МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ
УО “ПОЛЕССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ”
Кафедра иностранных языков
по дисциплине “Иностранный язык”
на тему “Спортивно-событийный туризм как инновационное направление отрасли ”
Магистрант группы 15-МЭ
Специальности “Экономика и управление
народным хозяйством” А. Б. Руденко
Руководитель Ю. Н. Русина
TOC \o "1-1" \h \z \u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc450150402 \h 31 What is innovation? PAGEREF _Toc450150403 \h 42 Innovation Typology for the hospitality and Tourism Marketplace PAGEREF _Toc450150404 \h 73 Tourism as a Globalised System PAGEREF _Toc450150405 \h 84. History of tourism. PAGEREF _Toc450150406 \h 105. Types of tourists PAGEREF _Toc450150407 \h 126 What Is Sports Tourism? PAGEREF _Toc450150408 \h 137 Types of Sports Tourism PAGEREF _Toc450150409 \h 158 Categorization of sport events PAGEREF _Toc450150410 \h 169 Active Sport Tourism PAGEREF _Toc450150411 \h 18CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc450150412 \h 21REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc450150413 \h 22GLOSSARY PAGEREF _Toc450150414 \h 23
INTRODUCTIONSports Tourism, as a term, refers to tours and travel to different countries in the world that involves either a participation in a sporting event or simply viewing them. Tours involving sports in their itinerary have developed into a fastest growing sector in the world travel industry. In modern times, sports tourism equates to 600 billion dollar on a yearly basis. Tourism involving sports has witnessed a steady growth worldwide, since 1970’s. Some of the popular games associated with such kind of tour and travel include Olympic, Commonwealth, Asian Games, football world cup, cricket world cup, and rugby. These sporting events give specialized travel and tour companies the opportunity of official ticket allocation. These tickets are then sold in packages including the facilitating options of flights, hotels, and excursions.
International sports events (the Olympic Games, World and Continental Championships, Universiade) attract millions of people. Even the development of modern communication systems and television do not reduce the flow of tourists travelling to other countries to take part in the sports festival personally and support the team of their country. We can assume that a visit to sports is one of the oldest forms of travel.
In today's stream sports event tourism athletes and their attendants make up a small part, they are mainly represented by fans. For example, in football matches of the European championships up to several tens of thousands of fans of the team who arrived from another country are present. Trips to sporting events give a considerable tourist revenue to the country where this event takes place.
SET is a type of tourism in which the tourist becomes a living witness to great events in the world of sport - the Olympic Games, World and European championships in individual sports. An example is the Winter Olympics in Sochi, the Universiade 2013, World Championships in Aquatics.
All the above mentioned proves the relevance of the topic of this work which is devoted to defining the essence of sports tourism.
This work consists of 9 parts such as: What is innovation? Innovation Typology for the hospitality and Tourism Marketplace, Tourism as a Globalised System, History of tourism, Types of Tourists, What Is Sports Tourism?, Types of Sports Tourism, Categorization of sports events, Active Sports Tourism and also Introduction, Conclusion, References and Glossary.
1 What is innovation?Innovation can be defined as the application of new ideas to the products, processes, or other aspects of the activities of a firm that lead to increased “value.” This “value” is defined in a broad way to include higher value added for the firm and also benefits to consumers or other firms. Two important definitions are:
•Product innovation: the introduction of a new product, or a significant qualitative change in an existing product.
•Process innovation: the introduction of a new process for making or delivering goods and services.
Some authors have emphasized a third category of innovation, that of organizational change within the firm, but some scientists see this as being naturally included within the second category, as a type of process innovation. Product innovations may be tangible manufactured goods, intangible services, or a combination of the two. Examples of recent tangible product innovations that have had a very significant impact on the way people live and work are personal computers, mobile phones, and microwave ovens. Intangible products that complement these types of physical equipment include the various pieces of computer software needed to control flows of information through these devices, leading to the delivery of information, the supply of communication services, or the arrival of a correctly heated dinner. Equally, process innovations, which are new. Joseph Schumpeter not only listed these three categories, but also defined as innovation the opening of a new market, or the development of new sources of supply for raw materials. Some authors prefer to allocate these to entrepreneurial activity rather than to innovation.
What Is Innovation?
Ways of making and doing things, can arise from the use of new combinations of tangible and intangible inputs. A robotic machine to assemble cars can deliver welding services with even greater precision than a human welder, but is only as good as its computer control system.
Inherent in the above definitions of innovation is an element of novelty. The question then arises as to how much novelty is enough to identify any change as “innovation.” A key issue here is to distinguish innovation, the bringing to market of a truly novel item, from imitation, the adoption of a new technique or design that is already in the market. A product or process can be new to the firm, new to the domestic market, or new to the world market. Clearly, the last of these, global novelty, is suﬃcient to qualify the product or process as an innovation. For those goods and services that are not internationally traded—whether due to the nature of the product, prohibitive transport costs, or restrictions on trade—the test of being “new to the domestic market” is suﬃcient to establish that there is an innovation within that economy. In some authors view, being “new to the firm” is an insuﬃcient test for innovation, as the firm in question may simply be adopting a product design, or a production method, introduced by a competitor. Drucker calls this the diﬀusion of innovation.
2 Drucker defines an innovation as new to the firm and new to the relevant market. Whether this relevant market is local or global is dependent on the product or process in question and the degree to which it is traded in a competitive global or local environment.
3 Another feature of Drucker two definitions of innovation is that the product or process must be introduced into the market place so that consumers or other firms can benefit. This distinguishes an innovation from an invention or discovery.
An invention or discovery enhances the stock of knowledge, but it does not instantaneously arrive in the market place as a full-fledged novel product or process. Innovation occurs at the point of bringing to the commercial market new products and processes arising from applications of both existing and new knowledge. Thus we can see that innovation occurs at the kernel of a complex process, preceded by inventions and succeeded by the widespread adoption of the new genre of products by customers, or the adoption of best-practice processes in the majority of firms. We call this final stage diﬀusion, and it is clear that the benefits of innovation to the economy and its citizens are not fully realized until this has taken place.
Defining Knowledge and Technology
Already we have begun to make continual reference to knowledge and technology. What do economists mean by these terms? Economically relevant knowledge is the whole body of scientific evidence and human expertise that is, or could be, useful in the production and supply of commodities and in the invention and design of new products and processes. Knowledge can be codified, as in a chemical formula or computing algorithm, or it can be tacit, as when a person knows how to do something that is not written down, like mixing and serving a perfect cocktail.
When knowledge is embodied in individuals it is often referred to as human capital, to distinguish this valuable asset from physical capital, such as machinery or buildings. For an individual, the acquisition of new skills and knowledge through education and training increases his/her human capital.
Technology encompasses the current set of production techniques used to design, make, package, and deliver goods and services in the economy. So technology is the application of selected parts of the knowledge stock to production activity. Within the firm, the technology used determines its productive capability when combined with other inputs. Inventions and discoveries add to the stock of knowledge that can be applied to production. Some types of innovations, termed process innovations above, add to the available stock of technology for production, while product innovations add to the choice of products facing final customers.
The Stages of the Innovation Process
The innovation process has a number of stages that can be distinguished At each stage of the process there are activities requiring inputs of knowledge, embodied in skilled personnel and specialized equipment, and investment of time in using these resources. Additionally, each stage, if successful, produces an output. In his book “The Economics of Production and Innovation”, Rosegger identified five stages in the process of technological change.
This framework was largely directed to explaining the sources of manufacturing innovation. Some authors have modified this picture to include a more modern view of knowledge production, including computing and services. The first stages of the innovation process produce basic scientific knowledge, plans for new processes or blueprints, and initial prototypes of new products or processes.
This is when we may talk of “inventions being made” and the hard work, or genius, of inventors. All of this activity is frequently lumped together as research and development (R&D), but it represents premarket activity by a variety of agents, including public scientific institutions, universities, lone inventors, and firms. It is only when stage 4 is reached, at the point where there is a marketable product or new process, that innovation is achieved.
This phase of commercialization triggers the start of another chain of events, broadly characterized as diﬀusion which covers the widespread adoption of the new product or process by the market. It is also vital to understand that there is feedback between the various stages: innovation is rarely a linear progression through the stages shown. There is also feedback between the diﬀusion and innovation stages. As consumers, or other firms, start using the innovations, they often adapt or improve them, or relay information on how to do so back to the innovating firms. This type of refinement, or incremental innovation, is often very important as the initial product or process is rarely perfect..
2 Innovation Typology for the hospitality and Tourism MarketplaceReaching consensus among scholars and practitioners regarding the categories and definitions of the types of innovation outputs is just the first step toward a classification that will allow us to converse with a common understanding.
Drucker suggests a complete classification for hospitality and tourism include the degree of innovativeness and the level of analysis in addition to the type of innovation output. Much work has been done in this regard in the product development and technology fields. Innovations have been defined as radical, meaning they redefine the market or incremental, defined as minor improvements. Other studies have used the terms breakthrough and reformulated when classifying new products.
Sometimes degree of innovativeness has been assessed on a continuum and other times high/medium/low distinctions have been used. Reviews of the new product development literature indicate that ambiguities in the classification scheme makes difficult to compare research studies and build new knowledge.
Given the infancy of research into hospitality and tourism innovations, we have an opportunity to reach consensus on a typology that avoids the pitfalls of ambiguity while providing a classification scheme useful to both researchers and practitioners.
If we choose to accept a comprehensive approach of innovation at all levels, our classification scheme should include various levels of innovativeness. The Seven Levels of Change Model may have something to offer the hospitality and tourism marketplace in this regard. Smith’s model considers looking at change at seven increasing levels of difficulty, from easy to almost impossible.
Levels 1 and 2 primarily involve change at a personal level. Level 1 is doing things right and level 2 is doing the right things. Level 3 is cutting – doing away with things – and emphasizes eliminating waste. At levels 4-7, we begin to recognize similarities with the constructs of incremental and breakthrough innovation described in the product development literature.
Dr.Smith labels level 4 enhancing. Level 4 changes make things more effective, more efficient, more productive, or more valuable. Level 5 change is copying – doing things other people are doing. Benchmarking and adapting bring about level 5 changes in organizations. Level 6 is doing things no one else is doing, and level 7 is doing the impossible – doing what can’t be done. Smith’s terminology is common in the hospitality and tourism industry, and it is consistent with building a systemic innovation orientation. It may be helpful to those of us who study and work in the hospitality and tourism marketplace to classify innovation outputs in these terms.
3 Tourism as a Globalised SystemTourism is often seen as a global phenomenon with an almost incomprehensibly massive infrastructure. Its importance is evident from the fact that its influence thoroughly penetrates society, politics, culture and, above all, the economy. In-deed, this is the branch of the global economy with the most vigorous growth: the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) estimates that in 2007 it encompassed 903 million tourists who spent 625 billion US dollars. They thereby supported a global system with roughly 100 million employees in the modern leisure and experience industry.
There exists a complex, interwoven world-wide structure dedicated to satisfying the specific touristic needs of mobile individuals, groups and masses. Since its inception, tourism has polarised: it reveals numerous views ranging from the total approval of its potential for enriching self-realisation combined with recreation to critical rejection due to the belief that it causes harm through the systematic dumbing down of entertainment and avoidable environmental destruction.
Beginning in the early 1920s, an early theory of Fremdenverkehr – a now obsolete term for tourism – emerged in the world that dealt mainly with business and economic problems; since the 1960s, it has been replaced by the ever-expanding field of tourism studies. This gives many disciplines the space to approach the subject of tourism, or at least aspects of it, from their own particular academic perspective. Today, tourism studies mean the multidisciplinary bundle of academic approaches in the sense of an undisguised "transdiscipline", which can find different applications. However, tourism studies do not exist as an integrated field of study. Instead, there are countless empirical accounts, case studies, approaches, theories and perspectives in individual disciplines, including economy, geography, psychology, architecture, ecology, sociology, political science, and medicine.
At first, the fields of business studies and economics dominated a study of tourism that was grounded in an institutional approach; general accounts, analyses from the cultural sciences and historical surveys came conspicuously late. Admittedly, cultural and social history, as well as historical anthropology, have been opening up to the questions surrounding tourism for some time.
However, these are perceived differently to those studies undertaken by economists and social scientists. At the same time, it is impossible to ignore the historical prerequisites and development of travelling habits and holidaying styles if one wants to understand the nature of tourism today. This is true not only of concepts and ideas associated with the topic but also the specific insights which the disciplines employed aim to provide. Conducting historical research on tourism within the context of the discipline of history is not synonymous with the task of writing a history of tourism.
4. History of tourism.According to some authors the history of tourism can be divided into 6 different stages as follow:
1)Roman Empire Period
During the Roman Empire period (from about 27 BC to AD 476), travel developed for military, trade and political reasons, as well as for communication of messages from the central government to its distant territories. Travel was also necessary for the artisans and architects “imported” to design and construct the great palaces and tombs. In ancient Greece, people traveled to Olympic Games. Both the participants and spectators required accommodations and food services. Wealthy Romans, in ancient times, traveled to seaside resorts in Greece and Egypt for sightseeing purpose.
2)Middle Age Period
During the Middle Age (from about AD 500 to 1400), there was a growth of travel for religious reasons. It had become an organized phenomenon for pilgrims to visit their “holy land”, such as Muslims to Mecca, and Christians to Jerusalem and Rome.
In the 16th century, the growth in England’s trade and commerce led to the rise of a new type of tourists
- those traveled to broaden their own experience and knowledge.
In the 17th century, the sons and daughters of the British aristocracy traveled throughout Europe (such as Italy, Germany and France) for periods of time, usually 2 or 3 years, to improve their knowledge. This was known as the Grand Tour, which became a necessary part of the training of future administrators and political leaders.
5)Industrial Revolution Period
The Industrial Revolution (from about AD 1750 to 1850) in Europe created the base for mass tourism. This period turned most people away from basic agriculture into the town / factory and urban way of life. As a result, there was a rapid growth of the wealth and education level of the middle class, as well as an increase of leisure time and a demand for holiday tourism activities. At that time, travel for health became important when the rich and fashionable Europeans began to visit the spa towns (such as Bath in England and Baden - Baden in Germany) and seaside resorts in England (such as Scarborough, Margate and Brighton).
6)19th to 20th Centuries
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the social and technological changes have had an immense impact on tourism. Great advances in science and technology made possible the invention of rapid, safe and relatively cheap forms of transport: the railways were invented in the 19th century and the passenger aircraft in the 20th century. World War II (AD 1939-1945) was also the impetus for dramatic improvements in communication and air transportation, which made travel much easier today than in earlier times.
The 1980s were called the boom years. Business and leisure travel expanded very rapidly. The baby-boomers were coming of age and had the money to spend. These travellers were looking for a variety of tourism products from exciting vacation options such as adventure travel, ecotourism and luxurious travel.
There was not only a significant expansion in the travel market but also in tourist destinations. The fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989 signified the doom of communism in Europe. Countries such as Russia and the Czech Republic became new tourist destinations both for vacation and business travellers.
The Aviation Industry was facing high operational costs, including wage, oil prices, handling fee of Central Reservation System (CRS), landing charge of the air crafts and advertising fee etc. During this decade, CRS also marched towards more sophisticated technology. It became possible for agents to book a huge inventory of tourism products, such as hotels, car rentals, cruises, rail passes, and theatre tickets from the CRS.
The introduction of “ticketless traveling” (electronic ticket) brings benefits to the airlines by cutting the amount of paperwork and cost of tickets. At the same time, passengers do not have to worry about carrying or losing tickets. Although, electronic ticketing does not bypass the travel agents as intermediaries, it makes it easier for the airline to deal directly with consumers.
The advance in technology also allows the airlines and other travel suppliers to sell directly to travellers through the Internet and interactive kiosks at airports. The kiosks at the airport usually sell hotel accommodation, transfer tickets such as bus tickets between airport and downtown areas and coach tickets from one city to another.
Travellers can now log on to the Internet easily reach for travel information, book a simple ticket or hotel room through their personal computer at home. There are thousands of new destinations, tour products and discounted airfares for travellers to choose from.
5. Types of touristsTourist can be defined as a person, who makes a tour away from home for leisure, business or other purposes for more than one day but less than a year. Based on their various needs and reasons for traveling, tourists are classified in the following categories:
Incentive tourists: Incentives tourists are those few lucky individuals, who get a holiday package as a reward from his company, for good work or achieving targets, set by the company. Incentive tourists draw inspiration from such tours to work harder, improve work relations and focus on team bonding. A salesman who is awarded a nice holiday package for accomplishing the target sales is a perfect example of incentive tourist.
Health or medical tourist: Those who seek special medical treatment, which is only possible away from home, make trips to other places and are called Health or medical tourist. Some of these tourists avail medical assistance in other countries, for they may be expensive in their own country. Many health or medical tourists also make trips simply to stay for few days in healthier climate. Hoards of medical tourist fly to South Africa from overseeing countries to undergo plastic surgery.
Business tourist: Tourist traveling with relation to business is known as a business tourist. Business tourism is part of the business world. Most of the cities feature conference centers that cater to the needs of business tourists. A proper example of a business tourist is a salesman, who makes trips to different places to attend trade shows, to display and promote his own products also.
Education tourists: Tourists traveling to a particular place in another town, city or country for further study in order to improve his or her educational qualification are termed as education tourist. There are also a group of people, who travel to attend workshops to upgrade skills. A clinic nurse, who makes a trip to another province to attend a particular workshop, qualifying individual about infectious diseases is an example of an educational tourist.
Adventure tourists: Adventure tourists look for some unusual or bizarre experience. They seek adventurous activities that may be dangerous, such as rock climbing, river rafting, skydiving, shark cave diving and bungee jumping.
Cultural tourist: These types of tourists travel to experience the essence of assorted cultures, such as San rock art, or cultural festivals such as the National Art Festival in Grahams town, or the International Jazz Festival in Cape Town. Cultural tourists also prefer to witness the World Heritage Sites of the traveled country.
Eco-tourists: Nature loving tourists, who love to go green like traveling to Bonita Gardens in Bloemfontein South Africa or similar destinations are called eco-tourists. They travel throughout the world in search of destinations not affected by pollution or much human intervention.
Leisure tourist: These tourists want to rejuvenate and revitalize with comfort, while enjoying a break from the mundane routine of life. Examples of this type of tourism are cruising while vacationing or simply relaxing on a beach.
Religious tourist: Religious tourist travel to sites of religious significance. The world is dotted with a number of religious locations like Hajj in Mecca, Jerusalem in Israel, Varanasi in India, and the Vatican in Rome. During Easter, a huge conglomeration of Christian pilgrimage takes place in Zion City.
Sport and recreation tourist: These sorts of tourists either take active part in or just watch sports events. Some of such popular sport events are the Soccer World Cup, Wimbledon Tennis Championship, Comrades Marathon, and Fisher River Canoe Marathon.
Backpacking or youth tourist: This group of tourist is of young age and they travel with minimum luggage and on a limited budget. But they are very passionate and love excitements and adventures, while traveling. They generally have no specific travel schedules and tend to travel independently.
Special Interest Tourist (STI): They nurture particular passion in different things like bird watching, nature, fishing during the Sardine Run, food and wine or attending the Cape Town Book Fair.
6 What Is Sports Tourism?Sports Tourism is defined as a specific travel outside of the usual environment for either passive or active involvement in competitive sport where sport is the prime motivational reason for travel and the touristic or leisure element may act to reinforce the overall experience. Another definition worth noting explains sport tourism as a combination of sports activities and travel.
From a sport marketing and sport management perspective, it consists of two broad categories of products: a) sports participation travel (travel for the purpose of participating in a sports, recreation, leisure or fitness activity); and b) sports spectatorial travel (travel for the purpose of spectating sports, recreation, leisure or fitness activities or events).
With its remarkable growth, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) recognizes that sports tourism is now an emerging market. Indeed, over the past twenty years, the interest in sport especially elite sporting events has grown at a phenomenal rate.
Sports tourism events at the international, national and regional levels have a double-barreled effect – the direct effect of the attendance of the competitors and/or spectators and accompanying persons, and the indirect effect of the marketing of the destination which lead to the subsequent tourism flows. This indirect effect can be very large – most of the tourism benefits of big sporting events are expected to be of this nature. United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced on November 11, 2004 that the UN General Assembly has proclaimed 2005 to be the “International Year for Sport and Physical Education” and encouraged all Member States to cultivate the International Year to show the value of sports for peace and development.
According to Secretary-General Annan, providing access to physical education may cultivate them in learning the ideas of teamwork and tolerance through experiencing real exhilaration. Objectives of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations have given focus on achieving sports that would help work and build peace.
Today, tourism is the world’s number one industry while sport is regarded as the number one industry in the leisure sector. Sport is an integral part of all culture, and while often viewed as a separate activity, it is inextricably linked to tourism. Sport can now be viewed as an attraction within the broader tourism industry.
Sports Tourism is emerging as a key component of tourism supply. Major tourism destinations are developing tourism product concepts revolving around pleasure sports. These concepts enable destinations to stand out amongst their competitors increasing their competitive edge in the international arena, attracting consumers who are keen on getting in touch with nature, and interacting with the community to enjoy more healthy and interactive holidays.
Sports Tourism is a multi-billion dollar business, one of the fastest growing areas of the $4.5 trillion global travel and tourism industry. It has become a vast international business attracting media coverage, investment, political interest, traveling participants and spectators.
The economies of cities, regions and even countries around the world are increasingly reliant on the visiting golfer and skier or the traveling football, rugby or cricket supporter. In some countries, sport can account for as much as 25 percent of all tourism receipts.
Thus, Sports Tourism has started to earn its reputation to be a multi-million dollar business. Trends in tourism over the last decade have shown that sports tourism is emerging as a very significant segment of the global tourist market.
7 Types of Sports TourismTo make things simpler and carrying out the operation of sports tourism in a simplified way, it has been categorized under two different sectors. Robinson and Gammon have categorized it under the sectors Hard Sports tourism and Soft Sports Tourism. Gibson, on the other hand offered three categories, namely Celebrity and Nostalgia Sport Tourism, Sports Event Tourism, and Active Sport Tourism.
Here is a detailed look at the classification of tourism connected with sports tourism worldwide :-
1)Hard Sport Tourism – Such a kind of international trips is usually defined in the connection with the number of people participating in the event. Some of the events that are associated with it are regional events like, NASCAR, and other events including FIFA World Cup, F1 Grand Prix, and Olympic Games.
2)Soft Sport Tourism – Tours and travel that are associated with recreational sporting are defined as soft sport tourism. Association can both include either participation or signing up for a leisure trip. Some of the sporting events include skiing, hiking, and canoeing.
3) Sport Events Tourism - This kind of tourism is mostly associated with tours that are planned with the sole purpose of watching the events. The major example of such tourism is Olympics. The country hosting the Olympics witnesses a significant rise in the tourist count and appeal.
The definition of the sport tourism may differ from various writers.
During the event tourism there can be the mega and minor occasions. Major event can present high status and prestige.
Major events can attract a large number of men and women from various nations inside the specific location. Whereas, Minor events symbolize some ethnic situations that are in the area presented.
The model below illustrates the breakdown of event´s definition
Definitions of Events.1645920-78740Unplanned00Unplanned20828002057400
Attract less or no audience of
local interest, cultural
Attract less or no audience of
local interest, cultural
Attract enormous crowd, high status and
prestige, comprehensive media
attention, encompasses other festivals,
expensive to stage, leave legacies,
Attract enormous crowd, high status and
prestige, comprehensive media
attention, encompasses other festivals,
expensive to stage, leave legacies,
Temporary, International profile, switching venue
Temporary, International profile, switching venue
Occasional, International profile,
Occasional, International profile,
Small-scale events are also as important as large-scale events. Small-scale events are important to provide the marketing and economic development for the small areas.
8 Categorization of sport eventsAnalysing sport events Getz and Kurtzman suggest their classification of sport events.
Events exist in various forms but they may differ in size and volume. The main purpose for hosting might be different but aspect is always the same, they are limited in duration. Over the past years the growth of sport event tourism has been demanding.
Worldwide, events have been recognized as a strong component of sport tourism that draw people from different places according to the Getz, ; Gammon & Robinson, ; Penot, ; Sofield, ; Zauhar, and are becoming an integral and major part of tourism development and marketing strategies. Nowadays, big mass of tourists travelling for watching the sport has been rapidly growing. Sport tourism events refer to those sport activities that attract tourists who are mainly spectators, they have the potential to attract non-residents, media, technical personnel, athletes, coaches and other sporting officials. According to the Kurtzman, the primary purpose for travel is participating in or viewing sport.
Getz defines the following special characteristics of sport events:
-Many sport events are biddable, they can be attracted to a destination. -Special events can attract more people than regularly scheduled games. -Corporate sponsors love sport events.
-Major sport events can be catalysts for new facilities and infrastructure.
-New sport facilities
-There is a potential for various sports events year round.
-Sport events appeal to everyone, regardless of age, gender or physical ability. -Sport events can assist in destination branding.
-Sport events can benefit to tourism in rural areas that might have limited attractiveness otherwise.
Figure 2: Events can be categorized by their size and scale. In the figure below the categorization of events in terms of their impact on tourism is illustrated
Local or community events are also known as small-scale events. In other words they are described as minor events as well. Actually these types of events are based in community or in the city areas. This type of event is no longer than 1 or 2 days. In each and every town or city they held their small-scale annual sports, which have limited time period.
Local community events may be defined as “an activity established to involve the local population in a shared experience to their mutual benefit”. Instead of having a big company to organize this event, they are organized by a group of people so called volunteers. These events can be held for the purpose of community development or some other instant messages. Local events have the potential in fund raising for school, some charity or sporting clubs. Besides that, local or community events are also held for fun.
9 Active Sport Tourism
Sports tourism that involves active participation in the sporting event is referred to as active sports tourism.
However, the number of sports tourists in a country during any particular event might differ annually. The average estimation is recorded at around 12 million trips that are planned internationally during a sporting event.
The major market includes countries having an interest in the major international sporting events. Some of the countries that are mainly associated with tourism associated with sports are: Italy, Spain, Germany, Australia, South Africa, Scandinavia, United States, United Kingdom.
Active sport tourism refers to the people who participate in the events or the sports. It consists of skiing, bicycle touring, adventure tourism, and the active participation events, such as Master games or other sporting tournaments. According to WTO (2001), it was noted that favourite physical activities on active holidays ranged from skiing and snowboarding in winter to hiking, mountaineering, climbing, water sports (scuba diving, swimming) and also cycling in summer.
The active sport tourism market consists of people who pursue to be physically involved in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Kurtzman elaborates the categories of the sport tourism by expanding it into five different categories:
•Sport tourism attractions
•Sport tourism resorts
•Sport tourism cruises
•Sport events tourism
•Sport adventure tourism
Sport Tourism: The breadth of sport tourism categories and activities.Kurtzman´s(2000) sporttourismNatural or man-made settings and
categoriesactivitiesAttractionsHimalayasBlue Mountains, AustraliaSport heritage site (e.g. birthplace ofRugby Union, Rugby, UK)Halls of Fame (e.g. Baseball Hall of fame
ResortsWinter ski resorts (e.g. Whistler, Canada).
Summer ski resorts (e.g. Thredbo Resort,
Australia)CruisesTransportation for participation in sports
tourism (e.g. travel to Great Barrier Reef
for snorkelling)On-board sports facilitiesHostingofsportspersonalities/
conferencesToursTour of sport stadia, halls of fame, sport
theme parks, unique sports facilities, sport
matchesEventsMega, hallmark, major or local sporting
eventsAdventure TourismWhite water raftingCycling toursMountain climbing and hiking-1270-3873500002607310-387350000Table 1
Usually, most of the countries with a sport tourism appeal have a department controlling the entire purpose. Such a department is often formed within the government itself, mostly under the Ministry of Tourism for the sole purpose of promoting the international events globally. Usually, the main aim of the departments is to work towards contributing to the social, cultural, and economic development of the country in the global market along with promoting the tourism appeal. The departments are usually also responsible for encouraging sporting achievement offering proper access to sports and arts facilities.
Arts Sports Tourism usually promotes the sporting events and cultural affairs of a country on a global platform along with a facility of encouraging tourism during regional sporting events.
CONCLUSIONDifferent aspects and approaches to the definition of sports and sports-event tourism have been discussed.
Sports and event tourism is characterized by the indissoluble bond with the purpose of the trip in any event occurring at a specific location at certain time. In this regard, it must be remembered that for event tourism factor of timing and frequency of events is more important than the classic factor of the tourist season.
Different authors diverge on many points in determining the place of sport and event tourism and its role in the tourism industry.
Sport tourism is a type of tourism that has centuries-old historical tradition. It includes not only the sports component, but also a special spiritual sphere.
The world practice shows that sports event tourism is becoming increasingly popular.
SET events are of great economic importance. They contribute to the resource potential of the region. During the period of their activity all objects of the tourism industry are activated.
REFERENCESBausinger, D. Tourism as a Globalised System / D.Bausinger // UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. – Vol. 6, NO. 2, June 2008.
Amrit, M. Sport Tourism / M. Amrit, M. Chaulagain. – Kumar, 2013. – 90 p.
Drucker, P.F. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practices and Principles / P.F. Drucker. – London: Heinemann, 2005.
Leontief, W. Input–Output Economics /W.Leontief. – Oxford University Press, 2005.
What is tourism [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-sports-tourism.htm. - Access date: 10.10.2015.
Brandon, M. Sport Tourism: An Exploration of the Motivations and Tourism Experiences Windsor / M. Brandon, J. Finn. – Canada, 2011. – 110 p.
Ross, D.S. Developing Sports Tourism / D.S. Ross. – National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, 2001. – 21 p.
What is sport tourism [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://www.sports-management-degrees.com/faq/what-is-sports-tourism/. - Access date: 10.10.2015.
Sport business [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: www.sportbusiness.com. – Access date: 15.10.2015.
The different types of tourists in tourism industry [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://www.hotelresortinsider.com/. – Access date: 9.11.2015.
GLOSSARYability - квалификация
access – доступ
acquisition – приобретение, получение
advantage - 1) преимущество; 2) выгода, польза
after-sales service - послепродажное обслуживание
appearance - внешний вид
application – применение, использование, употребление; приложение; применимость
appraisal - оценка, определение ценности, определение стоимости
approach – подход
area – область; сфера
assurance – убежденность
attention - внимание, внимательность
attitude - позиция; отношение
attribute - признак, показатель
Accounting period- Отчетный переодAccreditation- Аккредитация
Advanced ecotourism- Экотуризм
adventure tour-приключенческий тур
Adventure tourism-приключенческий туризм
affinity group- территориальная группа
to achive- достигать
to adopt- принимать
after-departure charge-после вылетная оплата
Alternative tourism-альтернативный туризм
Antifoul-необрастающий ракушками(о корпусе корабля)
artificial person- юридическое лицо.
back to back- тур след в след
Backpacker-посетитель остановившийся в отеле на праздник
bed and breakfast-включение завтрака в стоимость проживания
Best Practice-лучшие стандарты
bonding-склеивание( гарантия между поставщиком и потребителем)
booking form-форма бронирования
сheck-in — Процесс заселения гостя в отель.
сheck-in Time — Время заселения гостя в номер.
сheck-out Time — Время, когда гость должен освободить номер и покинуть гостиницу
commitment – обязательство, обязаннностьcommunication – коммуникация, связь
company – компания, фирма
company growth – рост компании
competence - компетентность; квалификация
competitive edge – конкурентное преимущество
competitive environment – конкурентная среда
competitiveness - конкурентоспособность
competitor – 1) конкурент, соперник; 2) участник рынка
competition - конкуренция
complaint - жалоба; рекламация; претензия
сomplaints desk – книга жалоб
concept – концепция, принцип
condition - условие, положение, ситуация
content – содержание
continual improvement – постоянное улучшение
contribution - вклад, ценные достижения
control – руководство, управление, контроль; власть
corporation - корпорация; юридическое лицо
courtesy - учтивость, обходительность, вежливость, любезность
credibility - достоверность; правдивость
credit card - кредитная карта
criterion - критерий, признак
critical process – критический процесс
DBL (Double) — Двухместный номер как правило с одной большой кроватью (см. TWN)
data – данные; показатели; параметры; характеристики
defect - дефект, неисправность, недостаток
definition - определение, дефиниция
degree - степень, уровень
delivery - поставка, доставка
demand – спрос
description - описание; характеристика
design - проектирование; разработка
desire - запрос; пожелание
development - развитие, рост, совершенствование
difference - разница; несходство; отличие, различие; несовпадение
dimension – параметр
dramatic-драмматичныйdirection – направление
effectiveness – эффективность
efficiency - эффективность, результативность, действенность
emergence - появление; возникновение
emotion - чувство; ощущение, эмоция
empathy - эмпатия; сочувствие; сопереживание
employee – служащий, сотрудник, работающий по найму
empowerment – доверенность; полномочие
increase - увеличение, возрастание, рост
enterprise - предприятие, учреждение
entity – организация
environment – окружение; обстановка; среда; (внешние) условия
equation – уравнение
equipment - аппаратура; оборудование; оснащение
essense – существо, суть
evaluation - оценка, определение (качества, важности, пригодности)
event - событие; происшествие, случай
examination – исследование, изучение
exchange – обмен
expectation – ожидание
experience – опыт
EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization) — Прибыль до вычета процентов, налогов и амортизационных отчислений.
ExB (Extra Bed) — Дополнительная кровать в номере.
economy class — экономический класс.
econome hotel — отель низкой категории.
extra bed (EX.B.) (дополнительная кровать)
extra charge — чаевые.
FB (Full board) — Полный пансион. Режим 3-разового питания в отеле (завтрак + обед + ужин). Напитки за обедом и ужином в стоимость обычно не входят. Так же используются термины Full pension и American plan.
FIT (Free Independent Treveller) — Индивидуальный турист (путешественник), который перемещается по заранее спланированному маршруту
front desk — Служба приема и размещения в гостинице.
familiarization trip (fam. trip — разг.) ознакомительная, рекламная поездка
factor – фактор
feature – функция; возможность
feeling - ощущение, чувство
field – сфера, область
findings - результаты, данные исследования
firm – фирма
form - форма, вид
format – формат; структура
function - назначение, функция
functional specialty – функциональная специальность
functioning - функционирование
grand hotel — элитный отель по всему миру.
guest house — недорогой отель для длительного проживания
goods - товары; товар
guidance – руководство; заведование, управление
guiding principles – руководящие принципы
hotel-resort -отель-курорт. Отель,
hotel voucher - гостиничный ваучер.
illustration - иллюстрирование (примерами), объяснение, пояснение
image – образ
importance - важность, значимость, значительность; значение
inability - неспособность; невозможность
indicator - показатель
induction - введение в должность
industry – индустрия; промышленность
inferiority - 1) более низкое качество, положение; 2) неполноценность
influence - влияние, воздействие
information - информация; данные
information technologies – информационные технологии
innovation – нововведение, новшество; инновация, новаторство, новация
inputs – затраты (на производство)
instance - пример, случай
instrument – средство; инструмент
intangibility – неосязаемость
Inbound Tourism — прием иностранных туристов смIncoming — деятельность турфирмы по приему иностранных туристов в стране
Infant — ребенок в возрасте менее 2-х лет.
Invoice — счет для оплаты (услуг).
Itinerary — маршрут, план экскурсии.
manager – менеджер, администратор, управляющий, заведующий
market – рынок
market change identification approach –подход к идентификации рыночных изменений
market economy – рыночная экономика
market offering – рыночное предложение
market position – позиция на рынке
marketer - 1) торговец, продавец; 2) специалист по маркетингу, маркетолог
marketing - торговля, продажа, сбыт; маркетинг
marketing mix model – модель маркетинг-миксmachine- машина
mean - средство
measure - мера; показатель; критерий
measurement – измерение
mentality – образ мышления
method – метод; способ; средство
methodology – методология, методика
mission – 1) задача, цель; программа; 2) миссия
model – модель
morale – моральное состояние; боевой дух
motivation – мотивация
motivator – стимул
objective – цель, задача
occurrence - появление; возникновение
orientation – ориентация
organization – организация
origin – происхождение
output – продукция; выпуск изделий
ownership – собственность; владение; право собственности
partner - партнёр, соучастник
participative management – коллективное управление
perception – восприятие
performance – производительность; эффективность
personalized service – персонализированный сервис
personnel – персонал, кадры
price – цена
pricing – ценообразование
principle – принцип; закон; правило
priority – приоритет
probability - возможность; вероятность
problem - проблема; задача
process – процесс
process analysis – анализ процессов
process-centered – централизация процесса
process thinking – процессное мышление
product – продукция, продукт, изделие
product innovation approach - инновационный продуктовый подход
product repair and maintenance - ремонт и техническое обслуживание изделий
production - производство
professionalism - профессионализм, профессиональный характер
profit - прибыль; доход; польза; выгода
profile – профиль, краткая характеристика
promise – 1) обещание; 2) обязательство, договорная обязанность
promotion - содействие, поощрение, стимулирование, раскрутка, продвижение, рекламирование
provider - поставщик (услуг)provision - обеспечение, предоставление; снабжение
purification - устранение ошибок
purpose – цель
quality – качество
reaction – реакция
reason - причина, повод, основание
recognition - одобрение, признание (чьих-л. заслуг и т. п.)
recruitment - набор (кадров), наём (сотрудников)
relationship - отношение, взаимоотношение; взаимосвязь, связь
reliability - надежность
research - изучение, исследование; анализ
respondent - респондент; опрашиваемое лицо, опрашиваемый,
response – ответ
responsiveness - быстрота реагирования; оперативность
result - результат, исход; итог, следствие
retail banking - розничные банковские услуги
retailer - розничный торговец
return policies – политика возврата
reward - поощрение, вознаграждение
role - роль
rack rate — полный тариф стоимости номера в отеле для обычных клиентов.
reception — стойка регистрации гостей в отеле.
renovated Room — комната в отеле после ремонта.
resort — курорт.
resort Hotel (отель курорт) — отель высокого класса с широким спектром услуг.
resort Of Luxury — фешенебельный курорт.
room — комната, номер в отеле.
rooming (показ номера и оборудования)
sale - продажа; реализация, сбыт
satisfaction – удовлетворение
scale – шкала
score - оценка, показатель
security – безопасность
segment – сегмент
strategic plan – стратегический план
strategic planning – стратегическое планирование
strategy – стратегия, поведение, линия поведения
structure – структура
study - изучение, исследование
subordinate – подчинённый, младшего (более низкого) уровня
subject - объект, предмет
suggestion – предложение
superiority - превосходство, преимущество
supplier – поставщик
survey – анкетирование
systematic approach – системный подход
single — 1. бронирование гостиничных услуг для одной персоны
shoulder season — средний сезон (межсезонье).
sport Events Tourism -Спортивно-событийный туризм
sports tourism- Спортивный туризм
soft Sport Tourism -Мягкий спортивный туризм
stop Sale-прекращение приема гостей в отель в связи с полной его загрузкой.
Suite - номер отеля из двух комнат, номер люкс.
superior room - номер повышенной комфортности.
swedish Board - шведский стол
training - профессиональная подготовка; повышение квалификации
transaction - дело; сделка, соглашение
trend - общее направление, тенденция
trust – доверие
understanding/knowing the customer - понимание / знание клиента
upgrading – модернизация, совершенствование
value – ценность
validity – достоверность
vendor – 1) продавец; 2) оптовая фирма, предлагающая товар
vertically structured departments – вертикально структурированные отделы
viability – жизнеспособность
vision – видение, представление
value Added Tax — налог на добавленную стоимость.
visa (виза) — специальное разрешение соответствующих органов иностранного правительства на въезд, выезд, проживание или проезд через территорию данного государства.
Visa Support -визовая поддержка
want - нужда, потребность
way – метод; способ
willingness – готовность