Houses are buildings that people can 1 … . They 2 = defend, guard you from 3 … . Most houses show the 4 … of the people who live in them. Homes and houses have different 5 … and 6 … . They are built of different materials that depending on the climate of the area you live in.
Long ago, people built homes with whatever building materials that they had. In HYPERLINK "http://www.english-online.at/geography/africa/africa-introduction.htm"Africa and some islands of the South Pacific they used grass or leaves that grew nearby. In the south-western part of the United States the HYPERLINK "http://www.english-online.at/people/native-americans/native-americans-introduction.htm"Pueblo Indians used sun-dried 7 =hard block of baked clay used for building walls and houses to build their houses.
Even though today you can transport materials all over the world, it is still easier and cheaper to use the materials that are at hand. There are four main kinds of material that are used today.
In the northern part of North America and in northern Europe wood has been the main building material for many centuries. HYPERLINK "http://www.english-online.at/history/colonial-america/life-in-the-thirteen-american-colonies.htm"Early settlers in America built 8 = small houses made of logs and in Scandinavia people designed wooden houses with large beams and balconies.
7 is among the oldest and most popular building material. It lasts long and is easy to get. Brick is often used to build 9 =houses that is part of a line of houses that are connected together. Early Dutch settlers brought 7 across the Atlantic to build their first houses.
Stone is the longest lasting of all building materials. Weather cannot destroy it so much and HYPERLINK "http://www.english-online.at/biology/insects/insects.htm"insects and animals cannot bore into it as they can into wood. Stone has been used for many centuries because it cannot be destroyed by fire. It has been used for all sorts of houses, from large, 10= beautifully decorated house to farmers' 11 =small house in the countrysIn modern buildings we use concrete instead of stone and brick. It is cheaper and can be produced almost everywhere. 12 … is a mixture of sand, broken stones, water and other materials. Cement is added to hold it together. Steel rods are often put into the 12 … , to hold it together when buildings get higher.
Building a house
Before you actually build a house there a lot of things you must do first. You must have a piece of land on which your house can be built, then you should ask an architect or builder to find out if there are any restrictions or limitations on building in the area. A construction drawing of the house shows 13.., order of the rooms, where 14… and 15… are and other details . Then you usually need a building permit to start building your house.
The foundation supports your house. Construction workers start digging holes for the footings, which support the walls of the house. They are made by pouring 12 … into forms that reach down below the frost line so that the house cannot move when it freezes in winter. The area that is below the ground is called the basement or cellar. Many basements have extra rooms that are used for the house’s 16 … or 17 = for to keep in a special place until you need it . Not all houses have basements, those in wet regions are often put on stilts.
The frame is the skeleton around which the rest of the house is built. Workers put beams into the foundation that support the outside walls. Slabs are the horizontal parts of the frame that separate the floors . When the frame is finished the walls are raised .The roof protects the house from rain and sun. Some roofs are flat others are slanted to lead rain and snow down. They are built of different materials, depending on the climate and amount of rainfall.
When the outside of the house is finished you must start working on the interior . Windows, doors have to be built into the frame. 18 = thin long piece of metal through which electricity passes must be laid for HYPERLINK "http://www.english-online.at/science/electricity/electricity.htm"electricity and power. Plumbers install the 19 = a tube through which water flows through. A new house has to be insulated in order to reduce heating costs and to save money. Most houses have central heating system. A furnace or boiler, mostly in the 20 , warms up the water which then leads through 19 through the whole house. Cold water returns through the 19 and into the furnace where it is heated up again. More and more houses install air conditioning to cool down in the summer months. Finally, the walls are 20 and the rooms 21 .
Culture and Lifestyle
Home styles around the world are different because of culture and tradition. Western-style houses and buildings are found all over the world. With their simple design they are slowly replacing traditional houses in the Middle East and Asia.
In big cities where there is not enough space people often live in apartments. They appear in all kinds of sizes and forms - from 22 apartments to apartments with balconies or terraces or even 23 = a very expensive and comfortable apartment on the top floor of a building.
Town or 24 houses are often found in cities. They have separate street entrances but often 23 = have together the same walls.
Many suburban residents live in 25 houses with their own yards and gardens. Sometimes they are built in groups that are owned and sold by a company. In rural areas farmhouses usually stand alone, surrounded by fields, 26= a large farm building in which you have crops or keep animal and 27 = a small simply made building.
In some parts of the world people don’t always live in the same place. They move their homes constantly. The Plains Indians in America took their 28 = a round tent with a pointed top with them when they were following buffalo herds. In Central Asia nomads live in tents which they carry with them. In other counties people live in 29 on rivers. 30 =a house that you can pull with a car from one place to the other are becoming more and more popular, especially in America. They can be loaded onto 31 = a large car used to carry goods and towed from one place to another.