Read the sentences. Pay special attention to the parts in bold.
In particular, physicists
have been checking
if the model cor-
rectly describes the Universe we see today.
Humans
have been recording
data on surfaces since the era of
clay-tablet accounting systems.
The printing press, photography, magnetic tape and compact
discs (CDs)
have
each
transformed
data storage.
've been heading
down a road of using digital logic more
and more.
5. The trouble is that recent astronomical observations
have been
producing
some very strange results.
2. Which sentences in ex. 1 are:
in the Perfect Simple,
in the Perfect Continuous?
3. Study the sentence and answer the questions.
This theory
has been generating
excitement since it was proposed in
January, and physicists
met
to discuss it at a meeting in November.
Which part of the sentence refers to unfinished time? Which
tense is used?
Which part of the sentence refers to finished time? Which tense
is used?
Useful information
We usually think of the words:
- since
- for
as indicating the use of the Perfect forms.
Past
Perfect
1. Read the sentences. Which preposition is used to show the com-
pletion of an action by some time in the past? What auxiliary verb is
used and why?
By the
late
scientists
had realized
that substances such
as oxygen and carbon did
in fact
have a smallest recognizable
constituent, which they christened atoms.
By the
late
the resolving power of these machines
had
increased
enormously
allowing physicists to reveal another
layer of matter's substructure.
By the
mid-1
, a central prediction of this proposed electro-
weak theory
had been
confirmed
by the accelerator at the Eu-
ropean Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva,
Switzerland.
2. Study the following sentences. Which of the two actions/events
was earlier? Explain the use of the tenses.
It
was
obvious that industry
had helped
to build large devices,
Future
Perfect
1. Read the sentences. Pay special attention to the idea of comple-
tion of the action by some time in the future.
Within forty minutes of the sun shining on the earth, the sun
will
have given off
as much energy as the entire world population
will use in a year.
We still believe that the answer
will have been found
by the
end of the century.
The new telescope
will have been constructed
by that time.
2. Translate the sentences into English.
2009
ɝоɞɭ
пɪовɟли
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬ
пɪовоɞим
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬы
2009
ɝоɞа
пɪовɟли
ɫɟɪию
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬов
2010
ɝоɞɭ
завɟɪшили
ɫɟɪию
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬов
напиɫал
пɟɪвɭю
ɫɬаɬью
коɝɞа
ɛыл
ɫɬɭɞɟнɬом
. (when I
was a student)
пишɭ
ɫɬаɬьи
ɫɬɭɞɟнчɟɫкиɯ
лɟɬ
. ( since I was a student)
вɪɟмя
ɭчɟɛы
ɭнивɟɪɫиɬɟɬɟ
напиɫал
4
ɫɬаɬьи
. (During
my under-graduate course)
Коɝɞа
окончил
ɭнивɟɪɫиɬɟɬ
, 2
мои
ɫɬаɬьи
ɭжɟ
ɛыли
опɭɛ
ликованы
пɪошлом
ɝоɞɭ
полɭчили
пɟɪвыɟ
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬы
полɭчали
ɞоɫɬовɟɪныɟ
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬы
ɬɟчɟниɟ
2
мɟɫя
цɟв
Наконɟц
полɭчили
нɭжныɟ
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬы
Коɝɞа
завɟɪшили
иɫɫлɟɞования
опɭɛликовали
зɭльɬаɬы
жɭɪналɟ
Perfect forms
Perfect Infinitive
(to have + Ved\V3)
1. Read and translate the sentences.
He has a background in electronic engineering and in politics,
having been
Italys undersecretary for research.
A technology-of-the-20th-century symposium held in 1895
might not have
mentioned
airplanes, radio, antibiotics, nuclear
energy, electronics, computers or space exploration.
Universes that started out more chaotic
might not have survived
or
evolved
to support intelligent life.
One start-up company claims
to have developed
a cheaper and
more energy-efficient approach.
Perfect Participle
(having + Ved\V3)
1. Read and translate the sentences.
Having studied
nature so much, do you look at it differently?
In the desolate, icy waste of an unexplored Antarctic country
Capt. Robert Falcon Scott gave up his life, after
having
reached
the South Pole.
69 percent
of U.S. adults report
having talked
on a cell phone
while 31 percent
report
having read or sent
a text message or
e-mail while driving in the past 30 days.
Quite a few studies have shown that after a night of sleep, you
can learn new material much better than you can after
having
been
awake all day. (Students, take note.)
The U.S. no longer leads the world in R&D intensity,
having
fallen
to eighth place among the Organization for Economic
Co-operation and Development countries.
2. Answer the questions.
Do the events expressed by
the Perfect Infinitive
or
the Perfect
Participle
take place at the same time as the actions of the pred-
icate?
Which of them was earlier?
3. Work out the rule for use of the Perfect Infinitive and the Perfect
Participle.
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Read the paragraph and answer the question.
What problem do scientists come across when they try to determine
the gravitational force between two objects?
Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with gravity
for decades
. In contrast, the other forces of nature hav
e obediently
fallen
into line
. For instance, the electromagnetic force can be described quan-
tum-mechanically by the motion of photons. *
Try and work out
the
gravitational force between two objects
in terms of
a quantum graviton,
however, and you quickly
run into trouble
the
answer to
every cal-
culation is infinity. But now Petr Hofava, a physicist at the University of
California, Berkeley, thinks he understands the problem.
It's
all, he
says, is
a matter of time.
2. Find Russian equivalents for the underlined words.
3. Translate the sentence, marked with the asterisk.
4. Make and write down some phrases:
the answer
the problem
the question
the calculation
the approach
the text
the solution
the equation
5. Translate the sentences.
In terms of
ɬочки
зɪɟния
иɫɯоɞя
ɭчɟɬом
In terms of
the number of atomic nuclei, hydrogen constitutes
90%, helium about 10%, and everything else
from lithium to
uranium
just a trace, about 0.1 percent.
You can only describe the quantum state of a photon
in terms
its probabilities.
Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient
in terms of
both bulk and function because the combustion process releases
oxygen from the potassium nitride, promoting the rapid burning
of the other ingredients.
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. The first sentence of a paper is often written in the Present Per-
fect Tense. Try to guess why. Discuss it with a partner.
2. Write the beginning of a paper.
Use one of the two possible variants:
We have found a new way to produce this material.
Or:
A new way to produce this material has been found
ɪазɪаɛоɬали
новый
мɟɬоɞ
ɫконɫɬɪɭиɪовали
новый
пɪиɛоɪ
оɬкɪыли
иɫɫлɟɞовали
новоɟ
явлɟниɟ
ɫооɛщиɬɟ
новом
ɞоɫɬижɟнии
конкɪɟɬной
наɭчной
лаɫɬи
3. Complete the sentences below with some facts from your field of
specialization.
Note: Put the predicate in (A) in the Present Perfect Tense.
Over the past century
Over the previous year
Over the past decade
Over that period
The fact is that
The truth is that
The idea is that
4. Write a paragraph dealing with the background of a research
(mind the structure of a paragraph).
Use the following beginnings:
For centuries/decades/many years scientists have
Scientists have always
It has long been believed that
There has always existed an idea
It has currently become evident
We have lately begun to appreciate
Scientists have recently proved
LESSON 4. The Standard Model. Comparison
Part I
Reading and Speaking
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
What model is currently suggested for explaining the fundamen-
tal structure of matter?
Is it universally accepted? If yes, why? If not, why not?
2. Survey the text and answer the questions.
What is the text about?
How many headings are there?
3. Scan the text and answer the questions.
When was the
Standard Model of particle physics developed?
Why has the Standard Model become established as a well-
tested physics theory?
What is a
ll matter around us made of?
What are the four fundamental forces at work in the Universe?
Which force is not part of the Standard Model?
4. Read the text.
Standard Model
The theories and discoveries of thousands of physicists since the 1930s
have resulted in a remarkable insight into the fundamental structure of
matter: everything in the universe is found to be made from a few basic
building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamen-
tal forces. Our
best understanding of how these particles and three of the
forces are related to each other is encapsulated in the Standard Model of
particle physics. Developed in the early 1970s, it has successfully ex-
plained almost all experimental results and precisely predicted a wide va-
riety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments, the Stand-
ard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory.
Matter particles
All matter around us is made of elementary particles, the building
blocks of matter. These particles occur in two basic types called quarks
and leptons. Each group consists of six particles, which are related in
pairs, or generations. The
lightest
and
most stable
particles make up
the first generation, whereas the
heavier
and
less stable
particles belong
to the second and third generations. All stable matter in the universe is
made from particles that belong to the first generation; any heavier par-
ticles quickly decay to the next most stable level. The six quarks are
paired in the three generations
the up quark and the down quark
form the first generation, followed by the charm quark and strange
quark, then the top quark and bottom (or beauty) quark. Quarks
also come in three different colours and only mix in such ways as to
form colourless objects. The six leptons are similarly arranged in three
generations
the electron and the electron neutrino, the muon
and the muon neutrino, and the tau and the tau neutrino. The
electron, the muon and the tau all have an electric charge and a sizeable
mass, whereas the neutrinos are electrically neutral and have very little
mass.
Forces and carrier particles
There are four fundamental forces at work in the universe: the strong
force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational
force. They work over different ranges and have different strengths.
Gravity is
the weakest
but it has an infinite range. The electromagnetic
force also has infinite range but it is
many times stronger
than gravity.
The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range
and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.
Despite
its name,
the weak force is
much stronger
than gravity but it is indeed the weak-
est of the other three. The strong force, as the name suggests, is
the
strongest
of all four fundamental interactions.
Three of the fundamental forces result from the exchange of force-
carrier particles, which belong to a broader group called bosons. Par-
ticles of matter transfer discrete amounts of energy by exchanging bos-
ons with each other. Each fundamental force has its own corresponding
boson
the strong force is carried by the gluon, the electromagnetic
force is carried by the photon, and the W and Z bosons are respon-
sible for the weak force. Although not yet found, the graviton should
be the corresponding force-carrying particle of gravity. The Standard
Model includes the electromagnetic, strong and weak forces and all their
carrier particles, and explains well how these forces act on all of the
matter particles. However, the
most familiar
force in our everyday
lives, gravity, is not part of the Standard Model, as fitting gravity com-
fortably into this framework has proved to be a difficult challenge. The
quantum theory used to describe the micro world, and the general theory
of relativity used to describe the macro world, are difficult to fit into a
single framework. No one has managed to make the two mathematically
compatible in the context of the Standard Model. But luckily for particle
physics, when it comes to the minuscule scale of particles, the effect of
gravity is so weak as to be negligible. Only when matter is in bulk, at
the scale of the human body or of the planets for example, does the ef-
fect of gravity dominate. So the Standard Model still works well despite
its reluctant exclusion of one of the fundamental forces.
5. Read the summary of the first paragraph. How is it different
from the original paragraph?
Theories and discoveries of the 20
century physicists have resulted
in developing the Standard Model of particle physics. According to it,
everything in the Universe is made from fundamental particles, gov-
erned by four fundamental forces. This well-tested physical theory has
explained almost all experimental results and predicted a lot of phenom-
ena.
Useful information:
To write a summary you need:
- to identify the main ideas;
- to organize these ideas into a logical order;
- to rewrite these ideas in simple sentences.
6. Divide into two groups.
Group 1
: Write a summary of the part headed
Matter particles.
Group 2
: Write a summary of the part headed
Forces and carrier
particles.
7. Compare and discuss the resultant summaries with another stu-
dent.
Part II
Comparison
1. Skim the text paying attention to the parts in bold and answer the
questions.
How are the
Comparative
and
Superlative
degrees of adjectives
and adverbs formed? (two models).
Can we choose the model we like best in each particular case?
When is each of the models used?
What adjectives and adverbs do not form the
Comparative
and
Superlative
degrees according to this rule?
2. Read the passage and find the equivalents for the following.
Ȼольшɟ
чɟм
мɟньшɟ
чɟм
вɬоɪая
вɟличинɟ
вɞвоɟ
ɞальшɟ
чɟм
ɫамая
низкая
ɬакая
ɛольшая
почɬи
ɫопоɫɬавимая
Зɟмлɟй
ɪазмɟɪɭ
ɫоɫɬавляɟɬ
вɫɟɝо
30%
поɞоɛно
Юпиɬɟɪɭ
ɫɪɟɞнɟм
аналоɝично
пɪимɟɪно
The sixth planet from the sun, Saturn formed
more than
four billion
years ago. With a diameter of 120,536 kilometers (almost 75,000 miles)
it is
the second largest
planet in the solar system. While almost
as big
in size
Jupiter, Saturn's density is
the lowest
in the solar system and
its mass
only 30
percent that
Jupiter. Saturn's specific gravity (0.7)
is
less than
that of water. In fact, Saturn's density is so low that it could
float in an imaginary gigantic bathtub.
Like Jupiter
, Saturn is made up mainly of hydrogen and helium
gases. However, it is
twice as far
from Earth
as
Jupiter, and from Sat-
urn the Sun appears
about 10 times smaller than
how we see it from
Earth.
On average
, an area on Earth receives
90 times the amount
of
sunlight
than the same
area would on Saturn. Scientists believe Saturn's
interior is
similar to
Jupiter's, consisting of a rocky core
much like
the
size of Earth
, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer and a molecular hydro-
gen layer. Traces of various ices are also present. Saturn's interior is hot.
At the core, the temperature
is about
12,000 degrees Kelvin (21,150
degrees Fahrenheit). Saturn radiates
more
energy into space
than
it re-
ceives from the Sun.
3. Translate the sentences.
The new material is remarkably strong and tight: it has
three
times
the tensile strength of aluminum, yet it
is 2.6 times lighter
The supply of lithium
is more limited than that of
deuterium,
but still large enough to supply the worlds energy demand for
thousands of years.
X-rays can be used for inspecting the insides of articles
as dif-
ferent as
fountain pens and electrical appliances to make sure
that they have been put together properly.
Magnetars have a magnitude
strong enough
to erase a credit
card on Earth from
half the distance
of the Moons orbit.
The discussed theory
is far from
perfect.
The thermal chimney works
like
a regular fireplace chimney,
except that
it is used to push hot air out of the house.
The form, design and implementation of CPUs changed dramat-
ically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental opera-
tion has remained
much the same.
Serious scientific publications disputing evolution
are all but
nonexistent.
10.
Why do some innovations fall
so far short of
what is expected
of them, whereas others succeed brilliantly?
4. Write out all the words and word combinations in exercise 3
where the compared entities are:
equal/similar
n-times greater/better
n-times less/worse
5. Fill in the gaps with the words:
100 times, different, the greater, like, twice, the larger.
The higher the voltage,___________the impulse given to elec-
trons striking the target.
the redshift, the smaller the Universe was when
the supernova occurred and hence the more the Universe has
expanded between then and now.
other forms of high
energy radiation, X-rays
can be hazardous, but they can also be very beneficial.
The neutron flux expected on a commercial D-T fusion reactor
is about __________that of current fusion power reactors.
The rechargeable lithium-ion batteries can store
____________the energy of similarly sized nickel-metal hy-
dride batteries.
X-rays can be used for inspecting the insides of articles as
______________as fountain pens and el
ectrical appliances to
make sure that they have been put together properly.
6. Look at the underlined expressions in the sentences. Do they show
that things are similar or different?
The gluon, the photon, and the W and Z bosons are simi-
lar in that they
are all force-carrier particles.
The quantum theory used to describe the microworld, on the
other hand
, the general theory of relativity used to describe the
macroworld.
The graviton is different from
the other force-carrier particles
in that
it has yet not been discovered.
Both
quarks and
leptons are elementary particles.
The
lightest and most stable particles make up the first genera-
tion, whereas
the heavier and less stable particles belong to the
second and third generations.
Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with
gravity for decades. In contrast
, the other forces of nature have
obediently fallen into line.
7. Write out the words and phrases which show a similarity or a
difference in two columns.
Similar
Different
similar in that they
on the other han


8. Complete the sentences with ideas from text
Standard Model
Quarks and leptons are similar in that they
Both particles and forces
The Standard Model includes the electromagnetic, strong and
weak forces. On the other hand, it
The electromagnetic force is different from gravity in that it
is
The gluon, the photon, and the W and Z bosons have
been already found, whereas
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Translate the following sentences.
1. Opening up the inside of a material for storage,
rather than
just
using its surface, yields huge improvements in capacity.
2. A different type of supernova the thermonuclear explosion of
a star triggered by accretion,
rather than
by gravitational col-
lapse would still take place.
3. Because our ability to increase our horizons is expanding expo-
nentially
rather than
linearly we can anticipate a dramatic cen-
tury of accelerating change ahead.
4. The early quark soup phase probably holds the secret to why the
Universe today contains mostly matter
rather than
both matter
and antimatter.
5. The historical nature of macro evolutionary study involves in-
ference from fossils and DNA
rather
than
direct observation.
2. Make phrases and write sentences of your own with the resultant
word combinations.
increase
%
Rather than
decrease
y a factor of
fall
-fol
rise
-times
3. Read the paragraph.
Growth in information technology is particularly rapid: we're dou-
bling its power, as measured
by price-performance, bandwidth, capacity
and many other measures, every year or so. That's
a factor of
a thousand
in 10 years, a million in 20 years, and a billion in 30 years, although a
slow, second level of exponential growth means that
a billion-fold
im-
provement takes only about a quarter of a century.
4. Write 2 sentences with the word combinations
a factor of
and
billion-fold.
5. Look up in a dictionary the meaning of:
like:
as a verb,
as an adjective
likely,
unlike,
look like.
6. Translate the sentences.
It is quite possible that a wide range of other weakless uni-
verses exist that are habitable but look
nothing
like
our own.
2. They were based on erroneous principles,
like
4. These are identified as the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit,
the memory, and the input-output devices that we see in the
classical model of what a computer
looks like
.
Unlike
digital gates that can only take 0s and 1s as input and
output 0s and 1s, Lyric's gate circuits can
take inputs that are be-
tween 0s and 1s such as 0.7 or 0.234.
6. The mind schema, or our psychological sense of self, coordi-
nates the many independent neural networks that simultaneously
work away at problems in daily living so that we
feel like
a sin-
gle mind.
7. The survey found that men are almost
twice as likely as
women
to pause or hesitate while speaking.
8. I think its
highly likely
that as a result of any climate interven-
tion there will be winners and losers.
9. Although the liar is
less likely
to wave his hands about in the
air, he is more likely to use them in other ways.
10. This loss of ozone
looks like
it might be more in springtime and
more in northern latitudes.
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. Make and write down 3 sentences.
Ex:
The researchers are prepared enough to conduct such an exper-
iment.
The equation
large
to read...
The experiment
is
is not
interesting
to conduct...
The paper
enough
to check...
The device
challenging
to investigate...
The substance
sophisticated
to solve...
2. Use the table to make sentences. Write down three of the result-
ant sentences.
The shorter is the distance, the sooner well reach the destination.
The greater
The longer
The more challenging
The less
the distance the more powerful...
the tas
the greater...
isthe distance the more attractiv
the experimentthe less...
the resistancethe mor
3. Write a paragraph on your research work. Use the vocabulary
and grammar of this lesson.
LESSON 5.
Predictions. Certainty or uncertainty
Part I
Reading and Speaking
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
Do you know who
Isaac Asimov is?
Have you read any of his books? What are they about?
2. Read the text.
Future is imperfect
Predictions about technologys future are almost always doomed.
According to 2001:
A Space Odyssey,
for example, humans
should
be making flights to the outer reaches of our solar system. Per 1984
by
now we
should
have become a society of brainwashed drones, toiling
under constant surveillance for faceless overlords.
Clearly
, that
would
never
hey,
wait a second! Nevertheless, Isaac Asimov, the revered
science-fiction author, made a stab at describing our lives todayback
in 1964. 50 years ago Asimov called his vision Visit to the Worlds
Fair of 2014. Now it is,
in fact
, 2014.
Shall
dust off his little time
capsule and see how well his predictions fared? You
might
assume that
his projections fall into two categories: the ones that came to pass and
those that didnt.
Give
the guy credit
for anticipating self-driving cars, video calling,
the widespread use of nuclear power and single-duty household robots.
Asimov also worried at length about overpopulation, estimating the
2014 world population to be 6.5 billion. He came very close; the
actual
world population is about 7.1. And, yes, he also got a lot wrong. He
foresaw
underground and underwater homes becoming popular, along
with transportation that makes the least possible contact with the sur-
facecars and boats that levitate on jets of compressed air. His weird-
est prophesies concern our desperate suffering from the disease of
boredom, once robotics and automation have taken away most of our
jobs. The lucky few who
can
be involved in creative work of any sort
will
be the true elite of mankind, for they alone
will
do more than serve
a machine. If technology ever
does
buy us more leisure time, technol-
ogy
will
also expand to fill it.
But many of Asimovs prognostications also
fall into a third category
that you
might
not have expected: technologies that are
indeed
feasible
todaybut arent yet commonplace. By now he thought that windows
would be little more than an archaic touch, thanks to the popularity of
glowing wall panels.
Sure
, we have flat-screen technologybut we still
like to look outside at real grass, sky and squirrels.
In downtown areas, he predicted moving sidewalks. Weve built
those at airports but skipped them on city streets. And he foresaw moon
colonies
established by 2014, with Mars colonies already in the plan-
ning
stages. In each case, what kept his hopeful prediction from coming
true has not been technological; instead we
seem to lack
the will, desire
or courage to make them a reality. His dream of large solar-power sta-
tions operating in the desert has been slow to arrive. But stations are
finally being built
as economic and political obstacles fall.
Asimovs predictions illustrate three lessons for those who would
predict the future. First, almost every new technology takes longer to
arrive than sci-fi writers imagine. Second, youll never hit all the big
ones; the history of technology is framed by enormous zigs or zags
consider, for instance, the Internetthat not even Asimov saw coming.
And third, many attractive or logical developments never materialize,
thanks to our own human failings. The fault, dear Isaac, is not in our
engineering but in ourselves.
3. Write 3 wh questions to the sentences with parts in bold.
4. Ask your questions to another student.
5. Give your own forecast for Science 2.0. Discuss it with another
student.
Part II
Facts and Speculation
1. Scan text
Future is imperfect
Find the sentences where the modal verbs express certainty.
Find the sentences with the
Perfect Infinitive
and
the Continu-
ous Infinitive
after the modal verbs. Explain the use of the com-
plex infinitive forms.
2. Study the following.
Useful information
Facts
are statements that are certain or true. It is something which
has really occurred or is actually the case.
Speculation
is something which is not necessarily certain or true.
It is a hypothesis or an opinion based on incomplete evidence.
- It is important to distinguish between
facts
opinions
in your
reading and be careful in your writing.
To speculate, an author can use:
Modal verbs to show uncertainty, e.g. may, might, could.
A technology-of-the-20th-century symposium held in
not have mentioned airplanes, radio, antibiotics, nuclear energy,
electronics, computers or space exploration.
It
might seem
that, by analogy to the Internet, all information in
the brain should be transmitted as quickly as possible.
Expressions of caution, e.g. seem, appear.
Memory fades with age, and now imagination
seems
to disap-
pear with it, too.
In the quantum realm, particles
seem
to be in two places at once,
information appears to travel faster than the speed of light, and
cats can be dead and alive at the same time.
Adverbs and adjectives to show varying degrees of certainty, e.g.
probably, possibly, likely.
If more general systems
are likely
to emerge, we would be fool-
ish to omit them from our calculations.
Perhaps
the greatest advancement in Photovoltaic research has
been thin cell solar research, or nanotechnology.
Generalizations, e.g. in general, tend to, have a tendency
In general,
the presentation of data as a table or figure is suffi-
cient.
Females
tend to
be better speakers than men.
When a writer wants to show that an opinion is not their own, they
use:
Verbs for reporting opinion, e.g. believe, suggest, think, argue,
claim,
expect.
Descartes, Euler, and many others
believed
that there is a subtle
media pervading all space, which they called ether.
The project
is expected
to yield technological advances that
could benefit medical accelerators and materials science.
3. Find in text Future is imperfect the words in bold which show
that the statements are certain or true (facts).
4. Find in the text some examples of:
modal verbs for showing uncertainty,
expressions of caution.
5. In the following sentence the author makes two statements.
Which of his forecasts is he sure of? Which one is he cautious
about?
We may never find any direct evidence of the existence of other
universes, and we certainly will never get to visit one.
6. Translate the sentences. Write out the verbs expressing caution
The laws of physics might seem to be finely tuned to make our
existence possible.
Just two pulses were detected over almost a year, and they
might have been caused by dark matter.
Science could no longer be expected to predict with certainty
the outcome of experiments.
The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is de-
signed to directly detect new elementary particles that might
make up the dark matter known to dominate our galaxy.
5.
The process takes about 100 billion years, which may seem
The effects of quantum gravity could
generate a huge negative
pressure, causing the star to emit most of its mass in late col-
lapse stages.
7. Compare the structure of the English and the Russian sentences.
Agriculture
is most likely
to be affected by changes in cli-
mate of all sectors of society.
виɞимомɭ
ɫɟльɫкоɟ
ɯозяйɫɬво
завиɫиɬ
измɟнɟ
климаɬа
ɛольшɟ
чɟм
люɛой
ɞɪɭɝой
ɫɟкɬоɪ
оɛщɟɫɬвɟнной
ɞɟя
ɬɟльноɫɬи
Quite often, unexpected inventions
seemed
to work.
Оказываɟɬɫя
ɞовольно
чаɫɬо
нɟожиɞанныɟ
изоɛɪɟɬɟ
наɯоɞяɬ
пɪимɟнɟниɟ
These particles
are considered
to interact very weakly with
atoms.
Счиɬаɟɬɫя
эɬи
чаɫɬицы
очɟнь
ɫлаɛо
взаимоɞɟйɫɬ
вɭюɬ
аɬомами
8. Translate the sentences.
Active form of the predicate.
In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell's prediction that light was an
electromagnetic wave seemed
be the final blow to particle
models of light. (
1865
ɝоɞɭ
казалоɫь
)
This effect could make galaxies appear
to contain more matter
than can be seen. (
Ȼлаɝоɞаɪя
эɬомɭ
эɮɮɟкɬɭ
можɟɬ
пока
заɬьɫя
)
There does not appear to be a fundamental obstacle in these
worlds to some form of organic life evolving.
Females
tend to be better speakers.
The laws of physics might seem to be finely tuned to make our
existence possible.
Plank seems to have imagined that some deeper explanations of
quanta would emerge.
The Universe appears
to be expanding at an accelerating rate,
implying the existence of a strange new form of energy
dark
energy.
Passive form of the predicate.
These particles are predicted
to interact very weakly with atoms.
Пɪɟɞɫказано
ɬɟоɪɟɬичɟɫки
)
An important strong X-ray source called Cygnus X-1 is be-
lieved to consist of a visible star which is orbiting a common
centre of gravity with an invisible companion.
Leonardo da Vincis 1495 sketch of a mechanical knight, which
could sit up and move its arms and legs, is considered to be the
first plan for a humanoid robot.
One projected commercial payoff
of the space program is sup-
posed
to be the development of orbiting manufacturing facilities.
The eyes are said
to be the key to the sole and therefore the first
and the most effective weapon in convincing the audience of
your honesty, openness and confidence.
Unlike evolution and cosmology, whose truths have been incor-
porated into the general intellectual landscape, quantum theory
is still considered to be an anomaly.
The effects of quantum gravity__________ to have
generated a
huge negative pressure. (to believe)
The Egyptian cubit __________to have been the most wide-
spread unit of linear measurement in the ancient world. (to rec-
ognize)
The program __________to be very expensive, with a total cost
running into hundreds of billions of pounds. (to estimate)
As the material disappears into the black hole it
____________to emit a stream of X-rays. (to expect)
Like other forms of high - energy radiation, X-rays
____________ to be hazardous, but they can also be very bene-
ficial. (to believe)
10. Fill in the gaps with one of the following phrases:
could, certain-
ly, might probably, may possibly
The new theory ___________explain some basic facts about the
physical world.
During inflation the cosmological constant and other parameters
_____________have taken
a virtually limitless range of differ-
ent values.
There __________ exist a wide range of universes that are hab-
itable but look nothing like
our own.
The effects of quantum gravity_________
generate a huge
negative pressure.
In the first century A.D., Heron of Alexandria designed intri-
guing automatons that__________ ha
ve the ability to talk.
11. Read the sentence.
America was discovered by Columbus.
To make this statement less certain we say:
America
is believed to have been discovered
by Columbus,
or
Columbus
is doubted /questioned to have discovered
America.
12. Write English equivalents.
Извɟɫɬно
аɬомы
Оказываɟɬɫя
элɟкɬɪоны
Счиɬаɟɬɫя
маɬɟɪия
виɞимомɭ
вɫɟлɟнная
13. Develop the phrases in ex. 2 into complete sentences.
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Read the text.
Like any new technology, nanomaterials carry with them potential
both
for good
and
for harm. The most salient worries concern not an
apocalypse but
rather
the more prosaic and
likely
possibility that some
of these novel materials may
turn out to be hazardous to our health or
the environment. Because ordinary materials display unique properties
at the nanoscale, the nanometer-size bits of a seemingly benign material
might
turn out to be noxious.
natural nanoparticulates can harm us,
would
be wise to carefully consider the possible actions of engi-
neered nanomaterials. The size of nanoparticles also means that they can
more readily escape into the environment and infiltrate deep into inter-
nal organs such as the lungs and liver. Adding to the concern, each na-
nomaterial is unique. Although researchers have conducted a number of
studies on the health risks of individual materials, this approach cannot
provide a comprehensive picture of the hazardsquantitative data on
what materials, in what concentrations,
affect
the body over what time-
scales.
In response to this uncertainty, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency recently announced a grand research strategy to study the health
and environmental
effects
of nanomaterials, a welcome step that many
have been advocating for years. We hope that the program will help
build a robust database that will give policy makers and the public the
facts needed to understand the
possible health risks that specific
nanomaterials might create. And although it would be unwise to rush
careful research efforts, speed is paramount. According to the Project on
Emerging Nanotechnologies, more than 1,000 consumer products con-
taining nanomaterials are available in the U.S., a number that is quickly
growing.
Researchers have not yet conducted any studies on the health
risks of nanomaterials.
All nanoparticles are the same, so it is easy to conduct research
on them.
There are very few consumer products containing nanomaterials
available in the U.S now.
3. Translate the following sentences.
Useful information
Mind the following:
affect
is verb
is noun
Late in the 21st century the Global Climate Commission began
to alter the climate to reduce the difference in temperatures be-
tween the poles and the equator to foster new types of economic
activity in areas
affected
by the warmer climate.
We studied how learning to ask good questions can
affect
the
quality of peoples scientific inquiry.
Those different isotopes of hydrogen have different masses and
strongly
affect
how a molecule vibrates.
This potent pair of advances will most likely
affect
space re-
search the way that the PC revolution changed computing
creating an access revolution.
Such shift in thinking has the potential to
affect
every facet of
manufacturing from prototype design to mass-produced
product.
Before the moon spiraled out to its present orbital distance from
our world, its enormous tidal
effects
on the early Earth could
have played a vital role in the origin and flourishing of life.
Most people think that we understand this
effect
, but the proton
is such a complicated system that we may have missed some-
thing.
The oceans absorb roughly 40 to 50 percent of the carbon diox-
ide that humans and nature emit into the atmosphere, slowing
the greenhouse
effect
Quantum
effects
could bounce the Higgs field, which is in a so-
called metastable state, into a lower energy state, annihilating
the Universe in the process.
Instead of invoking supersymmetry to suppress
virtual particle
effects
, a new idea is to embrace such
effects
to explain where
mass comes from.
Conventional robots may be faster and stronger but soft robots
powered by air pressure or electric currents could be more
effec-
tive
at manipulating a wider variety of items and more adaptable
to moving in diverse settings.
The complexity arises because the stars are quickly movingin
contrast to the single-star system where the star is
effectively
stationary.
What brings power is big data plus
the very most
effective
computers, which are generally the giant ones you do not own.
In the future, when whoever runs the most
effective
computers
with the most personal data might be able to achieve a greater
degree of prediction and manipulation of the whole population
than anyone else in society, the consequences could be much
darker.
Physicists have been struggling to determine what they call the
mass hierarchy of neutrinos.
In effect
, they want to know if
there are two heavy mass states plus one light state or one heavy
and two light states.
4. Translate the sentences.
Some sensors could enable a robot to manipulate an object with
both
strength
and
delicacy.
The early quark soup phase probably holds the secret to why the
Universe today contains mostly matter rather than
both
matter
and
antimatter.
Prices of all forms of energy should reflect the real costs, which
include
both
the immediate and the long-term environmental
and
health impacts of creating that energy.
Both
assumptions were reasonable.
Both
were wrong. It is pos-
sible to be
both
wrong
and
very productive.
Researchers will have to convince
either
manufacturers
the
government to pay for more studies.
Electricity for transportation has to be loaded into cars and
trucks
either
through batteries
or
perhaps as hydrogen.
Either
we dont fully understand the proton,
we dont under-
stand the physics that goes into the precision measurements of
the proton.
The same atoms can bond to create
either
a diamonds durabil-
ity
the softness of graphite, which exfoliates so easily it
forms words on paper.
According to quantum mechanics one can arrange a pair of par-
ticles so that they are precisely two feet apart and yet
neither
particle on its own has a definite position.
In quantum mechanics two particles might spin in opposite
ways, yet with
neither
one definitely spinning clockwise, or ex-
actly one of the particles might be excited, but
neither
is defi-
nitely the excited one.
The two technologies could greatly extend the uranium supply.
Neither
is economical now, but
both
could be in the future if
the price of uranium increases substantially.
The company has
neither
a summary of current safety
knowledge
nor
an adequate way to hear from industry, academ-
ia and consumer advocates.
Clearly, for many kids, traditional education is
neither
relevant
nor
engaging.
The early quark soup phase probably holds the secret to why the
universe today contains mostly matter
rather than
both matter
and antimatter.
Because our ability to increase our horizons is expanding expo-
nentially
rather than
linearly we can anticipate a dramatic cen-
tury of accelerating change ahead.
A different type of supernova
the thermonuclear explosion of
a star triggered by accretion,
rather than
by gravitational col-
lapse
would take place.
Rather than
peering
at distant galaxies to study it, though, as-
tronomers might want to look closer to home: dark matter could
be exerting measurable effects in our own solar system.
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. Write a paragraph about:
some generally accepted facts which you havent checked your-
self;
Matter is believed to consist of atoms.
some facts/phenomena/ideas, etc., from your field of specializa-
tion that seem less certain today than they used to be in the past.
LESSON 6. Quantum computers. Unreal
Part I
Reading and Speaking
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
What do you know about quantum computers?
What fields could they be used in?
When will they become commercially available?
2. Read the text.
Magical Theories
Everything we know is consistent with the possibility that quantum
computers are the end of the linethat is, that they are the most general
kind of computer compatible with the laws of physics. But physicists do
not yet have a final theory of physics, so one cannot rule out the possi-
bility that someday a future theory might reveal a physical means to
solve the problems that seem unsolvable today. As you
would expect
people speculate about yet more powerful kinds of computers, some of
which
would make
quantum computers look as pedestrian as vending
machines.
All of them, however,
would
rely on speculative changes to the laws
of physics. One of the central features of quantum mechanics is a math-
ematical property called linearity. In 1998 Daniel S. Abrams and Seth
Lloyd, both then at M.I.T., showed that
a small nonlinear term is add-
ed to the equations of quantum mechanics, quantum computers
would
be able to efficiently solve NP-complete problems a particularly dif-
ficult set of mathematical challenges, which even the best existing com-
puters cannot solve quickly. Before you get too excited, you should real-
ize that
if
such a nonlinear term
existed
, then one
could
also violate
Heisenbergs uncertainty principle and send signals faster than the speed
of light. As Abrams and Lloyd pointed out, perhaps the best interpreta-
tion of these results is that they help to explain why quantum mechanics
is linear.
Another speculative type of machine would achieve extravagant
computational abilities by cramming an infinite number of steps into a
finite time. Unfortunately, according to physicists current understand-
ing, time seems to degenerate into a sea of quantum fluctuations
something like a foam instead of a uniform smooth lineon the scale of
1043 second (the Planck time), which
would
seem to make this kind
of machine impossible.
time cannot be sliced with arbitrary thinness, then perhaps another
way to solve NP complete problems efficiently
would
be to exploit time
travel. Physicists studying the issue talk not about time machines but
about closed timelike curves (CTCs). In essence a CTC is a route
through space and time that matter or energy could travel along to meet
up with itself in the past, forming a closed loop. Current physical theory
is inconclusive on whether CTCs can exist, but that need not stop us
from asking what the consequences
would
for computer science
if
they
did exist
3. Skim the text and answer the questions.
Can we currently build devices more powerful than quantum
computers? If yes, why? If no, why not?
What did Daniel S. Abrams and Seth Lloyd show in 1998?
What particularly difficult set of mathematical problems is dis-
cussed in the text?
What does Heisenbergs uncertainty principle state?
What is a CTC?
5. Summarize the text. Structure your speech using the words:
First\Then\Finally + noun + verb
The author\ text also\further describes + noun
The text\author states that + clause
The first\second paragraph discusses + noun
Part II
Unreal situations
Useful information
To show that the situations are unreal we can use:
- Modal verbs
- The Complex Subject
- Verb 'wish'
Modal verbs
1. Skim text
Magical Theories
and answer the questions.
Are the situations in sentences with parts in bold real or unreal
(possible/impossible, desirable)?
What grammar is used to show that the situations are unreal?
2. Read the following passages.
By their very name, the fundamental forces sound like indispensable
features of any self-respecting universe. Without the strong nuclear
force to bind quarks into protons and neutrons and those into atomic
nuclei, matter as we know it
would not
exist. Without the electromag-
netic force, there
would be no
light; there
would
also
be no
atoms and
no chemical bonds. Without gravity, there
would be no
force to coa-
processes that power stars
would
likely
have been
disrupted, and with-
out stars the universe would be a very different place. Whatever the dark
matter is, it must interact weakly with ordinary matter; otherwise it
would
have shown
itself in other ways.
3. Answer the questions.
Do the
unreal
situations in parts A and B refer to
the present or
the past
What grammar is used to show that the situation refers to the
present / past?
4. Choose the correct word in italics to complete the rules.
We use
simple / perfect
form of the Infinitive after modal verbs
would, should, could, might
to describe unreal situations
in the
present.
We use
simple / perfect
form of the Infinitive after modal verbs
to describe unreal situations
in the past.
5. Translate the sentences.
The goal of Einstein's unified theory was to get a theoretical
framework that would show all four forces to be distinct mani-
festations of a single underlying force and would
also establish
a rationale for the presence of the particular species of apparent-
ly fundamental particles.
All our discoveries today are based on the ideas of men who lived
before us; and without their groundwork, modern inventions
would have been Impossible.
By the mid-1980s, a central prediction of this proposed electro-
weak theory
the existence of certain crucial particles, known
as Ws and Zs, that would perform the same force-carrying func-
tion in weak interactions that photons do in electromagnetic in-
teractions
had been confirmed.
The resulting enhancement of capabilities, combined with ex-
panded processing power and storage, allows todays robots to
do things such as vacuum a room or help to defuse a roadside
bomb
tasks that would have been impossible for commercial-
ly produced machines just a few years ago.
The so-called expert systems succeed only within strictly lim-
ited areas of competence, but they would have amazed the com-
puter programmers of the early 1950.
Babbage's machine was ahead of its time, but in fact it
would
not
have greatly exceeded the speed of a skilled human calculator
but it would have been more reliable and easier to improve.
Encryption schemes such as RSA classical computers show rel-
ative inability to very large numbers, but for a quantum comput-
er this task would be trivial.
Theorists have determined that the earliest moments of the fiery
Big Bang could have produced these particles in precisely the
abundance to account for
dark matter, and their interactions with
normal matter would have been weak
enough to make them in-
visible to telescopes today.
So after a generation of anticipation, when the physics commu-
nity heard rumors that the CDMS experiment had detected
something, we tuned in to the online announcement as if it were
a Beatles reunion concert.
The majority of data currently on computer systems is protected
on algorithms whose basis is the inability to factor large num-
bers; quantum computers would
render these methods complete-
ly ineffective.
6. Translate the sentences paying attention to the form of the predi-
cate (the Subjunctive Mood or the Future-in-the past).
Mind that verb 'would' is also used in the Future-in-the past.
The enhancement of capabilities, combined with expanded pro-
cessing power and storage, allows todays robots to do things
that would have been impossible for commercially produced
machines just a few years ago.
All the speakers to the Future of Life conference were asked what
we thought the next 50 years
would bring.
As children, many of us were assured that we would
one day live
in a world of technological marvels.
Films, television, books and World's Fairs promised that the twi-
light of the 20th century and the dawn of the 21st would be
an
era of helpful robot servants, flying jet cars, moon colonies,
easy space travel, undersea cities, wrist videophones, paper
clothes, disease-free lives and, oh, yes, the 20-hour work week.
At that time one of the critics argued that it would be
cheaper to
invest the money allocated for computer technologies and use
the interest to human calculators.
Democritus proclaimed that you would come upon what he
called atoms, from the Greek for uncuttable.
Our universe contains overwhelmingly more matter than anti-
matter, but a small adjustment to the parameter that controls this
asymmetry is enough to ensure that the big bang
nucleosynthesis would leave
behind a substantial amount of
deuterium nuclei.
We need not assume that in order to create a mind on a comput-
er it would be sufficient to program it in such a way that it be-
haves like a human in all situations, including passing the Tu-
ring test.
The first proposal for what would later become the metric sys-
tem was made by a French clergyman, Gabriel Mouton, around
1670.
7. Find in the paragraph all sentences with unreal conditions.
What does a transport barrier look like? You are looking at one every
time you see a smoke ring. At its core lies an
attracting
Lagrangian co-
herent structurea curve toward which particles flow, as if they were
attracted by a magnet. Ordinarily you cannot see such a structure, but if
you blow smoke into the air, the smoke particles will concentrate around
it and make it visible.
Much harder to visualize are the
repelling
Lagrangian coherent struc-
turescurves that, if they were visible, would appear as if they were
pushing particles away. If you could run time backward, they would be
easier to see (because they would attract particles); failing that, the only
way to find them is to tease them out by computer analysis. Though dif-
ficult to observe, repelling structures are particularly important because,
as Haller has proved mathematically, they tend to form transport barri-
ers.
The Complex Subject
1. Look at the sentence and answer the questions.
Queen Elizabeth
ordered
that the good ship
should
be carefully
kept
as a relic of Drakes wonderful voyage.
Do the words below refer to real or unreal (desirable, possible,
etc.) situations?
important, suggested, essential
require, insist, demand
What modal verb is often used after these verbs?
Note that:
after such words as
essential, important, desirable, required, de-
manded,
modal verb
is implied but often omitted.
2. Read and translate the sentences.
Einstein's general theory of relativity requires that all forms of
energy (should) exert gravity.
Science is systematic rigorous and methodical, requiring
that tests be repeated so that results can be verified.
It was supposed
that there
be a gravitation predicted by string
theory.
The expectations for the fifth generation systems seem to re-
quire that substantially new architectures be evolved, and that
both hardware and software be freed from the limitations of the
von Neumann architecture [Sharp 1985].
In the weakless Universe, the usual fusing of protons to form
helium would be impossible, because it requires that two of the
protons convert
into neutrons.
Some estimates suggest that this would represent a fairly large
environmental release of radioactivity.
A deeper understanding of the structure of matter at the atomic
level requires that measures be made with even greater preci-
sion.
Lowel suggested that we
put a brunch of particles in the strato-
sphere.
This led early string theorists to propose that string theory be
applied not as a theory of hadronic particles, but as a theory of
quantum gravity.
3. Complete the sentences.
It is desirable
It is essential
that...
It is doubted
It is require
requires
demands
Our science supervisor
insists
that...
has suggeste
has require
Use of verb 'wish'
1. Look at the sentence. Which grammar shows that the wish is not
realistic?
After examining our tests, a highly esteemed colleague said, I
that my own experiments on mu mesons
as convincing as this.
2. Translate the sentences.
The personnel wished they didnt walk back through Fukushi-
mas gates into the plants radiation-infused air.
Billions of people throughout history have been
wishing they
were
offered some ways of achieving immortality.
When you are an entrepreneur, you have to make a decision and
say, This is not going to happen. I wish I could do it in Mexico,
but I cant wait five years to develop it.
Terrorism is nothing like what its perpetrators wish it were.
Machine-learning techniques have advanced so greatly that
many humans wish they were as smart at so many of the tasks
they want to pursue.
Women are not good at work with machines. Every now and
then it is: John, I wish you would look at that sewing machine.
3. Tell another student about your unrealistic wish.
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Read the following.
It seems plausible that intelligent life requires some form of organic
chemistry, which is
by definition
the chemistry that
involves
carbon.
The chemical properties of carbon follow from the fact
that its nucleus
has an electric charge of 6,
so that
six electrons orbit in a neutral carbon
atom. These properties allow carbon to
form an immense
variety
of
complex molecules. Furthermore
for complex organic molecules to
form, elements with the chemistry of hydrogen (charge 1) and oxygen
(charge 8) need to be present. To see if they could maintain organic
chemistry, then, the team had to calculate whether nuclei of charge 1, 6
or 8 would
decay radioactively before they could participate in chemical
reactions.
The stability of a nucleus partly depends on its mass, which
in turn
depends on the masses of the baryons it is
made of
. Computing the
masses of baryons and nuclei
starting from the masses of the quarks is
extremely challenging even in our universe. But after
tweaking the in-
tensity of the interaction between quarks,
can use the baryon masses
measured in our universe to estimate how small changes to the masses
of the quarks would affect the masses of nuclei.
In our world, the neutron is roughly 0.1 percent heavier than the pro-
If the masses of the quarks were changed so that the neutron be-
came 2 percent heavier than the proton, no long-lived form of carbon or
oxygen
would exist. If quark masses were
adjusted
to make the proton
heavier than the neutron, then the proton in a hydrogen nucleus would
capture the surrounding electron and
turn into
a neutron, so that
hydro-
gen atoms could not exist for very long. But deuterium or tritium might
still be stable, and so would some forms of oxygen and carbon. Indeed,
we found that only
if the proton became heavier than the neutron by
more than about 1 percent would there cease to be some stable form of
hydrogen.
2. Answer the questions.
What definition of organic chemistry is given in the text?
Why did the team have to calculate whether nuclei of charge 1,
6 or 8 would
decay radioactively before they could participate
in chemical reaction?
On what condition would the proton in a hydrogen nucleus cap-
ture the surrounding electron and turn into a neutron?
3. Translate the sentences.
To appreciate
the significance of such an event,
one
needs to
recognize that scientists have spent the past 40 years building
magnificent theoretical house of cards
2.
One
can think of scheduling information associated with an
interface as an extension of the usual type signature of a mod-
ule.
The shape of the device is similar to
one
described in July by a
group from the California Institute of Technology.
Gradually these primitive drawings
turned into
letters.
The spread of ideas was rapid, and led
in its turn
to the writing
of more books.
Any situation you can set up in a time travel story
turns out to
permit
many consistent situations.
Soon, many surgeons
could
be
turning to
nanotechnology and
performing delicate tasks by remotely controlling tiny robots,
similar in size to a grain of rice that could travel through the
body.
Changing the quark masses will inevitably
affect which baryons
and which atomic nuclei can exist without decaying quickly.
In
turn
the different assortment of atomic nuclei will affect chem-
istry.
As it
turns out
, these new ideas have implications for cosmolo-
gy that are as important as the original idea of the Hot Big
Bang.
This control flow approach would be replaced by a data
flow model in which the operations are executed in an order
resulting only from
the interdependences of the data.
The term greenhouse effect may be used to refer either to the
natural greenhouse effect, due to naturally occurring greenhouse
gases, or to anthropogenic greenhouse effect, which
results
from
gasses emitted as a result of human activities.
There are many theories as to what will
result from
these colli-
sions, but what's for sure is that a brave new world of physics
will emerge from the new accelerator.
Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation
result in
pres-
sure on yields from important crops in much of the world.
The fast rate of rotation and the planets gaseous composition
create unusually flat poles, and
result in
bulges at the equator.
These factors arise mainly
as a result of
the nonlinearity of
Einsteinian equations, and detailed studies of collapse models
imply that gravity can be arbitrarily large and dense in a stellar
collapse but
still not inescapable.
The hundreds of rings orbiting around Saturn are
made up of
billions of ice and rock particles, with sizes ranging from small
debris to chunks as big as houses.
The ones and zeros that
make up
the data set are first split into
two-dimensional pages of data lines of light and dark pixels dis-
played on a screen.
4. Make sentences.
Matter students
The group
is
are
atoms
The galaxy made (up) of
articles
Atoms stars
The system elements
Part VI
Writing a paper
1. Write 2
3 sentences about some hypothetical ide-
as/facts/situations in the field of science.
2. Develop one of the ideas in exercise 1 into a paragraph (200
words).
LESSON 7. Renewables. Conditionals
Part I
Reading and discussing
1. Discuss the following with a partner.
Do you believe that in a few decades our civilization will run
short of fossil fuels? If yes, why? If not, why not?
What alternative sources of energy do you know?
Why havent they still become widely spread in the world?
2. Read the text.
If electric utilities
had
an inexpensive way to store massive amounts
of excess power generated by wind and solar when demand is low,
which
could
later be tapped to meet peak demand, then the new renew-
ables
would
expand much more quickly.
Unfortunately, decades of development have provided only one
good, large-scale solution: pumping water up to an elevated reservoir so
it can flow back through a turbine to generate electricity. Not many lo-
calities have the elevation change or space to make this work, and the
process entails net energy loss. The alternative solution is to build an
extensive array of wind and solar plants across a large regionon the
scale of a major nation or half of a continentand connect them with
transmission lines, maximizing the chance that a subset of the plants
will always be providing power to the grid. Better and longer transmis-
sion lines are technically possible, but they are expensive to build and
often face stiff local opposition.
Ultimately mass adoption of renewable energy would require a fun-
damental reshaping of our modern energy infrastructure. For electricity,
it would entail a shift from a relatively small number of very large ther-
mal or hydropower plants to a much greater number of small, distributed
wind and solar systems. For liquid fuels, it would require moving from
extraction of high-power-density oil to production of lower-power-
density biofuels. In many ways, a transition to renewables is more de-
manding than the prior shifts from coal to oil and then to natural gas.
The final factor leading to a prolonged shift is the size and cost of ex-
isting infrastructure. Even if
we were given
free renewable energy, it
would
be economically unthinkable for nations, corporations or munici-
palities to abandon the enormous investments they have made in the
fossil-fuel system, from coal mines, oil wells, gas pipelines and refiner-
ies to millions of local filling stationsinfrastructure that is worth at
least $20 trillion across the world.
3. Answer the questions.
What puts an obstacle on the way of renewables advance?
How many good large-scale solutions to storing massive
amounts of excess power generated by wind and solar when
demand is low have been provided yet?
Why does the author say that a transition to renewables is more
demanding than the prior shifts from coal to oil and then to nat-
ural gas?
4. Summarize the text in 3
4 sentences and express your own opin-
ion on the problem of renewables.
Part II
Conditionals
Sentences with real condition
(first conditional)
1. Answer the questions.
Can we use the verb
will
to refer to the future in conditional sen-
tences?
What verb form is used in the conditional sentence?
2. Translate the sentences.
When we become able to repair cells, we will be also able to
build replicating assemblers and excellent spacecrafts.
If the reading wave has the same wavelength as a particular ref-
erence wave, and is beamed into the block at the same angle, it
will pick out the data page stored using that reference wave.
If you're having trouble keeping track of all the forces and the
particles of matter, you'll welcome the modern reformulation of
Einstein's goal of a unified theory.
As computers with a single processor are replaced by machines
with multiple processors and multicore processors software
designers will need a new way to program desktop applications
and operating systems.
3. Translate into Russian.
Еɫли
найɞɟм
оɬвɟɬы
эɬи
вопɪоɫы
ɫможɟм
ɪазɪа
ɛоɬаɬь
новɭю
ɬɟоɪию
полɭчим
ɬɪɟɛɭɟмый
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬ
ɟɫли
иɫпользɭɟм
ɞɪɭɝɭю
мɟɬоɞикɭ
Еɫли
экɫпɟɪимɟнɬ
пойɞɟɬ
ɭɫпɟшно
ɫможɟм
опɭɛлико
ваɬь
ɪɟзɭльɬаɬы
помоɝɭ
ɬɟɛɟ
ɪɟшиɬь
эɬо
ɭɪавнɟниɟ
ɟɫли
пɪɟɞоɫɬавишь
мнɟ
вɫɟ
нɟоɛɯоɞимыɟ
ɞанныɟ
Sentences with unreal condition
(second conditional)
Present
1. Read the passage paying special attention to the predicates in the
conditional and the main clauses.
Imagine an asteroid is racing towards Earth at a typical speed of
67,000 miles per hour. If a tungsten bullet
hit
the asteroid at that speed,
it
would dig
a deep hole into the asteroids surface, vaporizing itself in
the process. If another tungsten bullet
was
following directly behind the
first one, it
would travel
into the hole and dig a little deeper. And if a
whole string of tungsten bullets
were
properly
aligned
, they
would drill
a hole right through the asteroid.
Now imagine hundreds of thousands of tungsten bullets strung to-
gether by lightweight fiber to form a 3-dimentional lattice. If such a
structure
were deployed
in front of a speeding asteroid, it
would slice
and dice
the asteroid into small, harmless rocks.
2. Answer the questions.
Does the verb in the conditional clause have a
present form
if an
unreal condition refers to the
present
(or future, which is some-
times difficult to distinguish)?
What tense is used in the conditional clause to describe the pre-
sent situation?
What form of the Infinitive,
Simple
or
Perfect
is used in the
main clause to describe the
present
situation?
3. Choose the correct variant of the italicized part to work out the
rule for the present unreal condition.
In the conditional clause the verb in
the Present Simple / Past
Simple
tense is used.
In the main clause
Simple / Perfect
form of the Infinitive is
used.
Note the following
In sentences with unreal condition other modal verbs than
would
such as
should, could, might,
can be used in the main clause.
Past
1. Read the sentences paying attention to the parts in bold.
This marks a profound gap in our understanding, for if the value of
some of these parameters
had been
even slightly different, the nu-
clear processes that power stars
would
likely
have been
disrupted,
and without stars the Universe would be a very different place.
And in fact it
would not
have
greatly
exceeded
the speed of a
skilled human calculator
but it
would have been
more reliable.
All our discoveries today are based on the ideas of men who lived
before us; and without their groundwork, modern inventions
would have been
impossible.
The resulting enhancement of capabilities, combined with ex-
panded processing power and storage, allows todays robots to
do things such as vacuum a room or help to defuse a roadside
bomb
tasks that
would have been
impossible for commer-
cially produced machines just a few years ago.
The so-called expert systems succeed only within strictly lim-
ited areas of competence, but they
would have amazed
the
computer programmers of the early 1950.
2. Answer the questions.
What tense is used in the
conditional clause
to describe an unre-
al situation in
the past
What form of the Infinitive is used after the modal verb in the
main clause
3. Work out the rule for sentences, describing unreal conditions in
the past.
Useful information
Sometimes one part of a sentence refers to a real situation while the
other deals with an unreal one.
When it comes to lying, if
you have to create
something, you
would
want to pause
longer because you would want to be careful about what
you are going to say.
4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the condition (real or
unreal).
When it comes to lying, if
you have to create
something, you
would want to pause
longer because you would want to be care-
ful about what you are going to say.
We did
a study showing that if we
want
to stabilize temperatures
through emission reductions, they
would need to be cut
to zero.
The problem is you would have to grow corn on some pretty
rocky soils. It's not clear that you
would get
more production
even if climate
favors
them.
If these kinds of terrible conditions
start becoming
commonplace
we would be facing
a situation where many people
are starving
from power plants, which exert a cooling influence today.
Any attempt to proscribe such technologies
will not
only de-
prive human society of profound benefits, but will drive these
technologies underground, which
would make
the dangers
worse.
If cheaper means of synthesis
cannot be discovered
, it
would
make
it financially impossible to apply this technology to
commercial-scale applications.
If more general systems
are likely
to emerge
, we
would be
foolish
to omit them from our calculations.
If dark matter particles
are
their own antiparticles, the energy
released when they annihilate themselves
would heat up
the
planets far more than mere collisions with atoms.
Useful information
A different situation is where one part of a sentence refers to
the pre-
sent
while the other deals with
the past time
5. Translate the sentences.
Who
would have guessed
that a lowly trash bag
might hold
the
key to sending humans to Mars?
Whatever the dark matter
is
, it must interact weakly with ordi-
nary matter; otherwise it
would
have
shown itself in other
ways.
The technology of the IGBT
was introduced
into the European
industrial laboratory two or three years before it
would
normal-
ly
have been.
If the value of some of these parameters
had been
even slightly
different, the nuclear processes that power stars
would
likely
have been
disrupted, and without stars the Universe
would be
very different place.
Useful information
Inversion is frequently used in sentences with unreal condition.
6. Translate the sentences.
Were
the value any bigger, space would expand so quickly that
the Universe would lack the structures that life requires. In a way,
then, our very existence predicts the low value of the constant.
This straightforward technique might already be in common
use,
were it not for
the drawbacks associated with light-
sensitive materials.
Had
that material been maintained in the atmosphere it would
have been more than enough to offset all the global warming
expected this century.
7. Translate the sentences.
If one were able to move information or matter from one point
to another faster than light, then according to special relativity,
there would be some inertial frame of reference in which the
signal or object was moving backwards in time.
If superintelligent aliens appeared and claimed credit for creating
life on earth (or even particular species), the purely evolutionary
explanation would be cast in doubt. But no one has yet pro-
duced such evidence.
The classic example of a problem involving causality is the
grandfather paradox: what if one were to
go back in time and
kill one's own grandfather before one's father was conceived?
Such position is not shared by the elected leaders of New Mexi-
co if it were, the arguing would be over by now.
If the assembly were
cooled merely by air, the metal surround-
ing the nuclear material would
melt; it might even burn.
Einstein pointed out that many anomalous experiments could be
explained if the energy of a Maxwell Ian light wave were local-
ized into point-like quanta that move independently of one an-
other, even if the wave itself is spread continuously over space.
If we restrict the computer to functioning at a cold temperature,
if we find a way to let it get hot, we could improve that by a fac-
tor of another 100 million.
It would be fascinating if there were a halo of dark matter
around Earth, just as there are the Van Allen belts, or rings
around Saturn.
If we hope to form a realistic view of the future, we cannot ig-
nore it.
If they make all the parts right
including the way they mesh
to form the whole
then the whole, too, will be right.
If the cosmic clock were rolled back to an early stage in the
Universe, these two forces would
combine into a single force.
If everyone told everyone else the truth, relationships would de-
scend into chaos.
So if a utility's customer base expanded or customers used more
electricity than expected, it was to the benefit of a company's
bottom line.
If the mass were reduced by a factor of more than about 10, nu-
clei could be made not just of protons and neutrons but also of
other baryons containing strange quarks.
If customers used less electricity than expected, utilities failed
to recover their capital costs, let alone secure money for profits
or to invest in future projects.
If this estimate i
s supported by radioactive-dating tests soon to
be undertaken at the University of California, the skull is the
oldest yet discovered of the tool-making man.
If an event horizon
has an extreme but finite spacetime curva-
ture and gravity, how can there be any path between a low-
gravity and curvature region and a singularity without passing
through a horizon?
If the mass of the quarks were changed so that the neutron be-
came 2 percent heavier than the proton, no long-lived form of
carbon or oxygen would exist.
If one were to see the night sky as a black wall and expect the
technology race to screech to a polite halt, then it would be nat-
ural to fear that long-lived people would be a burden on the
poor, crowded world of our children.
Part III
Vocabulary
1. Answer the questions.
Would you like to fly into space? If yes, why? If no, why not?
How would you feel on board a spaceship?
Can space tourism become routine one day?
2. Read the following.
Keeping people healthy
in space has been a major challenge since
the first days of spaceflight. Even a brief journey into space could pre-
sent serious health concerns for the elderly and those with high blood
pressure
because of
the enormous compression the body endures during
takeoff and reentry.
In addition to shifting fluids, prolonged weightlessness weakens the
Although the model excites admiration because of the skillful
manner in which it was prepared, it tells nothing of the painstak-
ing preliminary studies which were necessary.
In order to transmute the radioactive, toxic, long-lived spent fuel
from existing nuclear power plants into safer forms, next-
generation reactors will need new sets of neutron data.
Neutrons have no chemical properties, since they consist of pure
nuclear matter with no associated external electrons. Because
they have no external electrons, and are themselves electrically
neutral, their penetrating power is amazing.
Since nucleic acids and proteins are interdependent, it has often
been argued that they must have evolved together.
The electrode is placed above the nanowire array at a controlled
distance and can be moved laterally so that it bends the nan-
owires from side to side.
What is particularly troubling is the possibility of unwelcome
surprises, as human activities continue to tax an atmosphere
whose inner workings and interactions with organisms and
nonliving materials are incompletely understood.
Universes that started out more chaotic might not have survived
or evolved to support intelligent life. So one way timeand our
entire existence, for that mattercould be just a happenstance.
pulse is short and bright, so it can capture an image faster
than
the molecule is able to blow up. Consequently, although
the laser
obliterates the sample, it captures a clear image of the
molecule
just before its demise.
The larger the black hole, the more it can eat and the brighter it
can shine. Smallish black holes are faint and therefore harder to
find.
Useful information
Mind the structures which follow the words and phrases, used to
show
reason
or
result
- so that, so, because, since, as
+ subject + verb
- because of
+ noun clause
- in order to
+ infinitive
- As a result, Consequently, Therefore
are often used at the begin-
ning of a second sentence
5. Use a word or phrase showing reason / result to join the two parts
of the sentences.
. We have added a
thin layer of polymer
onto the substrate af-
ter growth
As a result,
a. a large number of theo-
rists repeated and extend-
ed the calculations but
found no mistakes
2. A bacterial cell
may need different
enzymes
in order to
since
b. digest a new food of-
fered by a new environ-
ment
3. Each pixel records
the average intensity
over the past 40 milli-
seconds
so that
c. the roots of the nan-
owires are partially em-
bedded
4. Dark matter has
failed
in order to
d. it would enhance their
later economic opportuni-
ties
5. Many people sp
ulated about errors or
omissions in these
calculations.
because
e. the cameras produce an
enormous flood of data
that consumes a lot of
processing time
6. The childrens par-
ents wanted them to
learn English as much
as they wanted them
to learn to read
Consequently
f. its prediction that satel-
lites should be spherically
distributed around the
Milky Way is clearly in
direct contradiction with
what we observe
Part IV
Writing a paper
1. Make sentences.
: If dinosaurs were still alive, our planet would look different.
If... the Universe
would...
could...
might...
In case... werewe
Unless... had beenscientists
Provided... the Eart
2. Write several conditional sentences.
Ex:
Had we had that instrument then
, we would have got a more ac-
curate result.
Could
Should
Were (
ɞля
наɫɬоящɟɝо
вɪɟмɟни
Had (
ɞля
пɪошɟɞшɟɝо
вɪɟмɟни
3. Write a paragraph on the subject of your research. Include 4
conditional sentences.

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