УМП Деловой англ.яз Часть1 (Восстановлен)


Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Брянская государственная инженерно-технологическая академия»
(ФГБОУ ВПО «БГИТА»)

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
«Деловой английский язык»
для студентов – бакалавров 2 курса,
обучающихся по направлениям
081100 «Государственное и муниципальное управление»,
080100 «Экономика»,
190600 «Эксплуатация транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования»
и магистров всех направлений
(Часть 1)

БРЯНСК 2011
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Брянская государственная инженерно-технологическая академия»
(ФГБОУ ВПО «БГИТА»)
Кафедра русского и иностранных языков

Утверждены научно-методическим
советом БГИТА
протокол № от 2011 г.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
«Деловой английский язык»
для студентов – бакалавров 2 курса,
обучающихся по направлениям
081100 «Государственное и муниципальное управление»,
080100 «Экономика»,
190600 «Эксплуатация транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования»
и магистров всех направлений
(Часть 1)

БРЯНСК 2011
УДК
Английский язык: Учебно-методическое пособие «Деловой английский язык» для студентов-бакалавров 2 курса, обучающихся по направлениям 081100 «Государственное и муниципальное управление», 080100 «Экономика», 190600 «Эксплуатация транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования» и магистров всех направлений (Часть 1)»/Брянск. гос. инженерно-технол. академия. Сост. Артемова В. С., Цыганкова Е. А. – Брянск: БГИТА, 2011 г. – 78 с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие позволяет развивать и совершенствовать языковые навыки, необходимые в деловом мире. Все главы предусматривают обучение общению на английском языке во всех видах речевой деятельности.
Рецензент:
Ст. преподаватель Демидова Е. А.
Рекомендовано редакционно-издательской и методической комиссиями экономического факультета
Протокол № 28 от 15 декабря 2011 года
Contents
Введение…………………………………………………………………………...4
Unit I. Applying for a Job..…………………………………………………………6
Unit II. Work and Jobs…………………………...…………………………….....15
Unit III. Business Calls……………………………………………………………23
Unit IV. Communications………………………………………………………...29
Unit V. Company………………………………………………………….............38
Unit VI. Production……………………………………………………………….46
Unit VII. Marketing Mix………………………………………………………….51
Unit VIII. Making a Presentation…………………………………………............56
Unit IX. Negotiations……………………………………………………………..64
Unit X. Franchising…………………………………………………………….....72
Список использованной литературы………………………………………...…78
Введение
Содержательный аспект базовых текстов данного учебно-методического пособия связан с функционированием различных областей современного делового мира. Материал пособия представляет собой систему обучающих, закрепляющих и контрольных упражнений.
Методическая структура глав выстроена последовательно, логично в соответствии с изучаемым материалом. В каждом разделе имеется базовый текст, после которого следует система упражнений на семантизацию и усвоение активной лексики по теме, система упражнений для формирования навыков её последующего использования в продуктивной языковой деятельности.
Следует отметить, что при выборе языковых единиц учитывается их тематическая функциональная ценность, а также их частотность и употребительность. В каждом разделе имеются коммуникативные задания, направленные на развитие навыков диалогического речевого общения по теме с использованием усвоенной лексики в реальных ситуациях речевого общения. Они включают в себя упражнения на восстановление диалога-образца, составление собственных по образцу, а также конструирование диалогов в контексте заданных ситуациях.
В каждом разделе имеются задания на развитие навыков делового письма. Студентам предлагается составить и отредактировать документ, служебную записку, контракт.


UNIT I
APPLYING FOR A JOB
Practice the pronunciations of the following words:
recruitment [ ], employment [ ], agency [ ], structure [ ], vacancy [ ], candidate [ ], evaluate [ ], motivation [ ], ambition [ ], curriculum vitae [ ], resume [ ], senior [ ], separate [ ], preferable [ ], tabulation [ ],
miscellaneous [ ], qualification [ ], amplification
[ ], personality [ ], occasion [ ], ensure
[ ], enthusiasm [ ], employer [ ].
Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
- to evaluate the job market - to seek for smb
- to analyze one’s motivation and ambitions - to study the job market
- to apply for a job - to hire
- to invite an applicant for an interview - business-like
- to compete against smb for the position - to compose a letter
- to consider one’s strengths and weaknesses - to contain information
- to be too overwhelming - to make an effort
- a specimen of one’s handwriting - to compel attention
Ш. Read and translate the text.
LOOKING FOR A JOB
How you should start hunting for a job.
The best way of doing this is to study the job market either with the help of recruitment (employment) agencies or situations vacant pages in the press. The structure of the vacancy advertisements is usually the same: the name of the vacant position, the list of the candidate’s professional duties, the demands made of the candidate and sometimes the system of compensations and benefits. Be realistic when evaluating the job market for what you have to offer. Consider who and what you are, your strengths, your weaknesses, interests, likes and dislikes. Analyze your real motivations and ambitions.
When you have made your choice and found a position you would like to apply for, you will have to be faced with the time-consuming task of writing your letter of application and curriculum vitae (resume).
Many firms use job application forms or are so informal as to invite applicants to telephone to arrange an interview. But for many jobs, and especially more senior ones, you have to compose a letter, there are in fact two choices: a letter containing all the information; or a shorter covering letter together with a curriculum vitae containing information set out on a separate sheet.
The second choice is preferable. It looks more businesslike and the tabulation makes the information easier for the reader.
The shorter covering letter is easier to compose effectively when it is not cluttered with miscellaneous detail about your qualifications, etc.
The plan for the covering letter might be:
1. reference to the advertisement and statement of application;
2. reference to the enclosed curriculum vitae;
3. amplification of details of curriculum vitae;
4. complimentary close.
Your letter must sound like you, it must convey something of your own personality. However, if you are a very unassuming person, you will need to make the effort to sound a little more forceful than usual. After all you do have to speak for yourself on this occasion!
Remember that the aim of this letter is to ensure that your name goes on to the shortlist and takes you to the next stage, the interview. To do this you need to study the advertisement very carefully indeed, decide what sort of person with what qualifications, is being sought, and then show that you are that person. If you want to be hired you need to show enthusiasm and interest in the company and the position (without being too overwhelming about it). Remember how many other applications your letter may have to compete against and try to ensure that it will stand out and compel attention.
The covering letter should be handwritten. Some large companies, especially in the USA, employ experts (graphologists) to examine applicant’s handwriting.
Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian:
If you want to apply for a job______________________________________.
It’s not enough to evaluate the job market__________________________.
The letter you compose should not only contain all the information but__________________________________________________________.
Try to show enthusiasm but_______________________________________.
If you letter stands out and compels attention_________________________.
A specimen of an applicant’s handwriting may_______________________.
Make an effort to sound businesslike________________________________.
You will have to compete against__________________________________.
You won’t be invited for an interview unless________________________.
If you compose your CV effectively_______________________________.

Partial translation.
A.
1. There are several ways of (поиска работы).
2. First you should (изучить рынок вакансий).
3. Then (оценить) your own chances.
4. You should (принять во внимание) your strengths and weaknesses and (продумать) your motivations and ambitions.
5. You have to (составить резюме) and a covering letter.
6. The covering letter must (представлять вас).
7. Companies invite (кандидатов на должность) for an interview.
B.
Harry is a sales person. He saw a job (в колонке вакансий) in one of the national papers. The (подал заявление), his (резюме) and (сопроводительное письмо), explaining why he wanted the job and why he was the right person for it. Harry did not hear anything for six weeks, so he phoned the company. They told him that they had received a lot of (заявление). After looking at (резюме) of (кандидатов), the company (отобрала) 3-4 of them and then (взяли на работу) someone. Harry is still (ищет) a job.
VI. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
ECONOMY ECONOMIC (0)
EMPLOYMENT ___________________ (1)
HIGH ___________________ (2)
DIFFICULTY ____________________ (3)
DEPRESS ____________________ (4)
ADVERTISE ____________________ (5)
ADVISE ___________________ (6)
APPLY ___________________ (7)
INTERVIEW ____________________ (8)
APPEAR ____________________ (9)
SUCCESS ____________________ (10)
Finding a job
In today's world of 0 __________ hardship, finding a job is difficult. 1______________ has reached a record high, and even 2 ____________qualified people are finding it 3 ______________ to find work. Despite this 4 _______________ news, there are certain things a person can do. Firstly, it is important to read the job 5 ______________ in as many newspapers as possible. Secondly, it is 6 ______________ to write letters to companies enclosing a copy of your CV. If your 7 ______________ is successful, it is imperative to impress the 8 _____________. A smart 9 _____________ is essential along with some knowledge of the company. Above all, keep trying and you are sure to be 10 ____________.
VII. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
IMPRESS IMPRESSION (0)
VARIOS _____________________ (1)
QUALIFY ______________________ (2)
OCCUPY ______________________ (3)
ACHIEVE - ______________________ (4)
SUCCESS ______________________ (5)
EDUCATE ______________________ (6)
EFFECT ______________________ (7)
ABLE ______________________ (8)
POSSIBLE ______________________ (9)
ACCURATE ______________________ (10)
The job interview
It is important to make a good 0_______________when going for a job interview. Interviewers usually ask a 1_____________questions, many of which concern 2_______________. However, they also usually like to ask questions about previous 3_______________as well as 4 ___________ not connected to the work place. Often the 5_____________candidate is not the one with the most impressive 6____________but the one who shows that he or she has made the most 7_____________use of their time. Few employers want employees who are 8____________to think for themselves. The 9______________of advancement in any job very rarely depends on the 10_______________of work but more on dedication of the employee.
VIII. Fill the gaps with an appropriate word from the list.
offer a) choose a ___________ in computers
interview b) go for an ___________
experience c) go into ____________
reference d) to get a ___________ as a waiter
career e) to get the ___________
management f) to earn a decent weekly ____________
salary g) to get an annual ____________ increase
trainee h) to get a ___________ at sixty-five
qualifications i) to win ___________
promotion j) to get a good ___________ from your tutor
sack k) to have the right ___________ for the job
pension l) to have two years’ relevant ___________
job m) to accept an ___________of a job
wage n) to take a young person on as a ___________
IX. Study this chart and then do the exercise that follows.
Verb Meaning Example
carry out smth;
carry smth out do something that needs to be done Those repairs must be carried out.
deal with smb
do business with someone, or take an action to do with work In my job, I have to deal with a lot of different people.
deal with smth take the correct action to complete a piece of work or solve a problem The problem is being dealt with.
get on
be successful in one's career If you want to get on in your career, you’ll have to work hard.
take on work;
take work on agree to do a job You’ve taken on too much work - slow down a bit.
take smb on employ someone We’re taking ten waiters on this summer.
take over continue doing someone else's job Who will take over now that Smith has resigned?
take up a post start working at a new job She took up her first teaching post in 2011.
turn down to refuse an offer, to гeject I applied for a place on the computer course but they turned me down.
Replace the underlined words with a phrasal verb from the table above. Make any other changes necessary.
After looking at his qualifications, they decided to offer him the job.
He’s doing far too much, and will make himself ill.
I started work here five years ago.
Who do you think is going to be the new director when Santana retires?
Will you handle any complaints while I’m away?
She did all the tasks successfully.
They were going to hire him but he rejected the offer.
You need a good education if you want to succeed in life.
X. Writing your CV (resume).
The most important reason to have a well-prepared CV (resume) is that it might be required to get you an interview or, in some cases, will be requested of you at in interview.
CV should be an accurate representation of what you have accomplished in your life as it applies to employment and should indicate to a prospective employer what you can bring to the company.
There is always debate how long CV should be. Some counselors advise keeping it to one page, others consider that it should be as long as it needs to be to make its points effectively. Most CV contain sections on education, work experience, skills, extracurricular activities and of course your personal details.
XI. Fiona Scott is one of the applicants for the job at Patagonia. Study her CV carefully to see how the information is presented and decide where each of the following headings should be placed: References, Interests, Personal Details, Professional Experience, Education, Additional Skills.
Curriculum Vitae Name: Fiona Scott Date of Birth: 7 August 1969 Nationality: British Address: 52 Hanover Street, Edinburgh EH2 5LM, Scotland. Telephone: 031 449 0237 1991-1992: London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Diploma in Public Relations. 1988-1991: University of London
BA (Honours) In Journalism and Media Studies 1981-1988: Fettes College, Edinburgh
A-levels in German (A), English (B), History (B) and
Geography (C). 1992 to present: Scottish Wildlife Trust Department of Public Relations.
Responsible for writing articles on all aspects of the
Trust`s activities and ensuring their distribution to the
press. Editor of the Trust`s monthly journal. In charge of
relations with European environmental agencies. Summer of 1990 Three -month training period with the Glasgow Herald. and 1991: Assistant to the sports editor. Sports: Cross-country skiing, rock-climbing and swimming. Secretary of the local branch of “Action”, an association organizing summer camps for disabled children. Grade 3 ski instructor. Driver’s licence (car and motorcycle). IBM PC user Fluent German and good working knowledge of French.
Geoffrey Williams, Bill Denholm, Professor of Journalism, Sports Editor, University of London Glasgow Herald
XII. Write your own CV (resume).
XIII. Interview a) interviewing A skillful interviewer avoids asking questions like these: Have you written many reports and letters in English? (yes/no) Are you an aggressive person? (yes/no) but instead asks questions like these: Can you tell me about your experience in writing English? What kind of person would you say you were?
If a candidate has more chance to speak, the interviewer has more time to listen to what he or she says and can form a better impression. If you want a questions to sound more friendly and less aggressive – or if you want to play for time while you think of another good question to ask – you can use expressions like these: could you tell me…; I wonder if you could tell me…; would you mind telling me…; I’d also like to know…; I’d like to know…; do you happen to now…
b) being interviewed:
Remember that successful job interviews are like a good theatrical performance. If you convincingly act confident, enthusiastic, and prepared for those tricky questions, there’s a good chance you’ll be called back for an encore! Imagine being prepared for just about every possible question a job interviewer could throw at you! Not only would you be more relaxed and confident in the interview, but you’d have a chance to prepare dynamic and well thought-out answers to those job interview questions.
You can give yourself a little time to think before you answer a difficult questions by using these expressions: let me see…; that’s a very good question; I’m not sure about that; oh, let me think…; I’ve no idea, I’m afraid; I’m afraid I don’t know.
XIV. Work in small groups. Here is some advice that might be given to an inexperienced interviewer. Which of the points do you agree with entirely or party? Give your reasons.
Make sure you are not interrupted or phoned during the interview.
Read the candidate’s CV and application before the interview begins.
Ask the candidate to explain why he or she keeps changing jobs.
Make sure you have a clear picture of the scope of job.
Ask each candidate the same questions.
Decide on a maximum of four key qualities required for the job.
Make sure the candidate has an uncomfortable, low chair.
Ask the candidate about his political and religious beliefs.
Trust only a candidate who looks straight in the face.
Trust your first impressions.
Never let the candidate feel relaxed.
Avoid talking too much yourself.
Avoid open questions that can be answered with «Yes» or «No».
Find out the candidates opinions on a variety of topics.
Encourage the candidate to ask you about fringe benefits, the pension scheme and promotion prospects.
Tell the candidate about the status of the job and its terms and conditions.
Interview groups of candidates, rather than one by one.
Tell the candidate when he or she may expect to hear your decision.
XV. Imagine that a young friend of yours is about to attend an interview. Note down at least ten pieces of advice that you would give to him or her. Here are a few suggestions:
Wear smart, formal clothes.
Don’t smoke.
Sit up straight.
Arrive on time.
XVI. Choose one of the jobs you like most and work in groups of three. You will be taking part in three interviews – as an interviewer, as an interviewee and as an observer. The observer’s role is to make notes and give advice to the other two on their performance in the interview.
If you are the observer: as you listen to the interview, make notes on these points:
What impression did each person give?
If they were nervous, how did this affect their performance?
Were there too many “Yes/No” questions?
Which questions did they answer badly?
Which questions did they answer well?
What advice would you give them for their next real interview?
Position: ___________________________________________________
Name of candidate___________________________________________
Score
- +
1 2 3 4 5
Background
Education:
Languages:
Experience:
Behaviour and Communicative Ability
Physical Presentation:
Communication Skills:
Ability to listen:
Humour:
Culture:
Maturity:
Manners:
Personal Qualities
Dynamism:
Ambition:
Organization Skills
Leadership:
Team Spirit:
Involvement:
Conclusion
Suitability of the candidate: _________________________________________________________________
Action to be taken: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT II
WORK AND JOBS
I. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
employee [ ], personnel [ ], workforce [ ], senior [ ], headquarter [ ], individual [ ], administration [ ], technical [ ], valuable [ ], audit [ ], financial [ ], client [ ], executive [ ], decision [ ], communication [ ], career [ ], specialize [ ], responsibility [ ], issue [ ], certification [ ], compensation [ ], mutual [ ], insurance [ ], annuity [ ], accurate [ ], routine [ ], commute [ ].
II. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
to manage the books - certificates of deposit
to verify financial reports - insurance annuities
administrative assistant - securities
human resources - payroll
performance appraisal - headquarters
to boost sales - clock in/out
to release a product - flexitime
bonds - to work in shifts
shares - to commute
- certification of employees - corporate executives
Read and translate the text.
PEOPLE AND WORKPLACES
People who work for a company, all the people on its payroll, are its employees, personnel, staff, workers or workforce. But these words can mean just the people carrying out the work of a company, rather than those leading it and organizing it: the management.
A company’s activities may be spread over different sites. A company’s most senior managers usually work in its head office or headquarters (HQ). Some managers have their own individual offices, but in many businesses, most employees work in open-plan offices: large areas where many people work together. Administration or, informally, admin, the everyday work supporting a company’s activities, is often done in offices like these by administrative staff or support staff. For example, those giving technical help to buyers of the company’s products are in technical support.
Jobs: Accountants – More than Bean Counters. Wherever money is made or lost, accountants are needed to manage the books. Accountants are found in every industry – from the government to manufacturing and corporations. They are not bean counters or bookkeepers, but manage money, finances, and taxes and give valuable business advice. Accountants perform audits and prepare, analyze, and verify financial reports and taxes for many clients. They also give advice to corporate executives and help them make business decisions. All accountants should be analytical, creative self-starters with strong communication and computer skills.
Administrative Assistant – A Respected Career. Administrative assistants do more than answer telephones, type, and get coffee - the field is becoming a highly specialized and quickly growing career opportunity for people of all backgrounds. With corporate downsizing, administrative assistants are taking on more responsibilities and contributing more to the success of a company. They are not just doing “grunt” work; in fact some are relied upon for their computer and financial skills, and are responsible for hiring and managing people.
Human Resources – The Personal Touch. The human resources professional is an important part of a successful company. They have a wide variety of responsibilities, including hiring new employees, dealing with labor disputes, and training employees – just to name a few! They also act as counselors, offering assistance to employees dealing with personal issues, so they need to have a personal touch as well. Human resources professionals do more than hire people – they are responsible for continuing education, training and certification of employees, staffing needs, performance appraisals and reviews, compensation and benefits programs, and union and labor relations.
Market Research Analyst – In the Know. How do companies know if a new package will boost product sales? How does a state choose the advertising that will bring in the most tourists? How does a company get an idea of consumer response to a new product before it’s officially released? How do they do it? They call a market research analyst. Market research analysts collect, analyze and interpret data which companies use in marketing their products.
Stockbroker – Buy Low, Sell High! Does anyone really know what the stock market will do next? Since even the experts don’t agree, most people with money to invest want some advice before they decide where to put their savings. They call a stockbroker. Stockbrokers act for clients in the buying and selling of stocks. Most brokers also deal with bonds, shares in mutual funds, certificates of deposit, insurance annuities, and other financial products, so the term “securities sales representative” is really more accurate.
Ways of working can differ:
- I’m an office worker in an insurance company. It’s a nine-to-five job with regular working hours. The work isn’t very interesting, but I like to be able to go home at a reasonable time. We all have to clock in and clock out every day. In this company, even the managers have to, which is unusual!
Note: You also say clock on and clock off.
- I’m in computer programmer. There’s a system of flexitime in my company, which means we can work when we want, within certain limits. We can start at any time before eleven, and finish as early as three, as long as we do enough hours each month. It’s ideal for me as I have two young children.
- I work in a car plant. I work in shifts. I may be on the day shift one week and the night shift the next week. It’s difficult changing from one shift to another. When I change shifts, I have problems changing to a new routine for sleeping and eating.
- I’m a commercial artist in an advertising agency.
- I work in a big city, but I prefer living in the country, so I commute to work every day, like thousands of other commuters. Working from home using a computer and the Internet is becoming more and more popular, and the agency is introducing this: it’s called teleworking or telecommuting. But I like going into the office and working with other people around me.
IV. Complete the following sentences using the active vocabulary and translate them into Russian.
Accountants are needed _________________________________________.
Accountants should be __________________________________________.
Administrative assistants are an important part of a company____________.
Some administrative assistants can be relied upon ____________________.
Human resources professionals have a wide variety of responsibilities_____.
Market research analysts are called ________________________________.
Stock brokers act ______________________________________________.
Stock brokers deal with _________________________________________.
V. Answer the following questions:
1. Who carries out the work of a company? 2. Who leads and organizes it? 3. Where do different employees work? 4. What are accountants (administrative assistants, etc.) in charge of? 5. What sort of people should they be? 6. How can they contribute to the success of the company? 7. What are the old (new) ways of working? 8. What are their advantages and disadvantages?
VI. Which person (1-5) is most likely to do each of the five things (a-e)? Explain your choice.
1. A software designer in an Internet company. Has to be in the office.
a. work in shifts
2. An office worker in a large, traditional manufacturing company.
b. work under a flexitime system
3. A manager in a department store in a large city. Lives in the country.
c. telecommute
4. A construction worker on a building site where work goes on 24 hours a day.
d. commute to work
5. A technical writer for a city computer company. Lives in the country.
e. clock on and off at the same time every day
VII. Fill in the blanks. Manuel Ortiz is the founder of a Spanish computer sales company. Use the words from the text to complete what he says about it.
I founded Computadoras Creativas 20 years ago. We started with a small ____________ in Madrid. Our __________, our ____________ is still here, but now we have sites all over Spain, with about 500 employees. Many of the offices are ______-_______: everyone works together, from managers to __________, as well as people selling over the phone, and people in technical ____________ giving help to customers over the phone. Recruitment is taken care of in Madrid, by the ______________or _________________.
VIII. Complete the sentences with the words and expressions and translate them into Russian: salesman; computer programmer; legal department; chief executive officer; self-employed; personnel manager
1. I’m a ________ and work in the Export Sales department. I have to find new customers for our products. 2. I’m a lawyer and work in the __________ . I draw up contracts and advise the company on tax legislation. 3. I’m a __________ and work in the information technology department. Basically, I design software applications and make sure our web-site is kept up-to-date. 4. I’m the _________ and work in the human resources department. I handle both staff recruitment and training. 5. I’m a management consultant and I’m _____________. I advise companies on their global strategy and investment policies. 6. I’m the ___________ and sit on the board of directors. I’m responsible for the company’s strategic objectives and translating plans into action.
IX. Addresses. Look at the parts of the addresses in UK and US. Addresses are all different, but most will look something like these:
Title/first name or initial/ surname
Position in company
House name
Name of company
Street name and number
Town or city
#means number
Zip code
Country (you only write the country in the address when you are writing abroad)
Postcode (PO stands for Portsmouth, the nearest city)
County (Hants is the abbreviation for Hampshire Hampshire0000000 Hampshire)
State

Mrs E Hart Mr. Jack Hyam Sales Director
The Larches House of Hyam Inc.
1 Honister Avenue #511 Free Street
Gosport New York
Hants PO5 6BL New York 1721
England USA
These addresses аre mixed up. Write them out correctly. 1. Mr – Millco Ltd – Halifax – Faram – The Mills – C – England – HX5 7PT – River Street 2. Ms – 6355 – Vice President – USA – Virginia 22031 – Beacon Street – Computerco Inc – Fairfax 3. Dumitics – Pittsburg – 22 – G-Sampson Silks – Mr – 15284 – Pennsylvania Street – Main
X. Business letter format and conventions. Notice the following points:
Writer’s Address or Company Letterhead:
at the top or in the top right-hand corner. The writer’s name is not at the top
of the letter.
Reader’s Name, Position and Address:
on the left. If you are writing to another country, write the country in the
address.
Date:
on the right. Various forms of the date are possible.
Opening Salutation:
Use the name of the reader if you know it, without the initial. If you do not,
write Dear Sirs to a company. Dear Sir – to a man, Dear Madam – to a woman or Dear Sir or Madam if you do not know the sex of the reader.
Body of the Letter:
Start a new paragraph for each new idea or subject. Leave a line space between each parag raph. Do not break words at the end of a line.
Closing Salutation:
Yours faithfully, if you do not know the reader’s name, Yours sincerely, if you do. (US: Yours truly or Sincerely yours.)
Signature
Writer’s Name and Title
(and position in the company, if appropriate):
A man uses the title Mr. The title Mrs shows that a woman is married: Miss shows that she is unmarried; Ms shows only that she is a woman.
Fully Blocked Style is the modern style: all paragraphs start at the left-hand margin.
Punctuation:
In modern business letters punctuation is not used in the headings and endings of a letter. Normal punctuation is used in the body of the letter.
XI. The letter of application. The letter of application (also called the covering letter) can be as important as the CV. It often provides the first direct contract between a candidate and an employer. If this letter is not well written and presented, it will make a poor impression. The letter of application normally contains three or more paragraphs in which you should: - confirm that you wish to apply and say where you learned about the job; say why you are interested in the position and relate your interests to those of the company; show what you can contribute to the job by highlighting your most relevant skills and experience; indicate your willingness to attend an interview (and possibly state when you would be free to attend). XII. Look at the letter below, name the main elements of the structure of letter written to an English-speaking country. Then formulate the rules of arranging different parts of a letter in accordance with the English tradition.
Inside Address
Heading
Salutation

1 Oakley Avenue,
London, W.11
Box C 123 30th May, 2011
The Times,
London, E.C.4
Dear Sir,
I am writing in answer to your advertisement in Saturday’s Times for a sales manager. I have had nine years experience in the sales department of two large organizations, training as a trainee and progressing to my present position of assistant sales manager. In the last four years I have had the opportunity of carrying out independent experimental work in market research as helping with the development of successful techniques for selling plastics abroad. I believe that now I am ready to assume the responsibilities of complete sales management.
I have enclosed my CV. If my qualifications interest you, I would be happy to come for an interview at any time convenient to you.
Complementary Close
Yours faithfully,
Signature
Martin King
Martin King
Signature Identification

XIII. A letter of application. Write these parts of the letter in the correct places in this letter.
10 March, 2011 London WC2B 3XP Dear Sir or Madam
Tracy Davis (Miss) Position Yours faithfully
Personnel Manager Person Friday 62 London Lane
Whitehouse & Co Ltd to hearing from you London EC4 7EL
I enclose an application form for the________of________. As you can see, I do not have any experience, but my examination results were good and I am very interested in fashion.
I am available for an interview at your convenience. I look forward ________________

XIV. A job description. Julian Lee is the general manager of a nuclear research institute. He is responsible for all aspects of running the institute, including managing the staff and organizing the finances, but he is not a scientist.
BNC
NUCLEAR RESEARCH DIVISION
Julian Lee General manager
West House Street, Leeds, LEI 4HB
Tel 0113-245 6267 Fax 0113-243 3123
e-mail: [email protected]
Which of the tasks below do you think he has to do and which of them he doesn’t have to do?
Tasks What does he have to do What doesn’t he have to do
find new uses for radioactive material;
recruit new staff; repair the equipment; conduct performance appraisals; prepare the budgets; check health and safety procedures; sell the institute’s ideas in foreign markets. Compare your answers with a partner.
Say where you see yourself in 5-10 years. What responsibilities do you think you will have?
UNIT III
BUSINESS CALLS
I. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
experience [ ], actually [ ], prospective [ ], foreign[ ], although [ ], disadvantage[ ], essential [ ], sure [ ], regular [ ], necessary [ ], alert [ ], customer [ ], impression [ ].
II. Translate the following words and word combination into Russian and learn them by heart:
- to make a phone call - a long-way distance call
- stressful - in advance
- to make notes - to reach the agreement on the phone
- to confirm the main points - to be misunderstood
- to sound alert/efficient - to be at stake
- disadvantage - a first-time business call
III. Read and translate the text.
BUSINESS CALLS
If you don’t have much experience of making phone calls in English, making a business call can be a worrying experience. If you have to call someone you already know, you may actually enjoy making the call but remember that long distance calls are expensive.
Or you may have to make a first-time business call to a prospective client: not easy in English! Making a phone call to a stranger can be quite stressful, especially if they speak English better than you.
Most business people, unless they feel very confident, prepare for an important phone call in a foreign language by making notes in advance. And during the call they make notes while they are talking to help them to remember what was said.
Although it is quick and convenient to phone someone to give them information or to ask questions, the disadvantage is that there is nothing in writing to help you to remember what was said. It is essential to make notes and often when an agreement is reached on the phone, one of the speakers will send a fax to confirm the main points that were made.
As it is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone it is a good idea to repeat any important (especially numbers and names) back to the other person to make sure you’ve got it right. Always make sure you know the name of the person you are talking to. If necessary, ask them to spell it out to you, so that you can make sure you’ve got it right – and try to use then name during the call. And make sure they know you name too.
It’s important to sound interested, helpful and alert when answering the phone. You may have to make or receive calls to or from regular customers and prospective customers, so a good telephone manner not only makes an impression in business, but it also helps to make money.
When you’re talking on the phone, remember that the person you’re talking to may be having difficulties too. In short don’t forget that the other person:
1. wants to understand you easily, so try to speak clearly; 2. can’t see your reactions, so always confirm that you have (or have not) understood each point that’s been made;
3. can’t see you and doesn’t know what a nice person you are, so make sure you sound polite and agreeable; 4. hasn’t got all day, so make sure your call is brief; 5. is getting an impression of your firm while talking with you, so make sure that you sound efficient – your firm’s image may be at stake, even if you’re just taking a message.
IV. Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. Making a business call can be a stressful/worrying experience because_______. 2. Make notes in advance if/in case_____________________________________. 3. When you reach agreement on the phone______________________________. 4. Not to be misunderstood you should__________________________________. 5. It’s important to sound helpful and alert because________________________. 6. The firm’s image may be at stake, so__________________________________.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. Is it easy to make a telephone call in English? Why? 2. Why is it a worrying experience to make a business call in English? 3. What can you do to make it less stressful? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of reaching an agreement on the phone? 5. What should be done to overcome the difficulties? 6. What is to be done to avoid misunderstanding? 7. How can a telephone manner influence the company’s image? 8. What are the golden rules of talking on the phone?
VI. A Phone Jumble.
Three people are involved in this jumbled conversation: Michael Sullivan of Global Engines, Bill Gould of Parsons Engineering and a receptionist. Put the conversation into the correct order.
Right. Well, thank you for your call.
Parsons Engineering. Can I help you?
Yes, they’ve just been dispatched by DCL Courier. They should be with you by tomorrow morning. If there’s any problem, then just get back to me.
I’m afraid he’s on another line at the moment. Would you like to hold or can I take a message?
Hello. My name is Michael Sullivan of Global Engines. I’ve been trying to get through to you. I’m calling to find out whether the spare parts I ordered last week have been sent off.
Mr Gould is free now. I’m putting you through.
No, it doesn’t matter. I’ll hold.
Hello, this is Michael Sullivan of Global Engines. Could I speak to Mr Gould, please?
Thank you. Goodbye.
Oh, good. Yes, OK, but I hope it won’t be necessary.
Hello. Bill Gould.
VII. Glengarry Glen Ross
The film “Glengarry Glen Ross” starts with a businessman called Sheldon Levene making a phone call. We don’t hear what the person on the other end of the line says, but you can probably guess.
Can you put the sentences below into the correct places in the dialogue?
Just a moment, please.
Can he call you back?
No, it’s me again.
No, I’m afraid he’s in a meeting.
No, I’m sorry he’s not here.
Hello. Dr Lowenstein’s office.
Is it urgent?
Could you tell me your name, please?
Hello.
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Could I speak to Dr Lowenstein, please?
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Well, it’s rather important. Could you get him for me?
Receptionist: ______________________________________
(Pause.)
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Ah, doctor.
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Well, could you get ______________________?
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: What do you mean? He’s not there? I have to speak to him.
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Yes, it is fairly urgent.
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: Mr Levene
Receptionist: ______________________________________
Levene: No, I can’t be reached I’ll get back to him.
VIII. Telephones.
Match the words with their definitions.
public telephone / a) one of a number of phones on the
payphone
same line, in a home or office

mobile phone, mobile(BrE)/ b) a camera attached to a computer
cellphone, cellular phone, and phone line, so two people talking
cellular (AmE)
on the phone can see each other
WAP phone c) phone in a public place operated
with money
d) credit card or a phone card
4) extension e) an extension not connected by a
wire, so you can use it around the
house or in the garden
5) cordless phone, cordless f) a phone you can take with you and
use anywhere
6) pager g) a special phone with a screen so you
can see the other person
7) webcam h) a mobile phone with access to the
Internet
8) videophone i) allows you to receive written
messages
IX. Phone Verbs
Phone conversations use a lot of phrasal verbs.
Match the phrasal verbs in the column on the left to the phrases with similar meanings in the column on the right.
to get through a) to connect
to put through b) to be connected
to cut off c) to disconnect
to hang up d) to wait
to hold on e) to put down the receiver
Paraphrase the sentences using phrasal verbs :
I`m trying to connect you. – I`m trying to___________________.
We`ve been disconnected. –We`ve been____________________.
I can`t connect to the number. – I can`t______________________.
I`ll put down the receiver now. – I`ll ____________________now.
Would you like to wait? – Would you like to ________________?
Can you speak more loudly? - Can you _____________________?
Could you call again later? - Could you _________________later?
X. Here are three telephone conversations. Choose the best word from the brackets to complete each sentence.
- Good morning. This is Pierre Cognet. Could I ________to Mr.Roberts, please? (tell/speak/phone)
- I’m ____________he’s in a meeting.(afraid/scared/unfortunate)
- Ah. Could I____________a message? (ask/send/leave)
- Of course.
- Could you ask him to call me______________? My number is 456-776-284. (back/down/round)
- OK. I’ll tell him you called.
- Thank you
***
- Hello. Is that Anna?
-___________. (Saying/talking/Speaking)
- Hi, Anna. This is Alain. Is this a___________time to call? (fine/good/best)
- Not really, Alain. Could you call back___________? (late/lately/later)
- Ok. I’ll call back after lunch.
- That’s great. Bye.
***
- Hello. Is that Steve Anderson?
- No. Steve’ s not in the office today. Can I ___________a message?
(make/take/plate)
- Oh, I’m calling____________tomorrow’s meeting. I want to confirm that it
starts at 10. (about/for/to)
- Yes, it does. I’ll be there too.
- Ah, good. Thank you. I’ll see you tomorrow then. Bye.
- See you tomorrow. Bye.
XI. In this table make a summary of some telephoning phrases. Compare your answers.
Asking to speak to someone
What you hear if the person is not available
Asking someone to wait
Asking for the other person’s name
Saying that you’ll phone again later
XII. Phone roles. Take turns to be the caller and the receptionist in these situations. Make sure that you finish each conversation in a satisfactory way.
The caller wants to speak to Jane Williamson, but her line is busy.
The caller wants to speak to George Aranow, who, unfortunately, has left the company.
The caller wants to speak to Dave Moss but it’s difficult to hear because there is a lot of interferences on the line.
The caller wants to speak to Mrs Baylen, but gets a wrong number.
XIII. Role play.
a. Your name is Lesley Acheson from Sydney, Australia. You met Mr O`Brien from Supermotors Inc. in Australia and said you would call him. Ring Supermotors and ask to speak to him.
b. You are Reginald Johnson, Autoparts Ltd. Ring Sarah Williams at Supermotors Inc. You would like to have your order (AC67745M) one week earlier than agreed.
c. You are interested in importing fresh pineapples from the Philippines. Contact their Fruit Export Council agent in London and find the name and address of the best person to contact.
d. You are Dan Thomson, Megadecorations Inc. Call Susan Chen in Hong Kong. You would like her to confirm that she can meet you at 10 a.m. on Monday 14 in your office.
e. You are Philip Brown. You have an interesting business idea that you want to discuss with Bruno Benetti, a friend of yours. Ring him to arrange a meeting as earlier as possible next week. You would like to take him out for lunch and then talk for an hour or so.
UNIT IV
COMMUNICATIONS

I. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
precise [ ], communication [ ] , request [ ] ,
media [ ], barrier [ ], certain [ ], observe [ ],
dictate [ ], separate [ ], concise [ ], sincere [ ], courteous [ ], punctuation [ ], adhere [ ],
agenda [ ], digression [ ].
II. Translate the following words and world combination into Russian and learn them by heart:
- concise- courteous
- chairperson- agenda
- action points- to circulate
- to pass on news (information, etc)- to allocate the time
- to take the minutes- the accurate record
- venue- to resolve
- to get off the point- to cover the issue
- a latecomer- a good time keeper
III. Match the verbs with the names they go with and translate them into Russian.
1. take a. a minute-taker
2. appoint b. the minute
3. circulate c. time
4. allocate d. the agenda
5. move on e. to the next point
6. avoid f. on time
7. finish g. digression
IV. Read and translate the text.
Communication is the act of passing on news, information, a request, etc. To be in communication with someone means to be in touch, speaking or writing to one another.
There are oral (meeting, conferences, etc) and written (letters, e-mail, memos, etc.) communication media. Words may sound or look precise, but they are not. All sorts of barriers exist between the communicator and the receiver. Unless these barriers are overcome the message will be distorted or will not get through. That is why there are certain rules in business communications that should be observed.
“GOLDEN RULES”
FOR WRITING LETTERS AND MEMOS
Give your letter a heading if it will help the reader to see at a glance what you’re writing about.
Decide what you are going to say before you start to write or dictate: if you don’t do this, the sentences are likely to go on and on unit you can think of a good way to finish. In other worlds, always try to plan ahead.
Use short sentences.
Put each separate idea in a separate paragraph. Numbering each paragraph may help the reader to understand better.
Use short worlds that everyone can understand.
Think about you reader. You reader:
must be able to see exactly what you mean (your letters should be clear);
must be given all the necessary information (your letters should be complete);
is likely to be a busy person with no time to waste (your letters should be concise);
must be addressed in a sincere, polite tone (your letters should be courteous);
may get a bad impression if there are mistakes in grammar, punctuation and spelling (your letters should be correct).
While preparing and holding the meeting, one should adhere to the following guidelines:
The chairperson should be a good timekeeper. They should start the meeting on time, without waiting for latecomers.
They should appoint a time-taker to take the minute, making sure that opinions and action appoints (where participants agree to do something) are noted.
They should make sure each point on the agenda is allocated the time it deserves and should keep to the timetable. When the time allocated to one points is up, the chair should make sure that discussion moves on to the next point, even if the issue has not been completely covered or resolved (decided).
The chair should make sure that each participant has the chance to make their point, and should deal tactfully with disagreements, making sure that each side feels their points of view has been noted. They should also try to avoid digressions, where people get off the point.
Finally, they should ensure the meeting finishes on time, or early.
After some meeting, it’s necessary for the minutes to be circulated, especially if there are action points that particular people are responsible for.
At the next meeting, the chair should ask for the minutes to be read out and see if all agree that it is an accurate record of what happened, and see if there are any matters arising (any points from the last meeting that need to be discussed). And they should check what progress has been made on the action points from the previous meeting.
V. Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. If your letter is concise_____________________________________________.
2. In order to help the reader to see what the letter is about___________________.
3. The letter should be courteous_______________________________________.
4. A good chairperson should__________________________________________.
5. The chairperson should make sure the agenda___________________________.
6. If the agenda is allocated the time it deserves____________________________.
7. Try to avoid the digression__________________________________________.
8. It is necessary for the minutes to be circulated___________________________.
9. An accurate record includes_________________________________________.
VI. Paraphrase the following using the active vocabulary:
1. list of the things to be discussed at a meeting;
2. someone who gets to the meeting after it has started;
3. to distribute;
4. to decide;
5. points that need to be discussed;
6. records of what is decided at a meeting;
7. the chief ideas of something said or planned;
8. win acceptance for an argument, establish what one is proposing;
9. to give a quick look;
10. giving much information in few worlds.
Answer the following questions:
How can people communicate?
What forms of oral/written communication do you know?
Are meetings an effective way of communication?
What kind of person should a good chairperson be?
What do they have to do before the meeting?
What are their responsibilities during the meeting?
What is it necessary to do after the meeting?
Why is it important to plan what you are going to write?
What “golden rules’’ should you follow during writing letters and memos?
What do you think is the easiest way to communicate within a company/between companies, etc.? Why?
In order to be able to take part in group discussions it is necessary to acquire and develop conversation techniques. Here are phrases that can help you.
1. Opening the meeting.
Carla Eagleton, chief executive of Creative Advertising, is opening a meeting: ’’Ok, let’s get started’’.
She could also have said:
It’s about time we got started.
Let’s begin, shall we?
Shall we make a start?
Let’s make a start.
Let’s get down to business.
Then she says: ‘’As you know, I’ve called this meeting to discuss the situation in the design department. The designers have a lot of freedom to work as they wish, but it seems that things are getting out of control…’’
She could also have said:
I’ve arranged this meeting to…
As you are aware…
The purpose of this meeting is to…
The main objective is to…
Inviting people to speak.
Carla then uses some of these expressions. Inviting someone to start:
Would you like to open the discussion, Greta?
Greta, would you like to kick off?
Perhaps you’d like to get the ball rolling, Greta.
Asking for one person’s opinion:
What about you, Keith?
What do you think about this, Keith?
What are you feelings on this, Keith?
What are you views on this, Keith?
Asking for everyone’s opinion:
What’s the general feelings on this?
Making your point.
The other participants use some of these expressions.
Head of human resources: I believe the design department needs a certain amount of freedom, but there are limits.
Head of design: As I see it, I can’t run the design department as if it was the accounts department.
Chief financial officer: In my opinion, they’re going much too far.
I can’t bear to think of the costs involved.
Senior designer: Of course, we are sensitive types and need to be given the freedom to work how we like.
Other ways of making your point include: the way I see it..., personally, I think.., obviously.., it’s clear to me that.., it looks to me as if…
Note: You use of course and obviously to introduce an idea, but also to show that you think other people will be aware of it already. Be careful, as this can sound rude.
Discussion without argument.
Hillary Rode is talking about the importance of keeping calm in meetings: ’’In a meeting, you discuss things. In the discussion, some people may agree with you. Others may disagree. They may have differences of opinion with you, but the important thing is to keep calm and remain courteous. It’s OK to disagree, but it’s not OK to be impolite or rude or to lose your temper.
An argument is when people disagree about something, perhaps becoming angry. Your argument is also the set of ideas that you use to prove your point: to show that what you are saying is true.’’
Note: Agree and disagree are verbs (e.g. I agree with you; She disagrees with him; etc.). You cannot say I am agree with you; She is disagree with him; etc.
Agreeing.
Strong agreement:
You’re perfectly right. The costs involved must be incredible.
I couldn’t agree more. We got our latest recruits after we won the industry award for best advertisement.
Precisely. Creativity comes to some of our people in the middle of the night.
Exactly. We have to look at the company as one unit.
Absolutely. It’s the output, not the input, that counts.
Mild agreement:
You may be right there. We’re already ten per cent over budget.
That’s true, I suppose. There must be some limits on when they work.
I suppose so. They seem to arrive and then go straight out again to eat.
Disagreeing.
Mild disagreement:
a) That’s not really how I see it. Everyone should be allowed to work in the way that’s best for them.
b) I don’t really agree. The prizes are important, but people would come to work for us anyway.
c) I can’t really go along with you there. I think we need to see people at their desks actually working.
d) I think you’re mistaken. If the designers get to work late, they don’t go out for lunch.
e) I‘m afraid I can’t agree with you there. All you financial people do is worry about costs.
Strong disagreement:
f ) I’m sorry, but that’s out of the question. You can’t expect people to go home at ten and come back at nine in the morning.
g) I think you’re wrong. The design department’s costs are justified because of our high quality work. The costs of the other departments are not justified.
h) Of course not. The latest figures I’ve seen show that the project is within budget.
i) That’s absurd. There must be some sort of control on when people work.
j) That’s ridiculous. Each department has very specific needs.
Hedging.
Hedging is when you avoid disagreeing directly. To hedge, you could say:
I take your point about punctuality, but clocking in and out would not be very popular.
I understand what you’re saying about the needs of each department, but each department must be treated in an appropriate way.
I see/know what you mean, but we must look at the human factors as well as the numbers.
I hear where you’re coming from on this, but we must remember this is an advertising agency, not a car factory.
Checking understanding, interrupting, referring back.
To interrupt someone politely:
Can I come in there?
Sorry to interrupt you, but…
If I can just stop you for a moment…
To refer back to what was said earlier:
As we were saying earlier…
To go back to what I was just saying…
To go back to what X was saying earlier…
To check that you understand what someone has said:
Are you saying that…?
If I understand (you) correctly…
Are you suggesting that…?
If I follow you…
Are you implying that…?
Agreement, consensus or compromise.
Hillary Rode is talking about how to deal with agreements and disagreements: ’’It may be possible to reach agreement or to reach an agreement about something, or at least come to a consensus: something that most people can agree with. It may be possible to compromise or to find a compromise: an agreement where people accept less than they wanted at first. Or perhaps the differences are so great that there will just be disagreement. Something in particular that you disagree about is a disagreement.’’
Concluding
Carla Eagleton sums up and brings the meeting to a close: ’’ Right. I’m afraid we’re running out of time so we’re going to have to stop there. To go over what’s been said, there is a disagreement about timekeeping and budgets in the design department. I’ve listened to both sides of the argument. I think I can sum it up by saying that it’s a problem of creativity versus control. I think you’ll just have to agree to disagree. I’ll let you know my decision about the solution to this problem by the end of the month. So unless anyone has anything else to add, I think that’s it. Thank you all for coming.’’
Practice the discussion techniques.
Hold a meeting to discuss ways of improving working conditions in your office. Write a short report of your meeting, giving your proposals to the management committee. Here are some of the ideas:
more staff parties and picnics; better toilets and showers; open roof garden to staff; more comfortable tables and chairs in staff canteen; more flowers and plants; more flexibility about ’’taking time off’’; better lighting and heating; more pictures or posters on the walls.
Add your own ideas.
How was the meeting?
Some colleagues are discussing a meeting they have just come out of.
Read, translate and reproduce the following dialogue.
Anil: I thought it was very productive.
Juliet: Well, I thought it was a complete waste of time. I didn't hear anything I didn't already know.
Barbara: I agree with Anil. I felt we had some very useful discussions, and that we reached an agreement that was good for both sides. We certainly covered a lot of ground. It was incredible the number of things we got through.
Julet: But there were too many digressions. John was rambling and kept wandering off the point. He just uses meetings as a chance to show off. Just like a lot of men: he just wanted to show how powerful he is and what a good talker he is.
Anil: But to be fair, the chair really kept things moving: she encouraged people to be brief and to stick to the point and we achieved a lot in a short time. Anyway, I learned a lot and I think they listened to what we had to say.
Discuss one of the meetings you have had.
Types of meetings. Match 1-9 with (a) - (i).
chat a) meeting of employees involved in a particular activity
brainstorming b) a meeting, for example, to discuss a contract
project meeting/ team meeting

meeting with suppliers
5) meeting with a customer c) a meeting, for example, to negotiate prices for an order
d) a shareholders’ meeting to discuss an important issue such as a proposed merger
e) a meeting of employers of the same department
6) board meeting
7) Annual General Meeting/
AGM (BrE); annual meeting (AmE) f) an official, formal meeting of a company’s directors
g) informal discussion with colleagues at the coffee machine
8) EGM (extraordinary general meeting)
9) department/ departmental
Meeting h) meeting where shareholders discuss the company’s annual report
i) discussion among colleagues: where as many ideas as possible are produced quickly, to be evaluated later
Read the sentences. At which type of meeting would you be most likely to hear each of these things?
1. I'm pleased to announce another good year for shareholders of this company.
2. I know this sounds crazy, but how about giving away 100,000 free samples? 3. Things in the sales department are getting out of control. We should all start making a real effort. 4. So, you think you can provide 10,000 a month at a unit cost of £4.90? 5. Have you heard? Suzanne is being fired: apparently her sales figures aren't good enough. 6. That's a deal then. Looking forward to working with you. I'm sure you won't be disappointed. 7. Amazingly, we're ahead of schedule on this project. 8. I recommend to shareholders that you accept Megabook's offer for our company. 9. As you know, Megabook wants to buy this company. As chief financial officer, what do you think of their offer, Salem?
XIII. Decide which of the alternatives (A-E) each speaker is talking about. Write the letter of your answer in the box at the end of the sentence. You will have to use some alternatives more than once.
A - board meeting
B - departmental meeting
C - annual general meeting
D - extraordinary general meeting
E - Brainstorming
We tried to produce as many ideas as possible for the new
marketing campaign.
All the Sales team get together once a month see how
everything is going.
We had to get all the shareholders together at short notice to
discuss the merger plans.

The annual report and the company's accounts were presented
to the shareholders.
The directors met in May to discuss restructuring the
company.
Two new non-executive directors were appointed at the
annual meeting.
The debt crisis was so bad that we had to have an emergency
meeting for all members.
We came up with lots of new ideas. Most were crazy but some
are worth developing.
UNIT V
COMPANY
Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

concern [ ], private [ ], enough [ ], although [ ], legally [ ], individual [ ], charter [ ], legislature [ ], issue [ ],certificate [ ], dividend [ ], expansion [ ], modernization [ ], advantage [ ], proprietorship [ ], obsolete [ ], transfer [ ], abruptly [ ], circumstance [ ], procedure [ ], succeed [ ], regular [ ], appropriate [ ], taxation [ ], decision [ ], success [ ], career [ ], organizational [ ], hierarchical [ ].
II. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
to raise the large amount of money needed
to sue
to fine
to tax
a charter of incorporation
shares of stock
a stockholder
a board of directors
equipment

- ownership
- the rate of return on stocks
- ownership transfer
- to be filed with
- to keep detailed records
- to be subject to double taxation
- income tax forms
- hierarchical
- report to smb
- limited liability
III. Read and translate the text.
Business is the activity of producing, buying and selling goods and services. A business, company, firm or more formally, a concern, sells goods or services. Large companies considered together are referred to as big (large) business. Large businesses differ from small ones in a wide variety of ways. In many countries there are nationalized companies belonging to the state, as well as private companies.
Often one person does not have enough money to start a business. Combining the resources of a number of people and forming a corporation is a way to raise the large amount of money needed. A corporation is a business that, although owned by one or more investors, legally has the rights and duties of an individual. Corporations may make legal contracts, hire and fire workers, set prices, and be sued, fined and taxed. A business must obtain a charter of incorporation from a state legislature to be legally recognized as a corporation.
A corporation issues shares of stock which are certificates representing ownership in the corporation. Investors buy and sell these shares of stock. Often hundreds and even thousands of small investors own stock in a single corporation. Because a corporation may have many owners, the stockholders elect a board of directors. Stockholders have one vote for each share of stock they own. The board of directors hires individuals to manage the day-to-day operation of the corporation. These individuals include the President and other chief administrators of the company. Most important, the board of directors manages the resources of the corporation in order to produce a profit. If the corporation makes a profit, shareholders may receive a dividend - a share of the profit paid on the stock. The board of directors decides how much of the profit should be divided among stockholders. The board may decide to reinvest some of the profit in the corporation for expansion, modernization, or research and development.
Corporations have some advantages over sole proprietorships and partnerships. First, a corporation has limited liability. Thus if the corporation goes bankrupt or is sued, the stockholders lose only the value of their stock. The stockholders, who are the corporation owners, cannot be held personally responsible for any money the corporation owes. Second, corporations have the ability to raise very large amounts of money. They use this money to change models, replace obsolete equipment, and build new factories. Corporations can raise money by selling bonds, as well as stocks. A bond corporation can raise money on a certain date. Stocks and bonds differ in two important ways. Bonds, unlike stocks, do not represent ownership in the corporation. Also the rate of return on stocks changes; the rate of return on a bond is set when the bond is sold. Third, a corporation has an unlimited life. That is the corporations continues to function despite death, transfer, or changes in ownership, management, or labor. The work of sole proprietor or partners can end abruptly in such circumstances. This stability attracts small investors. The fourth advantage of corporation is the ease of ownership transfer. Selling a small business may be difficult; selling shares of stock is relatively easy. The investor also has an advantage. The ability to get out of one business, by selling stock, and into another quickly, by buying stock, is quite useful to small investors.
Corporations have disadvantages as well as advantages. First, complex forms must be filed with the state or federal government. A charter must then be issued, investors found, shares sold, and manufacturing or sales begun. The procedure for setting up a corporation is more difficult than that for setting up a sole proprietorship or a partnership. Also, to succeed a corporation must pay stockholders regular dividends and must keep detailed records to satisfy appropriate government agencies.
Second, a corporation’s profits are subject to double taxation. A corporation must pay taxes on its profits before the profits are distributed to stockholders as dividends. The stockholders include this dividend money as personal income on their income tax forms. Stockholders pay taxes on this income. The government, then, has taxed the corporation’s profits twice.
Third, in corporations with many owners or stockholders the individual share of profits in the form of dividends is comparatively small. In a single proprietorship or partnership, profits are divided among fewer individuals. Therefore, individual incomes are often greater.
Fourth, a corporation's owners do not directly control the business. Most individual stockholders take little interest in management decisions. In contrast, sole proprietors or partners manage their own business. The main concern of the owner-managers is the success of the business. Managers of large corporations, though, may not have invested their own money in the business. Career decisions may be different and more important than decisions to improve the business. For this reason many corporations arrange for management to own shares of stock.
In very large firms the shareholders have very little to do with the day- to-day running of the firm. This is left to the management. Large companies may be organized into several large departments, sometimes even divisions. The organizational structure of some companies is very hierarchical with a board of directors at the top and the various departmental heads reporting to them. Often the only time shareholders can influence the board is at the yearly shareholders’ meeting.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the role of business? 2. How do different businesses differ?
3. What are the rights and duties of a corporation?
4. What should be done in order to be legally recognized as a corporation?
5. What is a share of stock? What role do the stockholders play in the activities of a corporation?
6. Who runs the day-to-day operation of the corporation? 7. What is a dividend?
8. Who decides in what way the profit of the company should be distributed?
9. What are the advantages of corporations over the other forms of businesses?
10. What disadvantages do the corporations face?
11. Why do many corporations arrange for management to own shares, of stock?
V. Say whether these statements are true or false, explain why?
1. Corporations are easy to organize, decisions can be made quickly profits are shared with only a few people, and the owners are responsible for success or failure of the business. 2. If the corporation makes a loss the board may decide to reinvest some of the profit in the corporation for expansion, modernization, or research and development.
3. If the corporation goes bankrupt or is sued, the stockholders lose the value of their stock. They are personally responsible for any money the corporation owes.
4. Bonds represent ownership in the corporation.
5. In corporations with many owners or stockholders the individual share of profits in the form of dividends is comparatively small.
6. In very large firms the shareholders have very little to do with the day-to-day running of the firm.
VI. What sort of company is it?
There are many types of business organization and the different terms can be confusing. Match the various types of organization with their definitions.
corporation (US) an organization to relieve poverty, advance religion or education, etc; benefits from some financial concessions
government agency an organization operating to make a profit
cooperative a democratic firm owned by its workers
limited company a new commercial activity. Also income company names, for example, Smiths’ Enterprises
charity an organization which is part of the state administration
minority interest
a firm, usually without commercial activity, created to be parent to other companies
enterprises a firm where shareholders liability is limited
subsidiary (affiliate) company is which another firm has less than 50% interests
private company an organization operating in several countries
multinational company (UK)
company owned by the state
parent company a firm based in a tax haven to avoid higher taxation
nationalized company
a company which owns another
holding company two or more partners working together for profit, without limited liability
society a company whose shares are not publicly available
offshore company a company whose shares are publicly available
partnership a friendly association of people; for example, a sports society (society=firm)
public company firm owned by a parent company
Choose the best word from the brackets to fill the gap and translate sentences into Russian.
1. The Ford Motor Company was ____________ in 1903. (find/found/founded)
2. There were 2,700 business ______________ in the UK in the last quarter. (start – ups/ get - ups/starts – offs)
3. Sir Richard Branson is one of Britain’s _____________of industry. (bosses/captains/moguls)
4. Rupert Murdoch is a media ___________ who owns many newspaper and TV companies. (leader/magnate/founder)
5. That’s Angelina Carlito. She’s very successful _____________________. (businessman/businesswoman/business people)
6. My mother started with one shop and now she heads up a huge business _____________. ( empire/country/world)
VIII. The diagram below shows the management structure of Universal Software. Match the people (1-8) with their positions. Write the letter of your chosen answer in the box on the right.
A
Chairperson
B
Non-Executive Directors

C
Director of
Finance
D
IT Director

E
Marketing Director
F
Human Resources Director
G
Director of Research


H
Account Manager
J
Sales Manager
K
Customer Services Manager
I
Production Manager
I’m Marco Alatri and I’m the director responsible for the company budgets and accounts.
I’m Tom Scott. I’m not actually a manager at Universal, but I do sit on the board.
My name is Helen Good. I’m the CEO and I also chair the board.
My name’s Carla Jelinek. I’m in charge of the company’s information systems.
I’m Dan Matthews. My team develops new products and tests them.
I’m Karine and my team deals with calls from the public… and complaints!
My name is Patrick Aubaile and I report to the CFO.
I’m Alex Tait and I’m responsible for company recruitment and staff development.
IX. Letter writing.
Asking for information on a company
Your Role: You work for Light Imports, a company in the electrical light trade. You are given this advert by your boss and asked to write a letter to Luxor International.
Points to note:
Tell them your company works in the electrical light trade.
Explain that ybour company is interested in knowing more about their company.
Say you are looking for a partner in Sweden.
Explain that you read ad in a trade journal.

Luxor International AB is an international group whose operations are focused on electrical lighting applications.
For information on the company and for a complimentary brochure outlining our world-wide activities and product range write to:
Luxor International
Marketing Communications,
Lighting Division,
PO BOX 673, Jonkoping, Sweden.
How do you compare with the competition?
Student A is looking for a job and asks student В about competition. Student В is fortunate, because Minitex’s main competitor, Cassandra, is in difficulty, and she can compare the two companies with confidence. Contrasts (comparisons which concentrate on the differences between two things) are made using whereas or while. Example: Minitex is taking on more staff whereas/while Cassandra is declaring redundancies.
Now, contrast the fortunes of two companies, using the information below. MINITEX
is taking on more staff
is enjoying steady growth
is making profits
is in credit and has no liquidity problems
has an increased market share
is launching new products
enjoys high productivity
has a capital investment program
has good workforce morale
is highly competitive
seems a sound and reliable investment
has a secure future
CASSANDRA
is declaring redundancies
has a falling turnover
is making heavy losses
has an overdraft and cash-flow problems
has a reduced market share
has a limited product range
is inefficient in production
cannot afford new investment
suffers from industrial unrest
is no longer competitive
seems a high-risk investment
may soon collapse
go bankrupt
fold up
be wound up
Speak about a British/American/Russian company (its foundation, structure, business activities, main markets, etc.).
UNIT VI
PRODUCTION
I. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
definition [ ], utility [ ], schematically [ ], technological[ ], polio vaccine[ ], mathematical [ ], equation [ ], specialization [ ], division [ ], concentrate [ ], endowment [ ], specialize [ ], Idaho [ ], Iowa[ ], California[ ], self- sufficiency [ ], emphasize [ ], similarly[ ], niche [ ], inefficient [ ]
II. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
- utility
- input
- output
- equation
- endowment
- commodities - production techniques
- to reduce self-sufficiency
- capital goods
- to increase economic interdependence
- comparative advantage
III. Read and translate the text.
PRODUCTION
There are several ways to define production. One definition is that it is any activity that creates present or future utility. Production may be described as the amount of output (goods and services) produced per unit of input (land, labor, capital).
The production function transforms inputs like land, labour, capital and management into output. We get more output from a given combination of outputs today than we would have got in the past.
There are three principle means of increasing production. They are:
1. specialization and the division of labour;
2. investment in capital goods;
3. investment in human capital. ALL three of these means often involve a process of technological change that leads to more efficient production techniques and the creation of more goods and services.
Specialization occurs when an economic unit produces a narrower range of goods and services than it consumes. People concentrate their efforts on a particular set of tasks - it permits each person and country to use to best advantage any peculiar skills and resources. Specialization can be practiced by individuals, business firms, cities, regions, or countries. Regions or countries, for example, normally specialize in the production of those goods and services that are best fitted to produce, given their particular endowment of productive resources. Then they sell most of what they produce to people living elsewhere, and buy whatever else they need from other regions. What they buy may include the raw materials needed to produce the goods and services in which they specialize. Specialization is the basis of trade and exchange among individuals, businesses, cities, regions, and countries. Within the USA, for example, consumers in its various regions buy and use products originating in other regions - Idaho potatoes, Florida orange juice, Iowa corn, California vegetables plus products originating abroad such as coffee, bananas, tea, clothing and cameras. Industries do the same for the raw materials, components and certain finished products they need.
The concept of division of labour is closely related to specialization, but usually refers to the process whereby workers perform only a single or a very few steps of a major production task, as when working on an assembly line. As applied to labour, the concept of specialization usually refers to a person's occupation and the special training it requires, e.g. carpenter, electrician, eye surgeon.
On the one hand, specialization in all of its forms and the division of labour usually increase production. On the other hand, they also reduce self-sufficiency and increase economic interdependence, thereby creating a greater need for the exchange of goods and services.
What determines which goods we produce? Economists emphasize the law of comparative advantage. This law states that individuals or nations should specialize in producing or selling those commodities which they can produce at a relatively low cost. Similarly, an individual or nation should buy rather than produce those goods which they could produce only at a relatively high cost. The surprising feature of the law of comparative advantage is that even people or countries that are absolutely more inefficient than others will find it beneficial to specialize in the production of some goods. Thus, even the low productivity countries of Asia or Africa can find a niche for their products in the international marketplace because they are relatively efficient at producing some goods.
Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. The activity of creation present or future utility__________________________.
2. The 3 principal means of increasing production are ______________________.
3. Concentrating efforts on a particular set of tasks_________________________.
4. The concept of specialization refers to_________________________________.
5. The concept of division of labour refers to_____________________________.
6. Specialization and the division of labour reduce/increase__________________.
7. The law of comparative advantage determines__________________________.
8. It is beneficial to specialize in_______________________________________.
9. Even developing countries can find a niche for their products______________.
V. Match the words and their definitions.
1) production a) concentration on the production
of particular things
2) equation b) quality of being useful
3) utility c) putting money into
4) specialization d) amount of output produced per unit of input
5) investment e) statement of equality between two expressions by the
sign (=)
6) utility f) goods, articles of trade
7) technology g) the quality of being useful
8) techniques h) money, property, etc. given to provide income
9) endowment i) method of doing something
10) commodities j) goods to produce other goods
11) capital goods k) application of knowledge to practical tasks in
industry
VI. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Production can be represented in the forms of a figure. 2. It's difficult to describe production in the forms of a mathematic equation. 3. There are four principle means of increasing production. 4. Specialization is a drawback in the development of economics. 5. The term "division of labor" is closely related to specialization. 6. The law of comparative advantage states which goods individuals should produce.
7. Each country can find a niche for its products even a low productivity one.
VII. Answer the following questions.
1. How can production be defined? 2. What are the principle means of increasing production? Name them all. Why are they so important? 3. When does specialization occur? 4. Why is it considered to be the basis of trade? 5. What are some American states specialized on? 6. How is the concept of division of labor related to specialization? 7. What are advantages and disadvantages of specialization and the division of labor?
8. How does the law of comparative advantage work?
VIII. Two Reports Compare the accident report form and the memo. Talk about these questions. 1. What is the difference in the content of the two? 2. What is the difference in style?
ACCIDENT REPORT FORM
1/8/2011
Dear Bob,
I thought you should know that we've had a few problems on the night shift. I'm afraid that one of the lads has caught his arm in a machine. He went off to hospital —but it's nothing too serious. He's made a mess of the machine, though, I'm afraid. I had to shut the line down for a couple of hours, so we lost a fair amount of production last night. We followed all the procedures, so there's nothing to worry about but I'll talk you through it when I get back to word this evening.
Alf
MEMORANDUM
Date 1.8.2011
From Bob Russell, Factory Manager
To Cynthia Pryth, Production Controller
REF: Accident on production line
I have been informed that there was an accident at the factory last night involving a worker and one of our machines. The man in question was taken to hospital, although I understand that he was not seriously hurt. However, the machine was damaged and, as a result, the production line had to be shut down for two hours with a corresponding loss of production. I have been assured that proper health and safety procedures were followed, but I am, of course, investigating the incident to see if any lessons can be learnt.
Comparing Styles.
Look at these pairs of phrases from the two documents.
1. a. I thought you should know…
b. I have been informed that…
2. a. I had to shut the line down for a couple of hours.
b. The production line had to be shut down for two hours.
3. a. We followed all the procedures, so there's nothing to worry about.
b. I have been assured that proper health and safety procedures were followed.
In each case, Bob Russell has used the passive rather than the active form of the verb. This moves the focus of the sentence from the subject to the object.
Why do you think Bob Russell has done this? Here are a few ideas:
- He wants to give an official impression. - He wants to make it less personal or more formal. - He doesn't know who the subject of the sentence was. (Or at least he wants to give that impression!)
a) Read the information note that John Elliott sent to his Production Director, Martin Gilmour.
Martin,
Bob Skinner recently told me that some of the men are not following safety procedures. He's seen operatives not wearing hard hats or protective gloves, and doing silly things just to keep the line moving. If we don't do something about it very soon, someone is bound to get hurt.
John
b) Now rewrite the letter as a formal memo using the following phrases: operatives have been observed; are failing to comply with safety procedures; and taking dangerous risks; it has come to my attention that; a number of employees; in order to maintain the rate of production; without protective clothing; a seriously injury will be inevitable; unless preventive measures are taken swiftly
MEMO
To: Martin Gilmour
From: John Elliot A. D. C. Ltd.
Date: 23 March
It has come to my attention_________________________________________
X. A memorandum. Look at this badly planned letter from the Chief Executive of a manufacturing company to his Production Director. Re-write it as a memorandum so that it is clearer.
Dear Jack,
This is just a brief letter to remind you that I would like to hear what you think about the set up for the proposed new machine shop. Our operations are going to be expanding in the next few years. Choosing the right machines for the new Machine Shop X is not going to be easy.
We require a new set of machines for machine shop X. There are a number of questions to be asked. Among them, the following: shall we buy, rent or hire equipment? I think we also need a clear policy on maintenance. How much regular maintenance is required to prevent breakdown of machines? Which as you know can be a very costly business. It is not good enough to wait until a machine breaks down and then fix it. At the same time we must be careful not to employ too many maintenance men. I mean, the machinery may never break down, but that might be even more expensive in terms of labor costs and wages.
And also, I would like your opinions on the speed of replacement. Could you please give me an estimate of how long some of the newest machines in the trade will probably last?
Cheers
Fred
UNIT VII
MARKETING MIX
Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
manufacturer [ ], strategy[ ], technique [ ], organization [ ], persuasive [ ], convention [ ], durable [ ], brand [ ], awareness [ ], recognition [ ], identity [ ], particular [ ], generic [ ], persuasion
[ ], exhibition [ ], audience [ ], emphasize [ ], media [ ], brochure [ ], sophisticated [ ], niche [ ], wholesaler [ ], solution [ ], acquisition [ ].
Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
- promotion
- currently
- a range of brands
- to charge prices
- tempting prices
- fast-moving consumer goods
- product endorsement
- target customers
- pricing - acquisition
- to be on offer
- to move upmarket/downmarket
-consumer durables high-end/top end
- trade up/down, outlet
- low end/bottom end
- entry level
- persuasion
Read and translate the text.
MARKETING MIX
Marketing is the term given to the different activities involved in distributing goods from the manufacturer to the final customer. It means two things. First, it is a strategy and set of techniques to sell an organization’s products or services. This involves choosing target customers and designing a persuasive marketing mix to get them to buy. The mix may include a range of brands, tempting prices convenient sales outlets and a battery of advertising and promotions. The combination of different elements of a company’s marketing plan is known as the marketing mix, that comprises the 4 Ps: products (goods), price, place, promotion. The four Ps are a useful summary of the marketing mix, the activities that you have to combine successfully in order to sell. Let's look at these activities in detail.
1. Products (Goods) can refer to the materials and components used to make products, or the products that are made. Here are some examples of these different types of goods:
Consumer goods that last a long time, such as cars and washing machines,are consumer durables. Consumer goods such as food products that sell quickly are fast-moving consumer goods, or FMCG. A brand is a name a company gives to its products so they can be easily recognized. This may be the name of the company itself. For products like cars, you refer to the make and the model, the particular type of car, for example, the Ford (make) Ka (model).
Brand awareness or brand recognition is how much people recognize a brand. The ideas people have about a brand is its brand image. Many companies have a brand manager who is in charge of creating brands and keeping them in customer's minds through advertising, packaging, etc. A brand should have a clear brand identity so that people think of it in a particular way in relation to other brands.
A product with the retailer’s own name on it is an own-brand product(BrE) or own-label product (AmE). Products that are not branded, those that do not have a brand name, are generic products or generics.
2. Promotion includes all the activities aimed to increase the demand for a product. Sales promotion denotes the work of selling a product by all useful methods such as: powerful advertising; personal persuasion of possible customers by visit, phone or letter; exhibitions, displays and demonstrations; competitions for prizes; free samples; trading stamps, etc.
Advertising is an important element of the marketing function. It is used to increase sales by making the product or service known to a wider audience, and by emphasizing its superior qualities. A company can advertise in a variety of ways, depending on how much it wishes to spend, and the size and type of the target audience. The different media for advertising include television, radio, newspapers, magazines and direct mail, by which advertisers send letters, brochures and leaflets directly to potential customers.
Advertising is a highly developed business. In the UK, for example,approximately £5 billion is spent on advertising each year.
3. Pricing is an important stage of marketing. Products, for example skis, exist in different models. Some are basic, some more sophisticated. The cheapest skis are low-end or bottom-end. The most expensive ones are high-end or top-end products, designed for experienced users (or people with a lot of money!).The cheapest entry-level skis are for beginners who have never bought skis before. Those in between are mid-range. If you buy sophisticated skis to replace basic ones, you trade up and move upmarket. If you buy cheaper skis after buying more expensive ones, you trade down and move downmarket.
Downmarket can show disapproval. If a publisher takes a newspaper downmarket, they make it more popular, but less cultural, to increase sales.
Mass market describes goods that sell in large quantities and the people who buy them. For example, family cars are a mass market product. A niche or niche market is a small group of buyers with special needs, which may be profitable to sell to. For example, sports cars are a niche in the car industry.
4. Place. After manufacturers produce finished goods from raw materials or from components they usually sell them in bulk to a wholesaler. The wholesaler supplies the goods to many different retailers and then the retailers sell them to individual customers.
People buy things in a shop (BrE) or store (AmE). Companies may callit a retail outlet or sales outlet. There are a lot of different types of shops: chain stores, department stores, hypermarkets, etc. In Britain a shopping centre or shopping precinct is a purpose-built area of building in a town centre with a number of shops. Outside towns, there are shopping malls, where it is easy to park.
A fifth P which is sometimes added is packaging: all the materials used to protect and present a product before it is sold.
This first concept of marketing as selling and persuasion is by far the most popular idea among both managers and the public.
The second, and by far more important concept of marketing, focuses on improving the reality of what is on offer. It is based on understanding customers’ needs and developing new solutions which are better than those currently available. Doing this is not a marketing department problem, but one which involves the whole organization.
Creating company-wide focus on the customer requires the continualacquisition of new skills and technology. Marketing is rarely effective as a business function. As the chief executive of Hewlett Packard put it "Marketing is too important to leave to the marketing department". Such companies understand that everybody’s task is marketing. This concept of marketing offering real customer value is what business is all about.
Fill in the gaps with the following words and translate sentences into Russian.
Product; price; marketing;“The Four Ps"; place; marketing mix; to promote
________________is the term given to all the different activities intended to make and attract a profitable demand for a product. This involves:
- identifying consumer needs and wants in order to develop the ________; - setting the________________________;
- deciding on the best_________________to sell the product;
- deciding on how best___________________the product.
These four factors are often referred to as____________or the _____________.
V. Determine whether these statements are true or false. Explain why.
1. The marketing mix comprises the 4 Ps. 2. Products are different types of goods. 3. Brand image is the mental picture of a particular product which a consumer carries in his mind. 4. Advertising is an additional element of marketing. 5. It is more important to decide what price to charge than where to sell the product. 6. Packaging adds to the product’s image. 7. The only aim of marketing is to sell the company’s product.
VI. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the most popular idea about marketing? 2. What does the marketing mix included? 3. What are the 4 Ps? 4. Why is it so important to improve the brand image of the product? 5. How can it be achieved? 6. What in the aim of advertising? 7. What does the price of products depend on? 8. How are goods distributed? 9. Are the four Ps a complete definition of marketing?10. What is a more important concept of marketing?

VII. Advertising slogan
Many advertising contain a slogan or a short phrase to attract the consumer’s attention. Effective slogans are usually short, easy to remember and easy to repeat.
a) Here are some authentic slogans from advertisements.
Get into our bed and sleep better... a) cosmetic cream
Down under: it’s home to us... b) the Army
Would Mrs O’Brien trust her precious soles c) white correction fluidto just anyone..?
I went to work and left my wrinkles at home … d) socks
Waist disposal unit… e) watches
M.P. (Member of Parliament) f) Australian airline companyinvolved in cover up...
Prices that won’t leave you speechless... g) video camera (camcorder)
The architects of time... h) matters
Could you be a more inspiring leader? ... i) telephones
The focus of attention… j) ‘Nordic ski’ exerciser
b) What type of product do you think each one is advertising?
1. Not everyone was meant to fly. 2. The color of life. 3. Doesn't he deserve a dinner that looks as good as yours? 4. By the time you remember you left it on, it’s off. 5. See and be seen with. 6. Does she or doesn't she? 7. This year you should wear something loud. 8. Doesn't your family deserve less? 9. Introducing seven easy ways to make a chicken fly. 10. The best things in life are still made by hand.
VIII. Work in groups and decide:
Who are your (potential) customers?
What are the main attractions of your product?
What are the main attractions of the competition?
What is the "unique selling proposition" that makes your product special?
How can you inform customers about your product?
What positive points about your region should you stress?
What misconceptions about your product should you try to correct?For example, if people think your region is "flat and boring" or"hot and dusty", how can you persuade them they’re wrong?
Work as a whole class or in two large groups. Devise a marketing strategyfor your product. How can you improve your product’s image and promoteit to the customers?
Think of a good slogan for your product. Draft a short text for anadvertisement in a British newspaper or magazine.
IX. Analysing advertisements
Working in groups of three or four, look through some recent magazines and newspapers and find two advertisements for different brands of the same product. Use the following checklist to compare the two advertisements you have chosen.
What are the target markets for the two advertisements?
What benefits do the advertisements emphasize? (comfort safety, esteem luxury, etc.)
Compare the language used in the slogans. Does it attract attention quickly? Is it humorous?
What technique is used in the text (or copy) of each advertisement: is it factual, does it contain a celebrity endorsement, is there no text at all? Is the price mentioned?
Comment on the artistic content of the advertisements (photography, special graphics, etc.)
Which advertisement do you think will sell the most products? Which is the most creative? Is there anything you would change in either of the ads?
Once your group has answered these questions, present your analysis of the advertisements to the rest of the class.
UNIT VIII
MAKING A PRESENTATION
Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
presentation [ ], foreign [ ], challenge [ ], guideline [ ], invaluable [ ], appropriate [ ], audience [ ], transition [ ], particular [ ], distribute [ ], explicit [ ], microphone [ ], question [ ], gesture [ ], emphasize [ ], mannerism [ ], expectation [ ].
II. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:

- challenge
- venue
- facilitie
- visual aids
- to rehearse
- to digres to tend to do
appropriate questions
to highlight points
to provide gestures
- to make a presentation
III. Read and translate the text.
MAKING A PRESENTATION
Making a presentation in a foreign language is a difficult task and represents a challenge that can be a stressful experience, especially if you have never given a presentation before. These guidelines contain invaluable advice about all aspects of presenting, and include appropriate language to use in order to signpost your talk clearly so that your audience can follow the transitions between the different sections.
Experts advise: Start on time, do not wait for latecomers. Introduce yourself and your subject. Outline what you're going to talk about: describe the different sections of your talk. You should plan how long you're going to spend on each point and keep to these timings. Don't labour a particular point and spend too long on something. And don't digress unless you have a particular purpose in mind. Finish on time, don't run over. It looks bad if you don't have time to finish all your points and answer questions.
You can use visual aids (computer screen, flipchart, projector) to help the audience follow you and focus on the key points. Before or while giving a presentation distribute handouts to make the information more explicit.
Voice
The audience must be able to hear and understand what you are saying. Speakers tend to speak too softly, too fast and without pausing or varying the tone of voice. Project your voice to the back of the room, but don't shout. Don't ask if people at the back can hear. Check the volume (loudness) of your voice beforehand. Use a microphone if you need one. Don't hold it too close to your mouth. Whether using a microphone or not, speak in a natural tone of voice. Don't speak in a monotone, vary the pitch of your voice. Pay careful attention to when you include pauses, volume changes and variations in tone of voice. Say whether people should ask questions during the talk, or at the end.
You can practice by speaking about something you know or have an opinion about.
Body Language
Adopting the right body position and using appropriate gestures to show interest, highlight points, and keep your audience's attention are important factors. Address your audience as 'you' as this helps to make both sides feel closer and makes you more relaxed. Remember:
Make eye contact with the audience, turning your head so that you regularly look at every member of the audience.
Don't speak to the equipment or the screen: face the audience at all times.
Move around a little if you are standing, and vary the position of your upper body if you are sitting down. Use your hands and arms to provide gestures to emphasize key points. But avoid mannerisms (ways of moving and speaking which you do repeatedly without realizing).
Smiling is fine at appropriate moments, but not too much.
Experts say that you can gain the audience's attention in a presentation by: telling an anecdote (a story, perhaps a personal one); mentioning a really surprising fact or statistic; stating a problem; asking a question.
Of course, it is important to respect the cultural expectations of you audience.
IV. Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. Making a presentation presents a challenge _________________________.
2. Before the presentation you should rehearse it _______________________.
3. Plan the content and structure but ________________________________.
4. Don't labour a particular point___________________________________.
5. Don't run over ________________________________________________.
6. In order to join the audience's attention ____________________________.
7. You should make eye contact ___________________________________.
8. To emphasize key points you should _____________________________.
V. Comment on the following statements. In your opinion are they: a) essential; b) helpful; c) unhelpful for a successful presentation?
1. Tell a joke at the beginning.
2. Speak more slowly than you normally do.
3. Smile a lot.
4. Involve the audience.
5. Invite questions during the presentation.
6. Always keep to your plan.
7. Move around during your presentation.
8. Use a lot of gestures to emphasize important points.
9. Read out your presentation from a script.
10. Stand up when giving your presentation.
VI. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text.
I am very worried about next week. I am doing a __________ presentation about our new advertising campaign. There will be about 30 people in the_________ - mainly regional sales managers. The _____________ is a big hotel in London. They have excellent ___________ so I don't have to worry about that. I've prepared the ___________ of my talk but I'm still working on my visual___________. I've tried to ___________ the main parts of my talk so I won't have to read from my notes. On Friday, I'm going to___________ the whole thing in front of a few friends from the department.
VII. Paraphrase the "Five Rules for Presenters" using the words from the text.
Five Rules for Presenters
Rule 1: Start on time. Don't wait for people who get to the presentation after the starting time.
Rule 2: Keep to the time that you have allocated to each point in your plan.
Rule 3: Don't go on and on about a particular point for a long time.
Rule 4: Don't go off the point and talk about things that aren't in your plan.
Rule 5: Don't go on past the time when the presentation is supposed to finish.
VIII. Answer the following questions.
Why can making a presentation present a challenge for the speaker?
What can be done to make it less stressful?
How should you start a presentation?
What are the musts and mustn'ts of speaking while giving a stand up presentation?
What are the tips on body language?
What can be done to gain the audience's attention?
IX. Using appropriate words and phrases at key moments of a talk makes it easier for your audience to follow what you are saying and to anticipate what you will be saying next. Study the following phrases carefully.
Introducing the talk:
This morning I'm going to be talking about...
In my talk today I will be looking at...
I'd like to start by giving you...
Indicating the structure and sequences of your talk:
I have divided my presentation into X sections...
In the first section I will/am going to describe...
Then I will/am going to go on to...
After that I will/am going to look at...
Finally I will/am going to...
Moving from one section of your talk to another:
I would now like to go on to the next point which is...
If I can now move on to the next section... To continue...
Summarizing and condensing what you have said:
To recap...
The main thing/s to remember is/are...
The point that I am making here is that...
Highlighting:
This is particularly important because...
I can't stress enough that...
It should be pointed out that...
I would like to draw your attention to...
Giving examples:
For instance...
For example...
Such as...
Like...
A case in point is...
Inviting questions and feedback from the audience:
Are there any questions so far?
Feel free to ask if you have any questions.
I welcome questions if at any point you don't understand something.
If you have any questions about this, please/do ask.
Asking rhetorical questions (questions that the audiences are not expected to answer):
Some of you may be wondering how can this be done?
Am I right in thinking that...?
So, just how can this be achieved?
You may be wondering how long will this take?
Drawing conclusions:
This means that...
Consequently...
As a result...
Therefore...
Closing your talk:
I would just like to finish by saying...
To finish I would just like to remind you...
In conclusion, thank you...
Do you have any questions? X. Choose one of the presentation situations below. Prepare a short presentation and get ready to answer the students' questions about your product and services.Your company is developing a small car aimed at women.
Audience: a group of car dealers.
Your bank wishes to encourage young people to save money.
Audience: a group of students.

XI. How to say nothing.Here are some phrases that can be useful when avoiding answering questions.
I'm afraid I can't comment at the moment.
A statement will be issued shortly.
I'm sorry, but I can't comment at this stage.
Thank you for your interest but I can't tell you anything before the statement is issued.
That's confidential. I'm afraid I'm not at liberty to tell you.
That's not really my field. But I can put you in touch with someone in my organization who is working on...
Well, I think that goes beyond the scope of today's presentation.
Today I wanted to concentrate on.., not to go into particular case studies in...
I'm afraid we've run out of time. But if you'd like to come and discuss that with me now, I'll try and give you an answer.After the presentation you are asked questions, that you can't answer. Try to be polite, but try to say noting important. 1. In what ways do you think ________is going to change the way your management consultants work in the future?
2. What new technologies are you going to introduce?
3. What's the average salary for your consultants?
4. I don't know if you have time to answer this, but can you tell me how I can apply to work for __________ ?
5. You say that ____________have enormously increased profits for some companies. Can you give one or two examples of this?
6. Is ______________going to expand in the future? etc.
b) Meeting the press.
Students: Try to think of some tricky questions that you could ask after the presentation.
Student A: be polite and try to avoid answering them.
XII. Steps towards a successful presentation. Make up a dialogue:
Student A (PR executive): is preparing a first-time presentation and asks the training officer for advice.
Student В (Training officer): consult the PR executive on the presentation.
Remember that thinking about the audience is the key to success. So begin by defining who these people are and what they expect. Use the following questions and statements:
What kind of language do these people use?
Why were you invited to make this presentation?
Can people hear you?
How should you look at the audience?
Should you use notes?
Are they friends, colleagues, customers or total strangers?
What work-related problems do these people have?
Does the audience appreciate humour?
Should you show any visual aids?
How long should the presentation be?
Step 1. Define who these people are. Define their essential features and motivations. What work do they do? What is their level of education? What kind of language do they use? What problems and opportunities might they have?
Step 2. There must be something special about your expertise that is of interest to the audience. An audience can be disappointed if the speaker ignores the reason why he or she was chosen.
Step 3. When you were invited, you were probably given a general idea.
The best thing is to take only as much time as is necessary to discuss it.
The only thing worse than being long and boring is being too short
and not fully understood.
Step 4. Your knowledge of their problems is probably why you were invited to speak. They expect new insights, a different point of view, and ideas that they can take away and use so that they feel their time was well spent listening to you.
Step 5. If your audience is from a particular industry, what terminology does it understand best? The audience dictates your choice of words, but remember, you should always make your language clear and concise, especially if the language is not your mother tongue.
Step 6. What is funny in one culture may not be in another. The subject of your presentation is probably serious and, for some people, humour may be out of place. A light touch here and there is all right but humour cannot replace good ideas.
Step 7. Use visual aids if they make your speech easier to understand.
But make them clear and simple. Don't laboriously read out aloud what is written on the screen, on the board etc. Make sure that everyone can see it, even from the back of the room.
Step 8. Speak loudly enough to make your voice carry to the furthest listener. No one wants to listen to someone who mumbles and who does not speak with conviction.
Step 9. Make direct eye contact. Try to convince your audience you are talking to them personally. It also makes you feel that you have made contact with them as individuals.
Step 10. Make an outline, perhaps on small cards, and consult them as you speak. This forces you to organize your presentation in a logical, coherent way and not wander off the point.
Choose one of the situations below. Prepare a short presentation of three to five minutes. Include phrases from the Useful language list.
Topic: A country you have visited on holiday or done business in.
Audience: A group of people who will shortly be working there.
Suggestions:
way of life; customs and traditions;
transport; weather;
accommodation; language;
food and drink; people;
standard of living; entertainment.
Topic: Your company’s main competitors.
Audience: The board of directors of your company.
Suggestions:
who they are;
their strengths and weaknesses;
how powerful they are in the market relative to you.
Topic: Your job.
Audience: A group of high school students at a careers evening.
Suggestions:
responsibilities and tasks;
the future;
perks and special advantages, e.g. foreign travel;
qualifications;
career structure.
UNIT IX
NEGOTIATIONS
Ι. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
negotiation [ ], bargain [ ], arrangement [ ], acceptable [ ], foreign [ ], succeed [ ], argument [ ], etiquette [ ], priority [ ], estimate [ ], concession [ ], key [ ], hasty [ ], criticism [ ], acknowledgment [ ], behavior [ ], hierarchy [ ], clarification [ ], vague [ ], ambiguous [ ], concession [ ], guarantee [ ], gesture [ ], haggle [ ], dispute [ ], confrontational [ ], adversarial [ ], reassure [ ], mutual [ ]
II. Translate the following words and word combination into Russian and learn them by heart:
to make concession
ambiguous
feedback
to anticipate problems
to be on home ground
convincing arguments
to maintain eye contact
to ask for clarification
to focus on the main issues
to bargain
trade-off
to haggle
to back down
to climb down
to give in
under duress
to clinch a deal/a bargain
to remain composed
bargaining position
a fallback position
non-negotiable

III. Read and translate the text.
NEGOTIATIONS
Negotiation is the act or process of discussing formally for the purpose of arranging a business deal, of bargaining over business deals. The aim of any negotiation is to reach an arrangement acceptable to all those taking part.
Conducting a negotiation in a foreign language is a complex activity that requires a combination of listening and speaking skills. For any negotiation to succeed, each side must only have a clear understanding of what the other side is proposing but be able to present convincing arguments in support of their own positions. That is why before negotiations start, preparing and planning are very important.
Get as much information as possible about the situation. If dealing with people from another culture, find out about its etiquette and negotiating styles. Work out your initial bargaining position: what your needs and objectives are. Decide your priorities. Try to estimate the needs and objectives of the other side. Prepare a fallback position. Perhaps you are in a position to influence the choice of venue. If so, would you prefer to: be on your own ground/ on home ground, meet on neutral ground, for example, in a hotel or go to see the other party on their ground?
Agreements usually involve a degree of compromise with each side making concessions which are usually accompanied by conditions. The following guidelines will help you adopt the right general approach during the negotiation.
Self-control is a key quality – you should be careful not to let emotional reactions influence your judgment.
Being able to reach a compromise is a critical ingredients and it is important to understand that you may have to make concessions.
Understanding the position of the other side is essential if you are going to reach an agreement.
Allowing time arguments to be developed and not making hasty decisions are two important qualities.
Distinguishing what is important from what is not helps to focus on the main issues.
Reacting calmly to criticism will help to increase the chances of a successful outcome.
Doing the background research before entering a negotiation that you will be able to anticipate problems that may arise and the people will adopt on certain issues.
Looking for a solution that can benefit both parties is the key to win-win negotiating.
Being able to deal with stress will enable you to remain composed during a negotiation.
Listening carefully to what people have to say is essential in order to understand exactly what they are expecting from you and to seek clarification where necessary.
Adopt an active approach to listening during the role-play by maintaining eye contact.
Use appropriate body language to show acknowledgement of what is being said (i.e. nodding, smiling). When you are negotiating with people from other cultures, it is important to think about what they consider as “normal” behavior. You will need to think about the following: body language, physical contact, conversational rules, hierarchy.
Take opportunities to summarize the arguments of the other person to confirm your understanding and ask for clarification when statements are vague or ambiguous. For negotiation to be successful both sides must have feeling that they can trust each other. Establishing such a relationship is the first priority.
It is important that you speak slowly and clearly and explain exactly what is involved in what you are proposing. Invite the other party to respond to your proposals by asking them for feedback.
Through a series of proposals or offers from one side and counter-proposals or counter-offers from the other side, the two sides work towards an agreement which will benefit them both. When you offer to change your position to one that is less favorable to yourself, you make a concession. Perhaps this is in exchange for a concession from the other side, although there is no guarantee of this. Your concession may be a goodwill gesture.
Even in a friendly negotiation, there may be horse-trading, with each side making a series of concessions in return for concessions from the other side. If you argue about something for a long time, especially about the price of something, you haggle.
A series of concession in exchanging from the other side is a series of trade-offs. If you make a concession, you may not get anything back. If you make a trade-off, you give something away and get something in return. Sometimes one side is in a stronger position than the other: they have more bargaining power. For example, during a recent strike at Lamba Inc., the company was in financial difficulty and the public was on the workers’ side, so Lamba was negotiating from weakness. The strikers’ union knew this: they were negotiating from strength.
The union made demands: objectives that were so important that they were unwilling to change them. They wanted 15 per cent pay increase. Later they moderated these demands, and said they would accept ten per cent. However, their demand for a week’s extra holiday was non-negotiable: they would not accept less.
Lamda said they were being forced to accept something that they did not want. They accused the union of making them negotiate under duress.
Eventually Lamda conceded to most of the union’s demands and gave them what they wanted. The media said that Lamda had backed down, climbed down and given in.
The feelings had been very strong on each side: the dispute was bitter, and the negotiations were confrontational and adversarial.
Although using tricks is not recommended, there are negotiators who: issue threats, final offers or ultimatums, lie and bluff. Of course, you can always call someone’s bluff: if you can gain an advantage of it.
When negotiations get stuck and don’t progress, there are a number of things you can do:
underline common ground;
reassure the other side on key points that have been decided;
be willing to compromise on your original objectives;
identify the exact obstacles or sticking points;
postpone discussions until later so that each side can reconsider its position.
In a successful negotiation, everyone should leave the negotiating table happy with the outcome: there shouldn’t be winners and losers. The negotiators should try to reach a win-win solution: an agreement to their mutual advantage.

IV. Complete these sentences using word combinations from the text and translate them into Russian.
1. Buyer and seller enter into a legally ________________contract once an offer has been accepted.
2. DAF is bidding for a ___________contract to supply trucks to the British army.
3. If two people have agreed on something and signed a sheet of paper, is that a _________ contract?
4. Peters claimed that Schaffer was only an employee in his company, but Schaffer asserted that an unwritten,___________ contract made them partners.
5. She had an ___________ contract due to expire later in the year and wanted to take time off work to have children.
Answer the following questions.
Why do they say a negotiation in a foreign language is a complex activity?
What is necessary to do in order to reach an agreement?
What should one do preparing for a negotiation?
How should one behave while negotiating?
What are the major guidelines to follow?
What are the ways of furthering the negotiation?
What problems can arise while negotiating?
How should one deal with them? Why?
VI. Useful words and expressions
Opening a negotiation:
I’d like to start with…
The first thing I would like to discuss is…
It seems best to start with…
I’m sure/confident we can reach agreement. (optimistic)
I’m sure there’s room for negotiation.
We have a lot to discuss.
Let’s see how we get on. (cautious)
Putting forward a proposal:
What we are proposing is…
We are offering…
I think we could give you…
Agreeing with a proposal:
That’s fine/ OK by me…
I would accept…
That’s exactly what we are looking for…
Suggesting a compromise:
May I make a suggestion?
If you… then we may be able to…
We may be able to… but only if you…
Unless you… there is no question of our being able to…
Disagreeing with, or refusing a proposal:
I’m afraid that’s not exactly what I had in mind.
That’s not how we see it.
I can’t accept that.
That’s out of the question.
Imposing conditions:
We would agree to that but only if…
We can’t accept that unless…
That would be on condition that…
We would be prepared to… provided…
Asking for clarification:
Could you be more specific?
What exactly are you proposing?
Can you be more precise?
Summarizing what has been said:
So, what you are saying is that…
If I’ve got this right, you are suggesting…
Correct me if I’m wrong but are you saying that…?
Am I right in thinking that…?
Postponing a decision or playing for time:
I’m afraid we will need more time before we can make a decision.
I’ll have to get back to you on that.
Concluding a deal:
It’s a deal.
You’ve got yourself a deal.
Your turn to negotiate.
Using these world and expressions discuss delivery periods for machines you have ordered with the supplier. When he stops talking it is your turn to speak. You speak in turn until an agreement is reached.
Supplier: Well, let’s get started. You know, with this delivery problem I’m sure there’s room for negotiation.
You: (1: cautious)
Supplier: Right, well this is how we see it. We can deliver the first machine in ten weeks, and install it four weeks after that.
You: (3: long delivery period)
Supplier: Well, these are in fact the usual periods. It’s pretty normal in this kind of operation. Did you expect we could deliver any quicker?
You: (2: 6 weeks maximum delivery; 4 weeks installation)
Supplier: I see what you mean, but that would be very difficult. You see we have a lot of orders to handle at present, and moving just one of these machines is a major operation. Look, if I can promise you delivery in eight weeks, does that help?
You: (4: too late)
Supplier: Ah-ha! Well, look…er… You want the machine in six weeks. Now that is really a very short deadline in this business. You said that you couldn’t take it any later, but couldn’t your engineers find a way to re-schedule just a little, say another week?
You: (5: refuse)
Supplier: Well, you really are asking us for something that is very difficult. I’ve already offered you seven weeks. I’ll have to consult with my colleagues and come back to you, but I can’t see what we can do.
You: (6: if deliver in 6 weeks perhaps talk about further order)
Supplier: Well, on that basis I suppose we might be able to look at some kind of arrangement. In fact, if you can promise another order I think we could accept your terms.
You: (7: 6 weeks delivery; 4 weeks installation; decision on next order by 26th of this month)
Supplier: Exactly. If you could confirm this in writing I…
Decide which of the alternatives (A-E) each speaker is talking about. You will have to use some alternatives more than once.
A. trade dispute D. wage negotiations
B. merger negotiations E. bargaining tactic
C. customer-supplier negotiations

1. We agree that when the new company is formed, there will be no forced redundancies.
2. We’ve agreed to a rise of 2.5%, but the union also wants a minimum salary of ₤20,000.
3. If the US taxes our steel exports, we will increase the tax on goods from the US.
4. We start by asking for a very high price, then we negotiate down to a reasonable level.
5. If we order 10,000 units from you, what discount will you offer us?
6. The President of Energon will head the company and I have agreed to stay on as VIP.
7. The employers’ offer is a joke. Our members deserve at least 8% this year.
IX. Draw a line from each word on the left to a word on the right to make a word pair. (There is one word that you don’t have to use.) Then use your word pairs to complete the sentences below and translate them into Russian.
kick atmosphere
fallback ground
neutral priority
relaxed talk
negotiating off
small position
team
1. We will hold talks on _____________ so neither side has an advantage.
2. We’ll _____________ the discussion by setting out our needs.
3. Our ______________ is very experienced and fully understands the process.
4. We believe the talks will be held in a ____________ with no real arguments.
5. We start with ____________ over coffee, but then it gets serious.
6. We have asked for 10%, but we do have a ____________if that is turned down.
X. After one of the negotiations draw up a contract according to the pattern and sign it.
Contract No __________
For ___________ products (in bulk/wholesale)
Bryansk __________ Date________________

The contract is made between _________________hereinafter called “Sellers” and ____________hereinafter called “Buyers”, whereby it is agreed as follows:
1. SUBJECT OF THE CONTRACT
Sellers have sold and Buyers have bought_____________________________
2. QUALITY
The goods sold under the present contract shall be of the following specification:______________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
3. PRICE
_______________________________________________________________
4. TIME OF DELIVERY
The goods sold under the present contract are to be delivered by Sellers and accepted by Buyers__________________________________________________
5. PAYMENT
_______________________________________________________________
The rate of exchange of U. S. into ____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
JURIDICAL ADDRESSES
Sellers: _________________________________________________________
Buyers: ________________________________________________________
SELLERS BUYERS

(Signatures) (Signatures)
UNIT X
FRANCHISING
Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
franchising [ ], franchiser [ ], franchisee [ ], advantage [ ], reputation [ ], franchise [ ], calculate [ ], annual [ ], turnover [ ], manual [ ], Europe [ ], France [ ], invasion [ ], licence [ ], joint venture [ ], throughout [ ], Paris [ ].

Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and learn them by heart:
- to take advantage of smth - operations manual
- to be (under)developed in franchising - annual turnover
- to make retail sales through franchising - a boom
- to achieve international development - cross-border franchising
- to be well established in… - to grant master licences
- to form a joint venture - local market expertise
- to be on the up and up - to lead way in franchising in
- to put up capital Europe
- franchising - advertising fee - franchiser - to bring franchising to a wider
- franchisee public

Read and translate the text.
FRANCHISING
Franchising can be defined as a business system in which a company(or franchiser) sells an individual (or franchisee) the right to operate a business using the franchisor’s established system or format. The franchisee is thus able to take advantage of the franchiser's brand names, reputation and experience. As part of the contract (or franchise agreement) the franchisee pays an initial sum of money, known as a franchise (or front end) fee, to the franchiser and, in addition, agrees to pay a management services fee (royalty), which is usually calculated as a percentage of the annual turnover. In certain cases the franchisee may also pay an advertisingfee to contribute to the franchisor's annual advertising and marketing costs. It is important to realize that the franchisee also has to put up the necessary capital to open and manage the business. Once the contract has been agreed, the franchiser provides an operations manual, which is a document containing all the information that the franchisee requires in order to run his or her business.
Massive growth in franchising across Europe is forecast over the next few years as trade barriers, which used to obstruct business activity, disappear. Something of a boom is predicted by a number of companies who are preparing an onslaught on European markets, which are still relatively underdeveloped in franchising.
France and Britain are the most franchised-developed countries, but even in these two only 10 percent of retail sales are made through franchised outlets.
The most optimistic projections suggest that by the end of this decadeas much as half of all sales in Europe will come through franchised outlets.American companies especially see Europe as a happy hunting ground and are using Britain with its common language as the launch pad for European expansion.
Names like McDonald’s, Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken and, more recently, Domino's Pizza have already blazed trails across Europe.From now on it is likely to be US retailing and service companies that will make up the invasion force.
‘We know of a number of US operators looking to use the UK as a foothold for moving into Europe’, says Stuart Brown a consultant with Hayward Franchising Services. ‘We expect considerable growth in cross-border franchising as a means of achieving international development. In most cases, companies need a local partner who knows the market place. Hence the expansion through master licences of franchising. Joint ventures are the name of the game’.
In retailing, Body Shop has led the way in franchising in Europe. Having opened its first shop in Belgium in 1988 it now has more than 250 outlets in mainland Europe, from Finland to Portugal. Chairman Anita Roddick and her vision of local partnerships in other countries has made Body Shop one of the greatest retail successes since the war.
Benetton of Italy used the method of granting master licences to similar effect and another Italian casual clothing company Stefanel, is using franchising to move into eastern European countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, and others.
Local market expertise is essential for best financial returns. There maybe no boundaries in Europe any more, but cultures remain very different. It is no use saying: what's good enough for the British is good enough for the French. You have to understand local culture that is why franchising to local businessmen is the best way to expand.
The range of franchise opportunities is now myriad. Retailing used tobe the main cross-border growth area and names like Mothercare, Evans (part of the Burton Group) and even Marks and Spenser are taking the franchise route to Europe. Now come service companies, whether it be office cleaning, car tuning, computer technology, picture framing, hairdressing or legal services. One already making a move is a ServiceMaster, the US-based cleaning operator. It is now well established in the UK and has moved into Germany, from where it is expecting toexpand into other countries.
To bring franchising to a wider public an increasing number of exhibitions are being held. The Blenheim Group is responsible for a number of these shows and their spokesman Cheryl Wallis says: ‘Cross-border franchising is on the up and up now that trade restrictions are disappearing. Our Paris show was particularly well received. We had 22,000 visitors and 170 exhibitors, 12 per cent of whom were from outside France’. A number of French companies are poised to invade the UK via the franchise route. Cross-border franchising is definitely the name of the game from now on.
IV. Complete the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. Franchising may be defined as____________________________________.
2. In order to reach a franchise agreement_____________________________.
3. Over the next few years as trade barriers disappear____________________.
4. Many companies aspire to achieve international development through_____.
5. Only 10 per cent of retail sales are currently made through franchised outlets because________________________.
6. A number of companies are preparing an onslaught on European markets_____________________.
7. The UK is used as the launch pad for European expansion_____________.
8. Since franchising is already well established in the UK________________.
9. To manage his own business a franchisee needs______________________.
V. Read the following statements and decide which refer to the franchiser and which to the franchisee:
1. He can get advice on how to deal with specific problems in the operations manual. 2. He doesn't have to put up large amounts of capital to expand. 3. He must respect certain rules. 4. He may have to buy supplies from one source. 5. He is responsible for national advertising. 6. He provides regular reports on the level of sales. 7. He pays the front end as soon as the franchise agreement is signed. 8. He provides marketing assistance. 9. He seeks individuals with business qualifications. 10. He must cover monthly advertising expenses. 11. He receives a percentage of total sales.
Now sum up everything you know about the rights and obligations of the franchisers and the franchisees.

VI. According to the text are the following statements true or false? Correct the false ones and comment on the right ones.
1. To open his/her franchise outlet one has only to pay the initial sum of money - the so-called front end. 2. In most European countries franchised operations account for the tenth of the volume of retail business. 3. The Paris Franchise show was held to stimulate franchising activity. 4. Benetton of Italy has led the way in European franchising. 5. For companies who want to expand into foreign markets, setting up a franchise is the safest and most profitable way. 6. At present US franchisers are investing mainly in the UK. 7. Retailing is the only perspective area in franchising business. 8. With the unified market it is safe to assume that what sells well in one European country will also sell well in another. 9. Domino's Pizza was the first American food franchise to expand into Europe.
10. Today franchising is confined to the national scope.

VII. Choose the right English equivalents for the expressions in brackets.

1. The franchise agreement enables the franchisee (пользоваться) the franchiser’s (налаженной 6uзнec - cuстeмой). 2. To open and operate a franchised business one has to (вложить немалую сумму денег). 3. (Исчезновение торговых преград) clear the way for massive (pacпpocтpaнение) of franchising across Europe. 4. Management services fee (royalty) is calculated as a percentage of (годовой оборот). 5. Today in Britain and France only 10 % of (розничных продаж) are made through (франшизные предприятия). 6. A boom is expected as US companies (осваивают европейский рынок). 7. Britain is generally used as (опорная точка) for moving into Europe. 8. Body Shop (стал «пионером») in franchising in Europe. 9. It is important to carry out a (изучение местного рынка) before (продавать права на использование торговой марки). 10. As soon as a company (хорошо обоснуется) in one country it looks for ways of further (распространение). 11. Franchising is the best way to (достичь международного распространения) and (увеличить прибыль).
VIII. Restore the dialogue filling in the gaps with the words and word combinations from the list, translate it into Russian.
royalty, leading way, granting master licence, a foothold, the operations manual, joint venture, the front end, expect, the returns, underdeveloped, a local market expertise, well established, put up, the franchise agreement, franchise, the annual turnover, run, liquid capital, a franchised outlet, to take advantage
Secretary: Good afternoon. ‘Marks and Spencer International’.
Mr Laxon: Good afternoon. Can I speak to Mr Glades, Franchise Development Manager, please?
Secretary: Just a moment, I'll check if he is in…Yes, I'm putting you through.
Mr Glades: George Glades, Franchise Development Department, can I help you?
Mr Laxon: Good afternoon, Mr Glades. It's Adam Laxon, Sales Director for ‘Trend’, Texas. I've been trying to get in touch with you in order to talk over the possibility of taking out a_________ with your company.
Mr Glades: I see. Yes, we’re already ___________in many states but not in yours yet. Well, I think you realize that your company will have to_______a considerable sum of money to open and to __________ the business…
Mr Laxon: Certainly. That’s actually the point I’d like to discuss. What are your financial requirements for setting up_____________?
Mr Glades: Well, let’s see… We have a rich franchising experience, which shows that you’ll probably need about $ 30000-35000 of _______if you are going to ask for a credit, about $ 70000 of working capital and about $ 10000 for the front end.Mr Laxon: And what about the on-going fees?
Mr Glades: The _________makes around 6 % of__________and the marketing and publicity fees - around 4 %.
Mr Laxon: I see. And what is the projected turnover of a typical outlet?
Mr Glades: Since Texas is relatively __________ in the franchising business and we will be_________ in it, the turnover in the first year probably won't exceed $ 150000 and it will make about $ 20000 of profit for you. But I think we could increase _________significantly if we carry out_______________.
Mr Laxon: Glad to hear it! And what is the procedure of__________?
Mr Glades: Well, we settle the financial and management terms of the initial contract and sign____________, which will enable you ___________ of our brand names. Then your company pays ___________and we provide you with____________, which will guide you in operating your business. Where is your head office located?
Mr Laxon: In Houston. You could use it as ___for moving into the state’s market. Mr Glades: That’s right.
Mr Laxon: Thank you, Mr Glades for the information. I’ll call you back during the week to fix a meeting and talk over the details of our_________________.
Mr Glades: All right. I _____________to hear from you soon. Good-bye.
Mr Laxon: Good-bye.
IX. Study the given information about the American franchise “Imagine that!!!” You are interested in finding out more because you think that the concept would work well in your own country.
Imagine That!!!
“Imagine That!!!” is a new American franchise whose customers all have one thing in common: they are all aged between 2 and 10! The idea for the company, which was started in April 2008 was the brainchild of two married couples, the Bonders and the Petersons, who all thought that there was room on the market for a new concept in children’s entertainment. As Mrs Peterson says: "We wanted to start a fun business, which our children would enjoy and could get involved with. We wanted to have some fun place, where parents could bring their children and which would also be educational." At present the company’s first “Discovery Center” is located in East Hanover, New Jersey, but there are already plans to open a second, franchised operation in the near future. The centres themselves, occupy 14 square feet, contain 38 exhibits that children can interact with. In the "Kidpot" children can sit in the cockpit of a real Piper airplane and handle the controls. At the ‘Corner Grocery’ they can do their own shopping that they can even pay with pretend money. “Imagine That!!!" also aims to familiarize children with some of the difficulties which face handicapped people in their daily lives. The "Disabled" exhibit gives the chance to handle Braille books and to attend handicap awareness demonstrations. The company is expanding actively and is keen to hear from people who would be interested in taking out an ”Imagine That!!!” franchise. Although the cost of opening an “Imagine That!!!” unit will vary according to size and location, future franchisees should be prepared to make a total investment of between $ 385000 and $ 425000.
X. Prepare a list of additional information that you need about thefranchiser and of any specific questions that you would like to ask. Now, using your list, write a short e-mail message to “Imagine that!!!”in which you present yourself as a potential franchiser or masterfranchiser and then request information on the various points.
The e-mail address of “Imagine that!!!’’ is [email protected] NB! Don't forget to indicate your own e-mail address.
To: ________________________________________________
Cc: ________________________________________________
Bcc: _______________________________________________
Subject: ____________________________________________
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Adam J.H. Longman Dictionary of Business English. – London, 2003.
Сергеева В.С. Бизнес словарь: англо-русский и русско-английский. – М., 2008.
Lannon M., Tullis G., Trappe T. Insights into Business. – L., 2005.
Tullis G., Trappe T. New Insights into Business. – L., 2005.
Cotton D., Falvey D. Market Leader. - Essex, 2008.
Jones L., Alexander R. International Business English. - Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Lees G., Thorne T. English on Business. Practical English for International Executives.- L., 2008
Evans D., Strutt P. An intermediate Business English course. – Essex, 2008
Norman S. We’re in business. English for commercial practice and international trade. – Essex, 2005
Морохова Т.С. Профессиональная коммуникация. – М.: Рема, 2010


Артемова Вера Степановна
Цыганкова Елена Анатольевна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
«Деловой английский язык»
для студентов – бакалавров 2 курса,
обучающихся по направлениям
081100 «Государственное и муниципальное управление»,
080100 «Экономика»,
190600 «Эксплуатация транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования»
и магистров всех направлений
(Часть 1)
Формат Тираж Печ. л. –
Брянская государственная инженерно-технологическая академия
241037 г. Брянск, пр. Станке Димитрова, 3, редакционно-издательский отдел
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