Если разобьешь зеркало


• Если разобьешь зеркало, тебя ждут семь лет несчастий. Это наш двойник, и если ты ранишь его, он ранит тебя. Чтобы этого избежать, осколки (те, что побольше) нужно закрасить черным или погрузить в проточную воду. В разбитое зеркало нельзя смотреться, потому что черта можно увидеть. • Если показать ребенку зеркало, он будет пугливым. Он может также долго не говорить или зубы у него будут плохо резаться. Он будет часто болеть. • Если, выйдя из дому, человек вынужден вернуться, надо взглянуть в зеркало, a то пути не будет. • Зеркала в доме, где покойник, завешиваются, чтобы его душа не смогла там отразиться и напугать живых. • Женщине запрещается смотреть в зеркало в период месячных, беременное или после родов, так как в это время перед ней "открыта могила". • Если Ты подозреваешь, что против тебя кто-то затевает зло, постарайся подвести этого человека к зеркалу. Взгляни на ваше совместное отражение. • Если твои подозрения обоснованны, на лице недруга на мгновение проступят его истинные чувства. • Можно каждое утро подходить к зеркалу (лучше к тому, что в прихожей, гостиной) и, проводя над ним рукой (расстояние между рукой и зеркалом должно быть 0,5 см — не больше), просить: "Зеркало, отрази все плохое, что в этот дом придет. Обереги вею нашу семью (перечисляешь имена)." • В связи со всем вышесказанным зеркала в доме надо держать чистыми. Протирать их надо каждую неделю, а при необходимости — чаще. • Зеркала не рекомендуются в ванной. Это модно, красиво, но поверь — за это можно поплатиться здоровьем, семейными отношениями или деньгами. • В спальне на ночь зеркала закрывают или занавешивают. • А над брачной постелью вообще нельзя держать зеркало. Многие любят на потолке над кроватью вешать зеркало — к добру это не приведет. • В изголовье зеркало также недопустимо — будешь совершать много ошибок в жизни. • Зеркала должны быть в оправах-окладах, чтобы не травмировать твое энергетическое и физическое здоровье. Висеть зеркала должны не ниже макушки головы самого высокого члена семьи.Happiness is all about everyday, normal activities, psychologists have argued, but do we intuitively understand what strategies increase happiness or not? To find out if students knew, Tkach and Lyubomirsky (2006) asked 500 undergraduates about the strategies they used to increase their happiness.


What Makes Us Happy? (Что делает нас счастливыми?)
Below are the strategies students reported using, starting with the most frequently used, down to the least. Also, for each strategy Tkach and Lyubomirsky looked at the relationship between its use and students' reported levels of happiness to see if those who used a particular strategy were actually happier.
Keep in mind that this is a correlational study. That means it can only tell us that two things - like having a social life and happiness - are related, not that one definitely causes the other. That said, there are other studies which do provide evidence of causality in some categories.
1. A social life
Social affiliation (присоединение; прием, принятие в члены) - hanging around with friends, helping others - was the most frequently reported method of increasing happiness. It also had the strongest relationship with student's actual happiness. No surprises here. Experiments manipulating people's social activity have found that when increased it leads to more happiness. It's gratifying to see that the number 1, most frequently used strategy probably does work!
2. Acting happy
Direct strategies like 'acting happy' and 'smiling' were the second most popular. While there is some experimental evidence to back this one up, Tkach and Lyubomirsky are cautious. I'd be cautious as well. 'Acting happy' might be useful as a short-term strategy but I'm not so sure about its useful in the long-term.
3. Achieving long-term goals
The students were pretty keen on setting themselves long-term goals for personal achievement, and then sticking to them. This was a relatively popular strategy for increasing happiness and there are also a good few studies to back up this finding. Well done to the students!
4. Passive leisure pursuits (занятие)
Here's the first bad boy. Passive leisure, like watching TV or playing video games, while relatively popular, showed no connection with happiness. Experimental studies back this up finding few benefits for happiness from passive leisure activities. So, once again, it's time to chuck out the the idiot box and the Xbox.
5. Active leisure pursuits
No question about this one. It's very well established that active leisure pursuits like running or cycling increase happiness. What's worrying is that these pursuits come lower down the list than passive leisure pursuits.
6. Religion
This was a relatively unpopular strategy for increasing happiness, although it is reasonably well-established that religion and being happy go together. Tkach and Lyubomirsky suggest the reason for this connection could be to do with social connectedness, having a sense of purpose in life or even reduced alcohol consumption.
7. Partying and clubbing
Perhaps surprisingly amongst university students this was relatively unpopular as a happiness-enhancing activity. It's just as well since those who partied more weren't any happier, once their extraversion was taken into account.
8. Mental control
This is the second bad boy. It centres around thinking bad thoughts: both contemplating them and trying to suppress them. This category was significantly associated with being unhappy. Indeed, previous research has found that both ruminating on negative thoughts and trying to suppress negative thoughts leads to unhappiness.
A (mostly) positive message
This last category of mental control really stands out: what on earth is it doing on a list of strategies to increase happiness? Statistically it was the strongest predictor of unhappiness. This suggests that a significant minority of people have exactly the wrong idea about what strategies increase happiness.
Passive leisure pursuits is the other category that stands out. All the other categories in the top 6 have at least some connection with happiness. This one has none and yet there it is at number 4 in the list.
The positive message is that generally the strategies that people use to increase their happiness do actually work. We're relying on self-reports here, so people could well be misrepresenting what they actually do - but at least they mostly know what they're supposed to be doing. 
http://study-english.info/psychology.php
Body Language (Язык жестов тела)Body language (язык тела (невербальные средства коммуникации, включающие жесты, позы и др. невербальные знаки)) is a broad term for forms of communication using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language, or other forms of communication. It forms part of the category of paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are not verbal language.
Paralanguage (параязык (передача информации за счет определенной манеры говорить (напр., при помощи темпа речи, тембра и громкости голоса, тона, его модуляции и др., а также за счет таких невербальных средств, как жесты, мимика и т. п.))), including body language, has been extensively studied in social psychology. In everyday speech and popular psychology, the term is most often applied to body language that is considered involuntary, even though the distinction between voluntary and involuntary body language is often controversial. For example, a smile may be produced either consciously or unconsciously.
Voluntary body language refers to movement, gestures and poses intentionally made by a person (i.e., conscious smiling, hand movements and imitation). It can apply to many types of soundless communication. Generally, movement made with full or partial intention and an understanding of what it communicates can be considered voluntary.
Involuntary body language quite often takes the form of facial expression, and has therefore been suggested as a means to identify the emotions of a person with whom one is communicating.
The relation of body language to animal communication has often been discussed. Human paralanguage may represent a continuation of forms of communication that our non-linguistic ancestors already used, or it may be that it has been changed by co-existing with language. Body language is a product of both genetic and environmental influences. Blind children will smile and laugh even though they have never seen a smile. Iraneus Eibl-Eibesfeldt claimed that a number of basic elements of body language were universal across cultures and must therefore be fixed action patterns under instinctive control.
Some forms of human body language show continuities with communicative gestures of other apes, though often with changes in meaning. More refined gestures, which vary between cultures (for example the gestures to indicate «yes» and «no»), must be learned or modified through learning, usually by unconscious observation of the environment.
Body language is important in one-on-one communications, and may be even more important in group communications. In group situations, often only one person at a time is speaking, while non-verbal communication is coming from each individual in the group. The larger the group, the more impact body language may have.
Подробнее на сайте: http://study-english.info/topic-body-language.php#ixzz2Rli9lNQN http://study-english.info/ 

Приложенные файлы

  • docx 7365242
    Размер файла: 19 kB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий